Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work!
- Aquatic locomotion
- Fish and fishlike vertebrates
- Fossorial locomotion
- Terrestrial locomotion
- Arboreal and aerial locomotion
- Directional control
When an elongated fish such as an eel swims, its entire body, which is flexible throughout its complete length, moves in a series of sinuous waves passing from head to tail. In this type of movement, which is called anguilliform (eel-like) locomotion, the waves cause each segment of the body to oscillate laterally across the axis of movement. Unlike the simple side-to-side movement of the oar, however, each oscillating segment describes a figure-eight loop, the centre of which is along the axis of locomotion. It is these oscillations and the associated orientation of each body segment that produce the propulsive thrust.
The undulatory body waves are created by metachronal contraction waves alternating between the right and left axial musculature. During steady swimming, several contraction waves simultaneously pass down the body axis from head to tail; the resultant undulatory waves move backward along the body faster than the body moves forward. As the undulatory wave passes backward, its amplitude and speed increase, thereby producing the greatest propulsive thrust in the tail (caudal) region. Propulsion, however, is not limited to the caudal region, for all undulating segments contribute to the thrust. Because the speed, amplitude, and inclination of each body segment differ, the thrust of each differs. In all segments, the greatest thrust is obtained as the segment crosses the locomotor axis, for here it is travelling at its greatest speed and inclination.
Carangiform and ostraciiform locomotion
All undulatory swimming movements generate forward thrust in the manner described above. Not all swimming animals, however, possess the elongated shape of an eel; only those with a similar body form, in which the surface area of the head end is the same as that of the tail end, have anguilliform locomotion. Fish with fusiform bodies exhibit carangiform locomotion, in which only the posterior half of the body flexes with the passage of contraction waves. This arrangement of body form and locomotion apparently is the most efficient one, for it occurs in the most active and fastest of fish. The advantage of carangiform locomotion appears to be related to the effectiveness of the posterior half of the body as a propulsive unit and the fact that the shape of the body and its small lateral displacement create little water turbulence. In contrast to ostraciiform locomotion, in which only the caudal fin oscillates from side to side in a manner similar to moving a boat with one oar, the length of the propulsive unit of carangiform fish enables the unit to obtain maximum oscillatory speed and inclination.
Whales also use undulatory body waves, but unlike any of the fishes, the waves pass dorsoventrally (from top to bottom) and not from side to side. In fact, many mammals that swim mainly by limb movements tend to flex their body in a dorsoventral plane. Whereas the body musculature of fish and tail musculature of amphibians and reptiles is highly segmental—that is, a muscle segment alternates with each vertebra—an arrangement that permits the smooth passage of undulatory waves along the body, mammals are unable to produce lateral undulations because they do not have this arrangement. Nor does the muscle arrangement of mammals permit true dorsoventral undulations; however, with an elongated caudal region, as in whales, they can attain a form of carangiform locomotion as effective as that of any fish.
Stabilization and steering
To stabilize and steer, most aquatic vertebrates have, in addition to the caudal fin, a large dorsal fin and a pair of large anterolateral fins. Although they may possess other fins, these are of less importance. The balance of a swimming animal may be maintained in several ways. Rolling, or rotation, along the longitudinal axis of the body is reduced or controlled by any fins that extend at right angles to the body. Pitching, or dorsoventral seesawing, movements are counteracted by the anterolateral fins, which are also the major steering organs of fish, whales, and seals. Yawing, or lateral seesawing, is prevented by the dorsal fin and, if present, a ventral fin; for these fins to be effective, however, most of their exposed surface area should be behind the fish’s centre of gravity. Because fins of the above type are not common in most invertebrates that swim by undulation, their locomotion is less stable.
Many of the various types of undulatory locomotion described above are also widely used by aquatic tetrapods (those with walking appendages). Larval frogs, crocodilians, aquatic salamanders, and lizards, for example, have long muscular tails that propel them by undulatory motion. Most aquatic tetrapods, however, move by appendicular locomotion, for which the major propulsive units are the hind legs. The exceptions are sea turtles, auks, penguins, and fur seals; in these, the hind feet are webbed and are used as rudders. For propulsion, these animals use their forelegs, which have become bladelike flippers in which the forearm and hand region are dorsoventrally compressed to form a single, inflexible unit. The movements of such flippers are analogous to the aerial flight of birds; by moving synchronously, they provide lift and thrust in the water. Unlike aerial flight, however, the upper arms do not produce lift or thrust; instead, they serve only as a pivotal or leverage point for driving the flippers.
Swimming movements in sea turtles, penguins, and auks are accomplished by the rotation of the flippers or wings through a figure-eight configuration. In the birds, however, the stroke is relatively faster than in sea turtles, because the entire cycle appears to be proportionately smaller in amplitude. Moreover, because the birds’ bodies are more streamlined, they can attain greater speeds than the turtles. Penguins may attain speeds of 40 kilometres (25 miles) per hour in water and have sufficient speed and thrust to enable them to leap two metres (six feet) or more above the water. The wings of penguins are so highly modified, however, that they have lost the ability to fly. The auks, on the other hand, are able to use their wings for both aerial and aquatic locomotion.
Some of the other aquatic birds, such as ducks and water ouzels, are said to propel themselves underwater through wing movements, but the evidence for such propulsion is incomplete and still open to question. The wing movements of ducks may be for steering and hydroplaning (skimming through the water) rather than for actual propulsion. The wings of the water ouzels, or dippers, were once thought to function as hydroplanes, but investigations have revealed that, although the wings are flapped underwater, the ability of dippers to bottom walk or fly underwater depends upon the velocity of the water flowing past the wings rather than the movement of the wings themselves.
Most aquatic birds are propelled by their webbed hind feet, which tend to move alternately in surface swimming and in unison when the bird is submerged. Of all the swimming birds that use their hind feet, the loons show the most extreme adaptations: the body, head, and neck are elongated and streamlined; the hind legs are at the very posterior end of the body; the lower legs are compressed and bladelike; and the feet are strongly webbed. The webbing increases the surface area exposed to the water during limb retraction and also permits the folding of the foot, thereby reducing water resistance during protraction.
In frogs and freshwater turtles, the hind legs are elongated and the feet enlarged and strongly webbed. But, whereas the hind legs of frogs move synchronously, except occasionally in slow swimming, when they alternate, the limb movements always alternate in freshwater turtles. Some aquatic turtles, however, such as snapping, mud, and musk turtles, are very poor swimmers and will swim only under extreme conditions. These turtles are bottom walkers, and their limb movements in water are identical to those on land except that they can move faster in water than on land.
The swimming movements of many mammals are also identical with their terrestrial limb movements. Hippopotamuses spend much of their time in the water, yet they bottom walk rather than swim. Most of the aquatic mammals—e.g., otters, hair seals, aquatic marsupials, insectivores, and rodents—use their hind legs and frequently their tails for swimming. The feet are webbed and usually move alternately; the tail tends to be flattened. Fur seals, polar bears, and platypuses swim mainly with forelimbs; only in the seals, however, are the movements of the forelimbs similar to those of sea turtles and penguins.