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  • Yr Wyddgrug (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Mold, town, historic and present county of Flintshire (Sir Fflint), northeastern Wales. It is situated on a small stretch of farmland between the two industrial centres of Deeside (region of the River Dee) and Wrexham. Mold grew up around a motte-and-bailey castle that the Normans built in the 12th

  • Yrigoyen, Hipólito (president of Argentina)

    Hipólito Irigoyen, Argentine statesman who became his country’s first president elected by broad popular suffrage. He was driven from office during his second term by a military coup in 1930. Irigoyen became a lawyer, teacher, rancher, and politician and in 1896 took control of the centre-left

  • Yrj?-Koskinen, Sakari (Finnish politician)

    Sakari Yrj?-Koskinen, historian and politician, author of the first history of Finland in Finnish. Later he guided the Old Finn Party in its policy of compliance with Russia’s unconstitutional Russification program in Finland. Forsman—later, when he was made a baron, named Yrj?-Koskinen—was a

  • Yrj?l?, Paavo (Finnish athlete)
  • Yrshov, Pyotr (Russian author)

    children's literature: Russia/Soviet Union: …to children; the classic by Pyotr Yrshov, Konyok gorbunok (1834; English adaption by Ireene Wicker, The Little Hunchback Horse, 1942); and other stories and poems enjoyed by young Russians but not originally designed for them. To this folk material should be added the McGuffeyish moral tales that Tolstoy wrote for…

  • Ys (legendary city, France)

    Douarnenez: …with the legendary city of Ys, which was believed to lie beneath the waters of the bay, and also with the medieval story of Tristan, lover of Iseult, for whom the island astride the estuary is named. Tristan Island was formerly named Saint-Tutuarn Island for the priory founded there in…

  • Ysabel (island, Solomon Islands)

    Santa Isabel, island, central Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean, 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Guadalcanal. About 130 miles (209 km) long and 20 miles (32 km) across at its widest point, it has a mountainous backbone with Mount Marescot (4,000 feet [1,219 metres]) as its highest peak. A

  • Ysa?e, Eugène (Belgian musician)

    Eugène Ysa?e, Belgian violinist, conductor, and composer, the foremost interpreter of the string works of French and Belgian composers of his time. After a year as conductor of an orchestra in Berlin, Ysa?e toured Norway, Russia, and France. From 1886 to 1897 he was professor of violin at the

  • Ysengrim (literary character)

    Isengrim, greedy and dull-witted wolf who is a prominent character in many medieval European beast epics. Often cast as a worldly and corrupt churchman, he appears first as a character in the Latin Ecbasis captivi (c. 940), in which the beasts are unnamed, and under his own name in Ysengrimus

  • Ysengrimus (beast epic)

    French literature: Satire, the fabliaux, and the Roman de Renart: Ysengrimus), the collection of ribald comic tales known as the Roman de Renart (Renard the Fox) began to circulate in the late 12th century, chronicling the rivalry of Renart the Fox and the wolf Isengrin, and the lively and largely scandalous goings-on in the animal…

  • Yser River (river, Europe)

    Yser River, a small stream (48 mi [77 km] long), rising on the north flanks of the sandstone hills of Monts Cassell and de Récollets in northern France and flowing in an arc through West Flanders province, western Belgium, into the North Sea below Nieuwpoort. Its estuary seems to have extended as

  • Yser, Battle of the (Europe [1914])

    Yser River: …days of desperate fighting (the Battle of the Yser), the Nieuwpoort sluices were flooded and checked the Germans; the Allies then succeeded in establishing themselves in an impregnable position on the river’s left bank.

  • Ysernitzky, Yitz?ak (prime minister of Israel)

    Yitz?ak Shamir, Polish-born Zionist leader and prime minister of Israel in 1983–84 and 1986–90 (in alliance with Shimon Peres of the Labour Party) and in 1990–92. Shamir joined the Beitar Zionist youth movement as a young man and studied law in Warsaw. He immigrated to Palestine in 1935 and

  • Yseult (legendary figures)

    Tristan and Isolde, principal characters of a famous medieval love-romance, based on a Celtic legend (itself based on an actual Pictish king). Though the archetypal poem from which all extant forms of the legend are derived has not been preserved, a comparison of the early versions yields an idea

  • YSL (fashion brand)

    Stefano Pilati: …at the storied house fashion Yves Saint Laurent (YSL) and head of design (2013–16) at Ermenegildo Zegna.

  • Ysleta (Texas, United States)

    Ysleta, former town, now a southeastern section of El Paso, El Paso county, extreme western Texas, U.S. Ysleta lies near the Rio Grande. The town was annexed by El Paso in 1955, though residents of Ysleta had voted against the merger. Regarded as the oldest settlement within the present boundaries

  • Ysopet (collection of fables)

    Ysopet, in French literature, a medieval collection of fables, often versions of Aesop’s Fables. The word Ysopet was first applied to a collection of tales (103 in all) written by Marie de France in the late 12th century. They were said to be based directly on an English version of Aesop’s Fables

  • YSP (political party, Yemen)

    Yemen: Government and society: ” The Yemen Socialist Party (YSP), the only legal political organization, determined government policy and exercised control over the state administrative system, the legislature, and the military.

  • Ystad (town, Sweden)

    Sweden: Sports and recreation: …Baltic, the resort town of Ystad draws throngs of beachgoing Swedes each summer. Sweden is one of the foremost countries in winter sports, and facilities for skiing in particular have developed rapidly. ?re is a major centre of winter sports. Sweden has produced several notable skiing champions, including Ingemar Stenmark…

  • Ysyk, Lake (lake, Kyrgyzstan)

    Lake Ysyk, a drainless lake in northeastern Kyrgyzstan. Situated in the northern Tien Shan (“Celestial Mountains”), it is one of the largest high-mountain lakes in the world and is famous for its magnificent scenery and unique scientific interest. It is situated within the bottom edges of the Lake

  • Ysyk-K?l (oblast, Kyrgyzstan)

    Ysyk-K?l, oblasty (province), northeastern Kyrgyzstan. In the northeast is Lake Ysyk (Issyk-Kul) at an elevation of 5,276 feet (1,608 metres) and surrounded by ranges rising to some 17,100 feet (5,200 metres), while in the southeast, on the frontier with China, are the highest peaks of the Tien

  • Ysyk-K?l (Kyrgyzstan)

    Balykchy, town, capital of Ysyk-K?l oblasty (province), northeastern Kyrgyzstan. It is a port located on the western shore of Lake Ysyk (Issyk-Kul) and is linked to Frunze, about 87 miles (140 km) north-northwest. Balykchy’s economy centres on a food industry, including meat-packing and cereal

  • Ysyk-k?l (lake, Kyrgyzstan)

    Lake Ysyk, a drainless lake in northeastern Kyrgyzstan. Situated in the northern Tien Shan (“Celestial Mountains”), it is one of the largest high-mountain lakes in the world and is famous for its magnificent scenery and unique scientific interest. It is situated within the bottom edges of the Lake

  • Yt blood group system (biology)

    Yt blood group system, classification of human blood based on the presence of molecules known as Yt antigens on the surface of red blood cells. The Yt antigens, Yta and Ytb, were discovered in 1956 and 1964, respectively. The Yt blood group is named after Cartwright, the person in whom antibodies

  • ytterbium (chemical element)

    Ytterbium (Yb), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Ytterbium is the most volatile rare-earth metal. It is a soft, malleable silvery metal that will tarnish slightly when stored in air and therefore should be stored in vacuum or in an inert

  • yttrium (chemical element)

    Yttrium (Y), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of Group 3 of the periodic table. Yttrium is a silvery white, moderately soft, ductile metal. It is quite stable in air; rapid oxidation begins above approximately 450 °C (840 °F), resulting in Y2O3. The metal readily reacts with diluted

  • yttrium aluminum garnet (synthetic gem)

    rare-earth element: Ternary and higher-order oxides: …generally a trivalent ion of aluminum, gallium, or iron. One of the most important rare-earth garnets is YIG (yttrium iron garnet), which is used in a variety of microwave devices including radars, attenuators, filters, circulators, isolators, phase shifters, power limiters, and switches. YIG is also used in microwave integrated

  • yttrium barium copper oxide (chemical compound)

    ceramic composition and properties: Crystal structure: These cases are illustrated by yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO; chemical formula YBa2Cu3O7), shown in Figure 2D. YBCO is a superconducting ceramic; that is, it loses all resistance to electric current at extremely low temperatures. Its structure consists of three cubes, with yttrium or barium at the centre, copper at…

  • yttrium iron garnet (synthetic gem)

    rare-earth element: Ternary and higher-order oxides: …rare-earth garnets is YIG (yttrium iron garnet), which is used in a variety of microwave devices including radars, attenuators, filters, circulators, isolators, phase shifters, power limiters, and switches. YIG is also used in microwave integrated circuits in which thin films are placed on garnet substrates. Properties of these materials…

  • yttrium phosphate (mineral)

    xenotime: yttrium phosphate (YPO4), though large proportions of erbium commonly replace yttrium), that occurs as brown, glassy crystals, crystal aggregates, or rosettes in igneous rocks and associated pegmatites, in quartzose and micaceous gneiss, and commonly in detrital material. Occurrences include Norway, Sweden, Madagascar, Brazil, and North…

  • yu (bronze vessel)

    You, type of Chinese bronze container for wine that resembled a bucket with a swing handle and a knobbed lid. It was produced during the Shang (18th–12th century bc) and early Zhou (1111–c. 900 bc) periods. Related to the hu in profile, the you consisted of a base, usually oval in section, and a

  • yu (musical instrument)

    Chinese music: Classification of instruments: …the wooden family is the yu, a model of a crouching tiger with a serrated ridge or set of slats along its back that were scratched by a bamboo whisk in a manner recalling the various scratched gourds of Latin American dance bands. The Chinese category of gourd is reserved…

  • Yu (Chinese rebel leader)

    Xiang Yu, Chinese general and leader of the rebel forces that overthrew the Qin dynasty (221–207 bce). He was the principal contestant for control of China with Liu Bang, who, as the Gaozu emperor, founded the Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce). Xiang Yu’s defeat signaled the end of the old aristocratic

  • Yü Ch’ien (Chinese official)

    Yu Qian, defense minister who saved China when the Yingzong emperor (reigning as Zhengtong, 1453–49) of the Ming dynasty was captured in 1449 while leading Chinese troops against the Mongol leader Esen Taiji. With the emperor held hostage and the Mongol armies only 50 miles (80 km) northwest of the

  • Yü Chiang (river, China)

    Yu River, river in southern China. A southern tributary of the Xi River system, it rises in two branches in southeastern Yunnan province and flows about 400 miles (650 km) generally east in Guangxi province to unite at Guiping with the Hongshui River to form the Xun River (which in Guangdong

  • Yu Dafu (Chinese author)

    Yu Dafu, popular short-story writer of the 1920s in China, one of the founding members of the Creation Society, which was devoted to the promotion of modern literature. Yu received his higher education in Japan, where he met other young Chinese writers with whom he founded the Creation Society

  • Yu Hill (hill, Guangzhou, China)

    Guangzhou: Early period: …were built around the razed Yu Hill, but the city suffered much destruction during the civil strife at the end of the dynasty.

  • Yu Jiang (river, China)

    Yu River, river in southern China. A southern tributary of the Xi River system, it rises in two branches in southeastern Yunnan province and flows about 400 miles (650 km) generally east in Guangxi province to unite at Guiping with the Hongshui River to form the Xun River (which in Guangdong

  • Yū Miri (Japanese author)

    Yū Miri, award-winning Japanese author of Korean descent whose works are unsparing in their depiction of destructive family relationships involving individuals who are unable to communicate or connect with others. Yū’s family was dysfunctional. Her father was a compulsive gambler who physically

  • Yu Mountains (mountain range, China)

    Jiangxi: Relief: …Middle Gan valley are the Yu Mountains. Made up of short and moderate hills separated by a network of streams, the country traversed by this range consists of a succession of small valleys with bottomlands from 5 to 12 miles (8 to 19 km) wide. The Lu Mountains, in the…

  • Yu Qian (Chinese official)

    Yu Qian, defense minister who saved China when the Yingzong emperor (reigning as Zhengtong, 1453–49) of the Ming dynasty was captured in 1449 while leading Chinese troops against the Mongol leader Esen Taiji. With the emperor held hostage and the Mongol armies only 50 miles (80 km) northwest of the

  • Yu River (river, China)

    Yu River, river in southern China. A southern tributary of the Xi River system, it rises in two branches in southeastern Yunnan province and flows about 400 miles (650 km) generally east in Guangxi province to unite at Guiping with the Hongshui River to form the Xun River (which in Guangdong

  • Yü Shan (mountain, Taiwan)

    Chung-yang Range: Mount Yü (also called Mount Hsin-kao, formerly Mount Morrison) is the highest peak in the range and in Taiwan, at 13,114 feet (3,997 m).

  • Yü Ta-fu (Chinese author)

    Yu Dafu, popular short-story writer of the 1920s in China, one of the founding members of the Creation Society, which was devoted to the promotion of modern literature. Yu received his higher education in Japan, where he met other young Chinese writers with whom he founded the Creation Society

  • Yu the Great (Chinese mythological hero)

    Da Yu, (Chinese: “Yu the Great”) in Chinese mythology, the Tamer of the Flood, a saviour-hero and reputed founder of China’s oldest dynasty, the Xia. One legend among many recounts Da Yu’s extraordinary birth: a man called Gun was given charge of controlling a great deluge. To dam the water, he

  • Yü Ti (Chinese deity)

    Yudi, (Chinese: Jade Emperor) in Chinese religion, the most revered and popular of Chinese Daoist deities. In the official Daoist pantheon, he is an impassive sage-deity, but he is popularly viewed as a celestial sovereign who guides human affairs and rules an enormous heavenly bureaucracy

  • Yu Wen (Chinese author)

    Yu Dafu, popular short-story writer of the 1920s in China, one of the founding members of the Creation Society, which was devoted to the promotion of modern literature. Yu received his higher education in Japan, where he met other young Chinese writers with whom he founded the Creation Society

  • Yu, Jer (Hong Kong astronomer)

    James Peebles: …1970 Peebles and graduate student Jer Yu considered the CMB’s angular power spectrum and how it would change based on the matter density of the universe. Peebles and Yu calculated what the observed power spectrum would look like and prefigured the later satellite observations of the CMB such as those…

  • Yü, Mount (mountain, Taiwan)

    Chung-yang Range: Mount Yü (also called Mount Hsin-kao, formerly Mount Morrison) is the highest peak in the range and in Taiwan, at 13,114 feet (3,997 m).

  • Yu-ch’un (Korean painter)

    Yi In-mun, famous Korean landscape painter. A follower of the traditional Northern school of Chinese painting, Yi was known for the subtlety of his designs and the confidence of his brushstrokes. His most famous work, “River in Spring,” is a long horizontal scroll depicting an endless landscape

  • Yu-Gi-Oh! (Japanese manga)

    Yu-Gi-Oh!, Japanese manga (comic book) of the late 20th and early 21st centuries that features an ordinary high-school student, Yugi Mutou (Yugi Moto), who assumes mystical powers when playing a mysterious card game. When blond, spiky-haired Yugi, a weak and unassuming teenager, solves the

  • Yu-hua yuan (garden, Beijing, China)

    Forbidden City: 2-hectare) Imperial Garden, the organic design of which seems to depart from the rigid symmetry of the rest of the compound. The garden was designed as a place of relaxation for the emperor, with a fanciful arrangement of trees, fish ponds, flower beds, and sculpture. In…

  • Yü-lin (China)

    Yulin, city, southeastern Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, southern China. It is situated on the upper course of the Nanliu River, which drains southwestward into the Gulf of Tonkin to the west of Beihai. The city is a natural hub of land communications in southern Guangxi, from which highways

  • Yü-men (China)

    Yumen, city, western Gansu sheng (province), northwestern China. It is situated on the ancient Silk Road from China into Central Asia. The site was first brought under Chinese control in the last years of the 2nd century bce, when it was given the name Yumen (“Jade Gate”). Known as Huiji in the 5th

  • Yü-tai Ho (river, Shaanxi and Hubei provinces, China)

    Han River, one of the most important tributaries of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) of China. It has a total length of about 950 miles (1,530 km). The Han River rises in the Shenqiong Mountains, part of the Micang Mountains in the extreme southwestern part of Shaanxi province. Its upper stream is

  • yuan (Chinese currency)

    Renminbi, (Chinese: “people’s money”) monetary unit of China. One renminbi (yuan) is divided into 100 fen or 10 jiao. The People’s Bank of China has exclusive authority to issue currency. Banknotes are issued in denominations from 1 fen to 100 renminbi. The obverse of some banknotes contains images

  • Yüan Chen (Chinese author)

    Yuan Zhen, a key literary figure of the middle Tang dynasty of China, influential in the guwen (“ancient-style prose”) revival, which employed the styles of the early classical Chinese writers. Yuan entered state service through the examination system and briefly held ministerial rank. While in

  • Yüan Chiang (river, China)

    Yuan River, river of eastern Guizhou and western Hunan provinces, southeastern China. The Yuan River is about 635 miles (1,020 km) long and rises in the Miao Mountains near Duyun in Guizhou. Its upstream sections are called the Longtou and Qingshui rivers. It becomes the Yuan River after its

  • Yüan Chiang (river, Asia)

    Red River, principal river of northern Vietnam. It rises in central Yunnan province, southwestern China, and flows southeast in a deep, narrow gorge, across the Tonkin region, through Hanoi, to enter the Gulf of Tonkin after a course of 750 miles (1,200 km). Its two major tributaries, the Song Lo

  • Yuan dynasty (Chinese history)

    Yuan dynasty, dynasty established by Mongol nomads that ruled portions and eventually all of China from the early 13th century to 1368. Mongol suzerainty eventually also stretched throughout most of Asia and eastern Europe, though the Yuan emperors were rarely able to exercise much control over

  • Yüan dynasty (Chinese history)

    Yuan dynasty, dynasty established by Mongol nomads that ruled portions and eventually all of China from the early 13th century to 1368. Mongol suzerainty eventually also stretched throughout most of Asia and eastern Europe, though the Yuan emperors were rarely able to exercise much control over

  • Yuan Haowen (Chinese scholar)

    Confucianism: Confucian learning in Jin, Yuan, and Ming: …and history, as depicted in Yuan Haowen’s (1190–1257) biographical sketches and preserved in their collected works, compared well with the high standards set by their counterparts in the South.

  • Yuan Hong (emperor of Wei dynasty)

    Xiaowendi, posthumous name (shi) of the seventh emperor of the Bei (Northern) Wei dynasty (386–534/535), which dominated much of North China during part of the chaotic 360-year period between the end of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220) and the founding of Sui rule (581–618). Xiaowendi sinicized his

  • Yuan Hongdao (Chinese writer)

    Chinese literature: Classical literature: …of whom the middle one—Yuan Hongdao—was the best known. The Gong’an school challenged all of the prevailing literary trends, advocating that literature should change with each age and that any attempt at erasing the special stamp of an era could result only in slavish imitation. Declaring that he could…

  • Yuan Jiang (river, China)

    Yuan River, river of eastern Guizhou and western Hunan provinces, southeastern China. The Yuan River is about 635 miles (1,020 km) long and rises in the Miao Mountains near Duyun in Guizhou. Its upstream sections are called the Longtou and Qingshui rivers. It becomes the Yuan River after its

  • Yüan Kiang (river, China)

    Yuan River, river of eastern Guizhou and western Hunan provinces, southeastern China. The Yuan River is about 635 miles (1,020 km) long and rises in the Miao Mountains near Duyun in Guizhou. Its upstream sections are called the Longtou and Qingshui rivers. It becomes the Yuan River after its

  • Yuan River (river, China)

    Yuan River, river of eastern Guizhou and western Hunan provinces, southeastern China. The Yuan River is about 635 miles (1,020 km) long and rises in the Miao Mountains near Duyun in Guizhou. Its upstream sections are called the Longtou and Qingshui rivers. It becomes the Yuan River after its

  • Yüan Shih-k’ai (president of China)

    Yuan Shikai, Chinese army leader and reformist minister in the twilight of the Qing dynasty (until 1911) and then first president of the Republic of China (1912–16). Yuan was from a landed military family of Xiangcheng in Henan province. In his youth he showed a propensity for pleasure-seeking and

  • Yuan Shikai (president of China)

    Yuan Shikai, Chinese army leader and reformist minister in the twilight of the Qing dynasty (until 1911) and then first president of the Republic of China (1912–16). Yuan was from a landed military family of Xiangcheng in Henan province. In his youth he showed a propensity for pleasure-seeking and

  • Yuan Shundi (emperor of Yuan dynasty)

    Togon-temür, last emperor (reigned 1333–68) of the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1206–1368) in China, under whom the population was provoked into rebellion. Togon-temür became emperor at the age of 13 but proved to be a weak ruler who preferred to spend his time exploring the religious cult of Lamaism and

  • Yuan Tseh Lee (Taiwanese-American chemist)

    Yuan T. Lee, Taiwanese-American chemist who, with Dudley R. Herschbach and John C. Polanyi, received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1986 for his role in the development of chemical-reaction dynamics. Lee was educated in Taiwan and at the University of California at Berkeley (Ph.D., 1965). He did

  • Yuan Weizhi (Chinese author)

    Yuan Zhen, a key literary figure of the middle Tang dynasty of China, influential in the guwen (“ancient-style prose”) revival, which employed the styles of the early classical Chinese writers. Yuan entered state service through the examination system and briefly held ministerial rank. While in

  • Yuan Xiao Festival (holiday)

    Lantern Festival, holiday celebrated in China and other Asian countries that honours deceased ancestors on the 15th day of the first month (Yuan) of the lunar calendar. The Lantern Festival aims to promote reconciliation, peace, and forgiveness. The holiday marks the first full moon of the new

  • Yuan Xuefen (Chinese performer and administrator)

    Yuan Xuefen, Chinese performer and administrator (born May 26, 1922, Zhejiang province, China—died Feb. 19, 2011, Shanghai, China), initiated a series of reforms in the lyrical genre of Chinese Yue opera (Shaoxing opera). Yue opera, founded in the early 1900s, was originally performed by men and

  • Yuan Zai (Chinese minister)

    China: Provincial separatism: …dominated by the emperor’s favourite, Yuan Zai, and by the eunuchs who now began to play an increasing role in Tang politics. A succession of eunuch advisers not only rivaled in influence the chief ministers but even exerted influence over the military in the campaigns of the late 750s and…

  • Yuan Zhen (Chinese author)

    Yuan Zhen, a key literary figure of the middle Tang dynasty of China, influential in the guwen (“ancient-style prose”) revival, which employed the styles of the early classical Chinese writers. Yuan entered state service through the examination system and briefly held ministerial rank. While in

  • Yuan Zhongdao (Chinese writer)

    China: Literature and scholarship: …individual freedom, championed notably by Yuan Zhongdao, but writings produced during this period were later denigrated as insincere, coarse, frivolous, and so strange and eccentric as to make impossible demands on the readers.

  • Yüan-ti (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Yuandi, posthumous name (shi) of the ninth emperor (reigned 49/48–33 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), who ardently promoted and helped firmly establish Confucianism as the official creed of China. Although Confucianism had been made the state cult of China in 136 bc, previous emperors had

  • Yuandi (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Yuandi, posthumous name (shi) of the ninth emperor (reigned 49/48–33 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), who ardently promoted and helped firmly establish Confucianism as the official creed of China. Although Confucianism had been made the state cult of China in 136 bc, previous emperors had

  • Yuanjian leihan (Chinese encyclopaedia)

    Kangxi: Administration of the empire: …the encyclopaedia of subject matter, Yuanjian leihan (1710). Another great encyclopaedia, the Gujin tushu jicheng, which was to consist of 10,000 chapters, was also started in Kangxi’s reign.

  • Yuanmingyuan (palace, Beijing, China)

    Qianlong: Contributions to the arts: …to the beautification of the Yuanmingyuan near Beijing. He was to reside there more and more often, and he considered the ensemble formed by its numerous pavilions, lakes, and gardens as the imperial residence par excellence. He increased the estate and erected new buildings. At his request, several Jesuit missionaries…

  • Yuanquxuan (Chinese opera collection)

    China: Literature: The collection Yuanquxuan (“Selection from Yuan Operas”), with 100 opera librettos, and the storyteller “prompt books” for dramatized historical romances such as Sanguo (“Three Kingdoms”) give ample evidence for the creativity and vitality of Chinese dramatic literature. This phenomenon may perhaps be considered as evidence that under…

  • Yuanye (play by Cao Yu)

    Cao Yu: …film [1938 and 1985]) and Yuanye (1937; rev. ed. 1982; “The Wilderness”; adapted for film [1981]), a story of love and revenge that clearly reflects the influence of American playwright Eugene O’Neill. Most Chinese critics declared Yuanye a failure on its first appearance, but the revised play received critical acclaim…

  • Yuanzang (Buddhist monk)

    Xuanzang, Buddhist monk and Chinese pilgrim to India who translated the sacred scriptures of Buddhism from Sanskrit into Chinese and founded in China the Buddhist Consciousness Only school. His fame rests mainly on the volume and diversity of his translations of the Buddhist sutras and on the

  • Yuanzhang (Chinese artist)

    Mi Fu, scholar, poet, calligrapher, and painter who was a dominant figure in Chinese art. Of his extensive writings—poetry, essays on the history of aesthetics, and criticism of painting—a considerable amount survives. Mi was born of a family that had held high office in the early years of the Song

  • Yuba City (California, United States)

    Yuba City, city, seat (1856) of Sutter county, north-central California, U.S. It lies in the Sacramento Valley, at the junction of the Feather and Yuba rivers, 40 miles (65 km) north of Sacramento. In 1849, during the California Gold Rush, Samuel Brannan, Pierson B. Reading, and Henry Cheever

  • Yūbari (Japan)

    Yūbari, city, central Hokkaido, northern Japan. It lies along the upper Yūbari River, in the Yūbari Range. It developed as a mining town when coal was discovered in the area in the 1880s, and by the mid-20th century it was the largest mining city in Hokkaido. Most of the coal was sent to Iwate

  • yuca (plant)

    Cassava, (Manihot esculenta), tuberous edible plant of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) from the American tropics. It is cultivated throughout the tropical world for its tuberous roots, from which cassava flour, breads, tapioca, a laundry starch, and an alcoholic beverage are derived. Cassava

  • Yucatán (state, Mexico)

    Yucatán, estado (state), southeastern Mexico. Occupying part of the northern Yucatán Peninsula, it is bounded to the north by the Gulf of Mexico, to the east and southeast by the state of Quintana Roo, and to the southwest and west by the state of Campeche. The state capital and chief commercial

  • Yucatán Basin (basin, Caribbean Sea)

    Caribbean Sea: Physiography: The northernmost of these, the Yucatán Basin, is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by the Yucatán Channel, which runs between Cuba and the Yucatán Peninsula and has a sill depth (i.e., the depth of the submarine ridge between basins) of about 5,250 feet (1,600 metres). The Cayman Basin, to…

  • Yucatán black howler monkey (primate)

    howler monkey: The Yucatán black howler monkey (A. pigra), which is native to Guatemala, Belize, and southern Mexico, has been listed as an endangered species since 2003. Since 1978 it has declined by more than 60 percent because of hunting, habitat loss, and disease. Diet, temperament, and other…

  • Yucatán Channel (strait, Caribbean Sea)

    Yucatán Channel, strait connecting the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, extending for 135 miles (217 km) between Cape Catoche, Mexico, and Cape San Antonio, Cuba. The north and south equatorial currents enter the channel from the southeast and form the beginnings of the Gulf Stream in the

  • Yucatán Current (ocean current)

    Yucatán Current, oceanic surface current, the western limb of a clockwise gyre in the eastern Gulf of Mexico flowing from northern Honduras, through the Yucatán Channel, to the central eastern portion of the Gulf. The Yucatán Current is strongest in the

  • Yucatán Peninsula (peninsula, Central America)

    Yucatán Peninsula, a northeastern projection of Central America, lying between the Gulf of Mexico to the west and north and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Encompassing some 76,300 square miles (197,600 square km), it includes the Mexican states of Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán and, in the

  • Yucatán sisal (plant fibre)
  • Yucatec language

    Yucatec language, American Indian language of the Mayan family, spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula, including not only part of Mexico but also Belize and northern Guatemala. In its classical (i.e., 16th-century) form Yucatec was the language of Yucatán, and it survives in its modern form with little

  • Yucatec Maya (people)

    Yucatec Maya, Middle American Indians of the Yucatán Peninsula in eastern Mexico. The Yucatec were participants in the Maya civilization, whose calendar, architecture, and hieroglyphic writing marked them as a highly civilized people. Modern Yucatec range from groups highly conservative of their

  • Yucatec Maya language

    Yucatec language, American Indian language of the Mayan family, spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula, including not only part of Mexico but also Belize and northern Guatemala. In its classical (i.e., 16th-century) form Yucatec was the language of Yucatán, and it survives in its modern form with little

  • yucca (plant)

    Grass tree, (genus Xanthorrhoea), genus of about 30 species of slow-growing perennial plants (family Asphodelaceae) endemic to Australia. Certain species are also known as grass gums because of the red or yellow gumlike resins that exude from the base of old leaves. The resins are used for varnish.

  • yucca (plant, genus Yucca)

    Yucca, (genus Yucca), genus of about 40 species of succulent plants in the agave subfamily of the asparagus family (Asparagaceae), native to southern North America. Most species of yucca are stemless, with a rosette of stiff sword-shaped leaves at the base and clusters of waxy white flowers. The

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