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  • York von Wartenburg, Hans David Ludwig, Graf (Prussian field marshal)

    Johann Yorck, count von Wartenburg, Prussian field marshal, reformer, and successful commander during the Wars of Liberation (1813–15) against France. His initiative in signing a separate neutrality agreement with Russia during the Napoleonic invasion of that country (Convention of Tauroggen, 1812)

  • York, Alvin Cullum (United States military hero)

    Alvin York, celebrated American hero of World War I, immortalized by the film version of his life story, Sergeant York (1941). A blacksmith from Cumberland Hill, Tenn., York was denied status as a conscientious objector and was drafted into the army during World War I. While serving in the 82nd

  • York, Cape (point, Queensland, Australia)

    Cape York, northernmost point of the Australian continent, comprising the northern tip of Cape York Peninsula, in the state of Queensland. The cape juts north-northeast from the peninsula into Torres Strait, which separates it from the island of New Guinea. The cape is about 15 miles (25 km) long

  • York, Convocations of (religious meeting)

    Convocations of Canterbury and York, in the Church of England, ecclesiastical assemblies of the provinces of Canterbury and of York that meet two or three times a year and, since the mid-19th century, have been concerned particularly with the reform of the canons of ecclesiastical law. Their origin

  • York, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of (English noble)

    Edmund of Langley, 1st duke of York, fourth surviving legitimate son of King Edward III of England and founder of the House of York as a branch of the Plantagenet dynasty. Created earl of Cambridge in 1362 and duke of York in 1385, Edmund was the least able of Edward III’s sons, and in the

  • York, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of (English noble)

    Edward of Norwich, 2nd duke of York, Yorkist who led a checkered career in the reigns of Richard II of England and the usurper Henry IV. Son of the 1st Duke of York, he was prominent among Richard II’s favourites and was made earl of Rutland in 1390 and earl of Cork in 1394 and given many important

  • York, Elizabeth, duchess of (queen consort of United Kingdom)

    Elizabeth, queen consort of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1936–52), wife of King George VI. She was credited with sustaining the monarchy through numerous crises, including the abdication of Edward VIII and the death of Princess Diana. The Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon was the

  • York, Henry Stuart, Cardinal Duke of (British pretender)

    Henry Stuart, cardinal duke of York, last legitimate descendant of the deposed (1688) Stuart monarch James II of Great Britain. To the Jacobites—supporters of Stuart claims to the British throne—he was known as King Henry IX of Great Britain for the last 19 years of his life. Shortly after his

  • York, house of (English family)

    House of York, younger branch of the house of Plantagenet of England. In the 15th century, having overthrown the house of Lancaster, it provided three kings of England—Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III—and, in turn defeated, passed on its claims to the Tudor dynasty. The house was founded by

  • York, James, Duke of (king of England, Scotland, and Ireland)

    James II, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1685 to 1688, and the last Stuart monarch in the direct male line. He was deposed in the Glorious Revolution (1688–89) and replaced by William III and Mary II. That revolution, engendered by James’s Roman Catholicism, permanently established

  • York, Michael (British actor)

    Romeo and Juliet: Cast: Assorted References

  • York, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of (fictional character)

    Henry VI, Part 1: …entirely nonhistorical scene in which Richard Plantagenet, later duke of York, chooses a white rose and John Beaufort, earl (later duke) of Somerset, a red rose as emblems of their respective houses of York and Lancaster. It is uncertain whether Part 1 was Shakespeare’s first effort at a historical play,…

  • York, Richard, 3rd Duke of (English noble)

    Richard, 3rd duke of York, claimant to the English throne whose attempts to gain power helped precipitate the Wars of the Roses (1455–85) between the houses of Lancaster and York; he controlled the government for brief periods during the first five years of this struggle. He was the father of two

  • York, Richard, Duke of (son of Edward IV)

    Thomas Bourchier: …supporter of the newly crowned Yorkist monarch Edward IV, who made him a cardinal in 1467. In 1483 he persuaded Edward’s widow to hand over her youngest son, Richard, Duke of York—a potential claimant to the throne—to Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who shortly thereafter usurped the throne as King Richard…

  • York, Statute of (English history)

    United Kingdom: Edward II (1307–27): …at York, and in the Statute of York the intention of returning to the constitutional practices of the past was announced. But in specifying that the “consent of the prelates, earls, and barons, and of the community of the realm” was required for legislation, the Statute of York provided much…

  • York, Susannah (British actress)

    Susannah York, (Susannah Yolande Fletcher), British actress (born Jan. 9, 1939, London, Eng.—died Jan. 15, 2011, London), was initially cast as a blue-eyed blonde ingenue, but her gamine beauty belied acting skills that came to the fore in such roles as the feisty Sophie Western, the object of the

  • York-Antwerp rules of General Average

    maritime law: International regulation: …to by affected interests; the York-Antwerp Rules of General Average, first promulgated in 1890 and most recently amended in 1950, are the best known example of such agreements; although they do not technically have the force of law, nevertheless, by incorporation in charter parties and bills of lading, they determine…

  • Yorke Peninsula (peninsula, South Australia, Australia)

    Yorke Peninsula, promontory of the south coast of South Australia, between Spencer Gulf to the west and Gulf St. Vincent and Investigator Strait to the east and south. Extending southward for 160 miles (260 km) from Port Pirie to Cape Spencer, it is 20–35 miles (32–56 km) wide, with a gently

  • Yorke, Henry Vincent (British author and industrialist)

    Henry Green, novelist and industrialist whose sophisticated satires mirrored the changing class structure in post-World War II English society. After completing his education at Eton and Oxford, he entered the family business, an engineering firm in Birmingham; he worked his way up to become the

  • Yorke, Thom (British musician)

    Radiohead: …in Oxfordshire, Radiohead comprised singer-guitarist Thom Yorke (b. October 7, 1968, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England), bassist Colin Greenwood (b. June 26, 1969, Oxford, Oxfordshire), guitarist Ed O’Brien (b. April 15, 1968, Oxford), drummer Phil Selway (b. May 23, 1967, Hemingford Grey, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire), and guitarist-keyboardist Jonny Greenwood (b. November 5, 1971,

  • yorker (cricket)

    cricket: Bowling: A yorker is a ball pitched on or inside the popping crease. A full pitch is a ball that the batsmen can reach before it hits the ground. A long hop is a ball short of good length.

  • Yorkie (breed of dog)

    Yorkshire terrier, breed of toy dog developed about the mid-1800s in the English counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire. The lineage of the breed is unknown but appears to include several terriers, such as the Skye and Dandie Dinmont; it may also include the Maltese. The most outstanding feature of

  • Yorkin, Alan David (American film and television producer)

    Bud Yorkin, (Alan David Yorkin), American television and film producer and director (born Feb. 22, 1926, Washington, Pa.—died Aug. 18, 2015, Los Angeles, Calif.), produced, with Norman Lear, the trailblazing satiric sitcom All in the Family (1971–79); the show addressed in frank language such

  • Yorkin, Bud (American film and television producer)

    Bud Yorkin, (Alan David Yorkin), American television and film producer and director (born Feb. 22, 1926, Washington, Pa.—died Aug. 18, 2015, Los Angeles, Calif.), produced, with Norman Lear, the trailblazing satiric sitcom All in the Family (1971–79); the show addressed in frank language such

  • Yorkino (Mexican political organization)

    Escocés and Yorkino: Yorkino, Yorkino also spelled Yorquino, members of two rival Masonic lodges that exercised considerable political influence in early 19th-century Mexico; the names mean Scotsman and Yorkist, respectively, after the two orders of Freemasonry, the Scottish and York rites.

  • Yorkshire (former county, England, United Kingdom)

    Yorkshire, historic county of England, in the north-central part of the country between the Pennines and the North Sea. Yorkshire is England’s largest historical county. It comprises four broad belts each stretching from north to south: the high Pennine moorlands in the west, dissected by the

  • Yorkshire (breed of pig)

    Yorkshire, breed of swine produced in the 18th century by crossing the large indigenous white pig of North England with the smaller, fatter, white Chinese pig. The well-fleshed Yorkshire is solid white with erect ears. Although originally a bacon breed, the Yorkshire rose to prominence in the l

  • Yorkshire Dales National Park (national park, England, United Kingdom)

    Craven: …limestone uplands are part of Yorkshire Dales National Park and are predominantly rural, with attractive stone-built villages that are now tourist centres (e.g., Malham).

  • Yorkshire fog (plant)

    Velvet grass, (Holcus lanatus), perennial grass in the family Poaceae, native to Europe and Africa. Velvet grass, so called because the entire plant has a velvety feel when touched, was introduced into Australia and North America as a forage species. It now grows as a weed in damp places such as

  • Yorkshire Large White (breed of pig)

    Yorkshire, breed of swine produced in the 18th century by crossing the large indigenous white pig of North England with the smaller, fatter, white Chinese pig. The well-fleshed Yorkshire is solid white with erect ears. Although originally a bacon breed, the Yorkshire rose to prominence in the l

  • Yorkshire Post (British newspaper)

    Yorkshire Post, daily newspaper that is the chief Conservative paper published in England outside London. It is one of the most prestigious provincial papers in Britain. The Post is descended from the Leeds Intelligencer, a four-page weekly founded in Leeds, Yorkshire, England, by Griffith Knight

  • Yorkshire pudding (food)

    Yorkshire pudding, a common British side dish made of a simple batter (egg, flour, and milk) that is baked, traditionally, in a large, shallow tin with roast-beef drippings. It was devised in northern England in the mid-18th century as a cheap and filling appetizer that was served prior to the

  • Yorkshire terrier (breed of dog)

    Yorkshire terrier, breed of toy dog developed about the mid-1800s in the English counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire. The lineage of the breed is unknown but appears to include several terriers, such as the Skye and Dandie Dinmont; it may also include the Maltese. The most outstanding feature of

  • Yorkshire, North (county, England, United Kingdom)

    North Yorkshire, administrative and geographic county in northern England, part of the historic county of Yorkshire. The administrative county of North Yorkshire comprises seven districts: Craven, Hambleton, Richmondshire, Ryedale, Selby, and the boroughs of Harrogate and Scarborough. The

  • Yorkshire, South (region, England, United Kingdom)

    South Yorkshire, metropolitan county in north-central England. It comprises four metropolitan boroughs: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and the city of Sheffield. South Yorkshire lies within the historic county of Yorkshire, except for three areas. In the metropolitan borough of Doncaster, the

  • Yorktown (historical town, Virginia, United States)

    Yorktown, historic town, seat (1634) of York county, southeastern Virginia, U.S. It is situated on the south bank of the York River across from Gloucester Point, just east-southeast of Williamsburg. The area around Yorktown was settled in 1630, but the town itself developed after 1691 when a port

  • Yorktown (United States aircraft carrier)

    Battle of Midway: Disposition of forces: A third carrier, the Yorktown, had been so seriously damaged at the Battle of the Coral Sea that the Japanese believed it sunk, and it spent nearly two weeks limping back to Pearl Harbor. An initial damage assessment estimated that it would take three months to return the ship…

  • Yorktown, Siege of (United States history)

    Siege of Yorktown, (September 28–October 19, 1781), joint Franco-American land and sea campaign that entrapped a major British army on a peninsula at Yorktown, Virginia, and forced its surrender. The siege virtually ended military operations in the American Revolution. After a series of reverses

  • Yorn, Pete (American musician)

    Scarlett Johansson: …an album of duets with Pete Yorn, called Break Up. The pair released the EP Apart in 2018.

  • Yoro (Honduras)

    Yoro, city, northwestern Honduras. Situated in the highlands at an elevation of 1,837 feet (559 metres), it is located near the headwaters of the Aguán River. Although its founding date is uncertain, it was first mentioned in 1684. It is now a commercial and manufacturing centre in a fertile

  • Yorquino (Mexican political organization)

    Escocés and Yorkino: Yorkino, Yorkino also spelled Yorquino, members of two rival Masonic lodges that exercised considerable political influence in early 19th-century Mexico; the names mean Scotsman and Yorkist, respectively, after the two orders of Freemasonry, the Scottish and York rites.

  • Yorta Yorta (people)

    Victoria: Aboriginal peoples: …the Kurnai of Gippsland, the Yorta Yorta of the eastern Murray, and the Kulin of the Central Divide. These groups were subdivided into about 34 distinct subgroups, each with its own territory, customs, laws, language, and beliefs. The basic unit was an extended family of 50–100 members. The Aboriginal peoples…

  • Yorty, Samuel William (American politician)

    Samuel William Yorty, American politician who gained national fame as mayor of Los Angeles from 1961 to 1973, a time of economic growth and civic improvement but also one of inner-city unrest that in 1965 erupted in riots in the Watts section; at first a liberal Democrat, he became increasingly

  • yortzeit (Judaism)

    Yahrzeit, (Yiddish: “year time”) in Judaism, the anniversary of the death of a parent or close relative, most commonly observed by burning a candle for an entire day. On the anniversary, a male (or female, in Reform and Conservative congregations) usually recites the Qaddish (doxology) in the

  • Yoruba (people)

    Yoruba, one of the three largest ethnic groups of Nigeria, concentrated in the southwestern part of that country. Much smaller, scattered groups live in Benin and northern Togo. The Yoruba numbered more than 20 million at the turn of the 21st century. They speak a language of the Benue-Congo branch

  • Yoruba language

    Yoruba language, one of a small group of languages that comprise the Yoruboid cluster of the Defoid subbranch of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. The other Yoruboid languages include Igala and Itsekiri. Yoruba is spoken by more than 20 million people in southwestern

  • Yoruba opera

    Nigerian theatre, variety of folk opera of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria that emerged in the early 1940s. It combined a brilliant sense of mime, colourful costumes, and traditional drumming, music, and folklore. Directed toward a local audience, it uses Nigerian themes, ranging from

  • Yoruba Ronu (work by Ogunde)

    Hubert Ogunde: Ogunde’s most famous play, Yoruba Ronu (performed 1964; “Yorubas, Think!”), was such a biting attack on the premier of Nigeria’s Western region that his company was banned from the region—the first instance in post-independence Nigeria of literary censorship. The ban was lifted in 1966 by Nigeria’s new military government,…

  • Yoruba states (historical territory, Africa)

    Yoruba states, confederation formerly dominant in what is now western Nigeria. The Yoruba people probably migrated to the forests and savannas west of the lower reaches of the Niger River, founding the towns of Ekiti, Ile-Ife, and Ijebu in the tropical forest zone; a second group of migrants

  • Yoruba theatre

    Nigerian theatre, variety of folk opera of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria that emerged in the early 1940s. It combined a brilliant sense of mime, colourful costumes, and traditional drumming, music, and folklore. Directed toward a local audience, it uses Nigerian themes, ranging from

  • Yorubaland (historical territory, Africa)

    Yoruba states, confederation formerly dominant in what is now western Nigeria. The Yoruba people probably migrated to the forests and savannas west of the lower reaches of the Niger River, founding the towns of Ekiti, Ile-Ife, and Ijebu in the tropical forest zone; a second group of migrants

  • Yorubas, Think! (work by Ogunde)

    Hubert Ogunde: Ogunde’s most famous play, Yoruba Ronu (performed 1964; “Yorubas, Think!”), was such a biting attack on the premier of Nigeria’s Western region that his company was banned from the region—the first instance in post-independence Nigeria of literary censorship. The ban was lifted in 1966 by Nigeria’s new military government,…

  • Yoruboid languages

    Benue-Congo languages: Defoid: …and the very much larger Yoruboid cluster whose principal members are Yoruba (20,000,000 speakers), Igala (1,000,000), and Itsekiri (Itsεkiri; 600,000). Yoruba is the Niger-Congo language with the largest number of mother-tongue speakers. Though Swahili has a greater total number of speakers—some 35,000,000—most of them are second-language speakers.

  • Y?rük rug

    Yürük rug, floor covering handwoven by nomadic people in various parts of Anatolia. The Bal?kesir Yürük rugs of western Anatolia have diagonal patterns and a maze of latch-hook motifs carried out in brick red and dark blue with touches of ivory. They may be reminiscent of and sometimes confused

  • Yosa Buson (Japanese artist and poet)

    Buson, Japanese painter of distinction but even more renowned as one of the great haiku poets. Buson came of a wealthy family but chose to leave it behind to pursue a career in the arts. He traveled extensively in northeastern Japan and studied haiku under several masters, among them Hayano Hajin,

  • Yosano Akiko (Japanese poet)

    Yosano Akiko, Japanese poet whose new style caused a sensation in Japanese literary circles. Akiko was interested in poetry from her school days, and with a group of friends she published a private poetry magazine. In 1900 she joined the Shinshisha (New Poetry Association) of Yosano Tekkan and

  • Yose ben Yose (Jewish author)

    Hebrew literature: Piyyu?im: …most outstanding poets—Phineas the Priest, Yose ben Yose, Yannai, and Eleazar ha-Kalir, or ben Kalir—lived in that order, but when or where in Palestine any of them lived is not known. The accepted datings are 3rd century and 5th–6th century ad. Many piyyu?im are still used in the synagogue.

  • Yosef, Ovadia (Israeli religious and political leader)

    Ovadia Yosef, (Abdullah Youssef), Israeli religious and political leader (born Sept. 23, 1920, Baghdad, Iraq—died Oct. 7, 2013, Jerusalem), was the spiritual leader of Sephardic Jews in Israel, notably in his position as the Sephardic chief rabbi of Tel Aviv (1968–72) and chief Sephardic rabbi of

  • yosegi (Japanese sculpture)

    Japanese art: Amidism: This joined-block construction technique (yosegi-zukuri) allowed for a sculpture lighter in feeling and in fact, but it generally precluded the deep and dramatic carving found in single-block construction. Thus, the exaggerated, mannered presentations of Esoteric sculpture of the previous centuries were supplanted by a noble, evenly proportioned figure, and…

  • yosegi-zukuri (Japanese sculpture)

    Japanese art: Amidism: This joined-block construction technique (yosegi-zukuri) allowed for a sculpture lighter in feeling and in fact, but it generally precluded the deep and dramatic carving found in single-block construction. Thus, the exaggerated, mannered presentations of Esoteric sculpture of the previous centuries were supplanted by a noble, evenly proportioned figure, and…

  • Yosemite Falls (waterfalls, California, United States)

    Yosemite Falls, magnificent series of snow-fed waterfalls in Yosemite National Park, east-central California, U.S., near Yosemite Village. They were formed by creeks tumbling into the Yosemite Valley over the edges of hanging tributary valleys (which eroded more slowly than the glacial- and

  • Yosemite National Park (national park, California, United States)

    Yosemite National Park, scenic mountain region in east-central California, U.S. It is situated about 140 miles (225 km) east of the city of San Francisco and some 100 miles (160 km) southeast of Sacramento. Devils Postpile National Monument lies about 15 miles (25 km) to the east, and Kings Canyon

  • Yosemite Sam (cartoon character)

    Bugs Bunny: …nemeses are Elmer Fudd and Yosemite Sam. Classic Bugs cartoons include Hare Tonic (1945), The Big Snooze (1946), Hair-Raising Hare (1946), Buccaneer Bunny (1948), Mississippi Hare (1949), Mutiny on the Bunny (1950), What’s Up, Doc? (1950), The Rabbit of Seville (1950), and the Oscar-winning Knighty-Knight Bugs (1958). What’s Opera, Doc?

  • Yosemite Valley (valley, Yosemite National Park, California, United States)

    Yosemite National Park: Natural history: …deep U-shaped valleys, notably the Yosemite Valley of the Merced River. The valley—which curves in a gentle arc about 7 miles (11 km) long and between 0.5 and 1 mile (0.8 and 1.6 km) wide—features a number of attractions, such as sheer rock walls that rise 3,000 to 4,000 feet…

  • Yoshe Kalb (novel by Singer)

    I.J. Singer: His novel Yoshe Kalb, a description of ?asidic life in Galicia, appeared in 1932, and the next year he immigrated to the United States. His subsequent writings appeared in serialized form in the Jewish Daily Forward newspaper in New York City. The novel Di brider Ashkenazi (The…

  • Yoshida Isoya (Japanese architect)

    Yoshida Isoya, Japanese architect who was a pioneer in the modern sukiya style of building, in which an affinity for natural materials and traditional construction techniques finds expression in contemporary structures. Yoshida attended Tokyo Art School (now Tokyo University of Fine Arts),

  • Yoshida Kanetomo (Japanese scholar)

    Yoshida Shintō: …its name from its founder, Yoshida Kanetomo (1435–1511), who systematized teaching that had been transmitted by generations of the Yoshida family. Subsequent generations transmitted the school’s teachings largely through family control over the ordination of priests in shrines and the ranking of deities. The school was also sometimes called Yui-itsu…

  • Yoshida Kenkō (Japanese poet)

    Yoshida Kenkō, Japanese poet and essayist, the outstanding literary figure of his time. His collection of essays, Tsurezuregusa (c. 1330; Essays in Idleness, 1967), became, especially after the 17th century, a basic part of Japanese education, and his views have had a prominent place in s

  • Yoshida Shigeru (prime minister of Japan)

    Yoshida Shigeru, Japanese political leader who served several terms as prime minister of Japan during most of the critical transition period after World War II, when Allied troops occupied the country and Japan was attempting to build new democratic institutions. After graduating in law from Tokyo

  • Yoshida Shintō (Japanese religious school)

    Yoshida Shintō, school of Shintō that upheld Shintō as a basic faith while teaching its unity with Buddhism and Confucianism. Yoshida Shintō took its name from its founder, Yoshida Kanetomo (1435–1511), who systematized teaching that had been transmitted by generations of the Yoshida family.

  • Yoshida Shōin (Japanese teacher)

    Yoshida Shōin, Japanese teacher of military tactics in the domain of Chōshū. He studied “Dutch learning” (European studies) in Nagasaki and Edo and was deeply influenced by the pro-emperor thinkers in the domain of Mito. His radical pro-emperor stance influenced young samurai in Chōshū to overthrow

  • Yoshida Tetsurō (Japanese architect)

    Yoshida Tetsurō, Japanese architect who spread knowledge of Japan’s architecture to the West and at the same time introduced Western motifs in his own works. While on a visit to Europe during 1931–32, Yoshida met the German architects Hugo H?ring and Ludwig Hilberseimer. At their urging, he wrote a

  • Yoshida, Ray (American artist and teacher)

    Roger Brown: Early influences: …studied with painter and collagist Ray Yoshida and art historian Whitney Halstead, both of whom encouraged him to look to non-Western and nontraditional artists and art forms for inspiration. Yoshida took Brown and other students to the Maxwell Street Market, a flea market on Chicago’s Near West Side, where Brown…

  • Yoshihito (emperor of Japan)

    Taishō, the 123rd ruling descendant of the Japanese imperial family, the emperor who reigned from 1912 to 1926 during a period in which Japan continued the modernization of its economy. Yoshihito was proclaimed crown prince on November 3, 1889, after his two elder brothers died. He ascended the

  • Yoshikawa Eiji (Japanese novelist)

    Yoshikawa Eiji, Japanese novelist who achieved the first rank among 20th-century writers both for his popularized versions of classical Japanese literature and for his own original novels. Because of his father’s failure in business, Yoshikawa received only a primary-school education, and his e

  • Yoshikawa Hidetsugu (Japanese novelist)

    Yoshikawa Eiji, Japanese novelist who achieved the first rank among 20th-century writers both for his popularized versions of classical Japanese literature and for his own original novels. Because of his father’s failure in business, Yoshikawa received only a primary-school education, and his e

  • Yoshikawa Koretaru (Japanese scholar)

    Shintō: Neo-Confucian Shintō: Yoshikawa Koretaru (1616–94) and Yamazaki Ansai (1619–82) were two representative scholars of Confucian Shintō. They added neo-Confucian interpretations to the traditional theories handed down from Watarai Shintō, and each established a new school. The taiji (Supreme Ultimate) concept of neo-Confucianism was regarded as identical with…

  • Yoshimi, Watanabe (Japanese politician)

    Your Party: …established in August 2009 by Watanabe Yoshimi—formerly of the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP), who had resigned from the LDP early that year over policy disagreements with the prime minister, Asō Tarō—and several other members, most of whom had also left the LDP. In Your Party’s first contested election—that for the House…

  • Yoshimoto Mahoko (Japanese writer)

    Banana Yoshimoto, Japanese author who achieved worldwide popularity writing stories and novels with slight action and unusual characters. Yoshimoto was reared in a much freer environment than that of most Japanese children. Her father, Takaaki (whose pen name was “Ryūmei”), was an intellectual,

  • Yoshimoto, Banana (Japanese writer)

    Banana Yoshimoto, Japanese author who achieved worldwide popularity writing stories and novels with slight action and unusual characters. Yoshimoto was reared in a much freer environment than that of most Japanese children. Her father, Takaaki (whose pen name was “Ryūmei”), was an intellectual,

  • Yoshimura Yoshisaburō (Japanese dramatist)

    Kawatake Mokuami, versatile and prolific Japanese dramatist, the last great Kabuki playwright of the Tokugawa period (1603–1867). Growing up in Edo, Kawatake became a pupil of the Kabuki playwright Tsuruya Namboku V and wrote many kinds of plays during a long apprenticeship. He became the chief

  • Yoshimura, Yumi (Japanese singer)

    Puffy AmiYumi: …18, 1973, Tokyo, Japan) and Yumi Yoshimura (b. January 30, 1975, Osaka, Japan)—captured their audiences through their well-blended voices, their intelligent lyrics and novel musical arrangements, and their vibrant, youthful stage presence.

  • Yoshinaka, Kira (Japanese noble)

    47 rōnin: …they were directed to consult Kira Yoshinaka, a retainer of the shogun and an expert in such matters. The other two daimyo gave Kira lavish presents to ensure his cooperation, but Asano offered only a token gift. Kira was apparently annoyed and expressed his displeasure by constantly taunting the inexperienced…

  • Yoshino Akira (Japanese chemist)

    Yoshino Akira, Japanese chemist who won the 2019 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in developing lithium-ion batteries. He shared the prize with American physicist John B. Goodenough and British-born American chemist M. Stanley Whittingham. Yoshino received bachelor’s (1970) and master’s

  • Yoshino Sakuzō (Japanese politician and educator)

    Yoshino Sakuzō, Japanese Christian politician and educator who was a leader in the movement to further democracy in Japan in the early part of the 20th century. Yoshino converted to Christianity while still in secondary school, and he soon became prominent in the Christian Socialist movement in his

  • Yoshitsune (Japanese historical romance)

    Japanese literature: Kamakura period (1192–1333): …by the Soga brothers, and Gikeiki (“Chronicle of Gikei”; Eng. trans. Yoshitsune), describing the life of the warrior Minamoto Yoshitsune. Though inartistically composed, these portraits of resourceful and daring heroes caught the imaginations of the Japanese, and their exploits are still prominent on the Kabuki stage.

  • Yoshiyuki, Junnosuke (Japanese writer)

    Junnosuke Yoshiyuki, Japanese novelist and short-story writer (born April 1, 1923, Okayama, Japan—died July 26, 1994, Tokyo, Japan), explored human sexuality and prostitution as a means of understanding human relationships. His prize-winning works include the short story "Shūu" (1954; "Sudden S

  • Yoshizawa Akira (Japanese artist)

    Akira Yoshizawa, Japanese artist (born March 14, 1911, Kaminokawa, Tochigi prefecture, Japan—died March 14, 2005, Ogikubo, Japan), revived the ancient Japanese craft of origami, or paper folding, and inspired an international interest in the art. Yoshizawa used his geometric skills, precise t

  • Yoshkar-Ola (Russia)

    Yoshkar-Ola, city and capital of Mari El republic, western Russia, on the Malaya (little) Kokshaga River. Yoshkar-Ola was founded in 1578, and in 1584 the fortress of Tsaryovokokshaysk was built there by Tsar Boris Godunov. Its remoteness from lines of communication prevented any development. In

  • Yossarian, Captain John (fictional character)

    Captain John Yossarian, fictional character, an American bombardier of the 256th Squadron who is stationed on a Mediterranean island during World War II, in Joseph Heller’s novel Catch-22

  • Yost, Ed (American engineer)

    Ed Yost, (Paul Edward Yost), American engineer (born June 30, 1919, Bristow, Iowa—died May 27, 2007, Vadito, N.M.), was dubbed the father of modern hot-air ballooning after his historic 25-minute, 4.8-km (3-mi) flight on Oct. 22, 1960, in Bruning, Neb., in which he took to the air sitting in a

  • Yost, Fielding (American football coach)

    Fielding Yost, American collegiate football coach who was best known for his tenure at the University of Michigan (1901–23, 1925–26), where he also served as athletic director (1921–41). He became famous for his “point-a-minute” teams of 1901–05, which scored an average of 49.5 points per game to

  • Yost, Fielding Harris (American football coach)

    Fielding Yost, American collegiate football coach who was best known for his tenure at the University of Michigan (1901–23, 1925–26), where he also served as athletic director (1921–41). He became famous for his “point-a-minute” teams of 1901–05, which scored an average of 49.5 points per game to

  • Yost, Paul (American engineer)

    Ed Yost, (Paul Edward Yost), American engineer (born June 30, 1919, Bristow, Iowa—died May 27, 2007, Vadito, N.M.), was dubbed the father of modern hot-air ballooning after his historic 25-minute, 4.8-km (3-mi) flight on Oct. 22, 1960, in Bruning, Neb., in which he took to the air sitting in a

  • Y?su (South Korea)

    Y?su, city, South Ch?lla (Jeolla) do (province), on Y?su Peninsula, extreme southern South Korea. Such large islands as Namhae, Tolsan (Dolsan), and K?mo (Geumo) protect its natural port. The Korean navy headquarters was located there during the Chos?n (Yi) dynasty (1392–1910) before being moved to

  • Y?su-Sunch’?n Rebellion (South Korean history)

    Y?su-Sunch’?n Rebellion, (1948) left-wing military and civilian protest against the nascent South Korean government in southern Korea during the post-World War II period. In mid-October 1948, when the Korean peninsula was still coping with its recent division into the two separate political

  • Yothu Yindi (Australian band)

    Northern Territory: The arts: Yothu Yindi, an Aboriginal band from the territory’s northeastern coast, is recognized as a pioneer of Australian-based world music that mixes indigenous music and international popular styles to raise awareness of traditions and issues affecting indigenous peoples.

  • you (Daoism)

    Daoism: Cosmology: …Nothing (wu) and Something (you), are interdependent and “grow out of one another.”

  • you (bronze vessel)

    You, type of Chinese bronze container for wine that resembled a bucket with a swing handle and a knobbed lid. It was produced during the Shang (18th–12th century bc) and early Zhou (1111–c. 900 bc) periods. Related to the hu in profile, the you consisted of a base, usually oval in section, and a

  • You Again (film by Fickman [2010])

    Betty White: …comedies The Proposal (2009) and You Again (2010). In 2019 she voiced the character Bitey White, a teething ring, in the animated feature Toy Story 4.

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