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  • Yiddish theatre

    Yiddish literature: Yiddish theatre: European Jewish drama had its origin in the late Middle Ages, when dancers, mimics, and professional jesters entertained at wedding and Purim celebrations. Amateur Jewish actors began performing door to door during the Purim holiday. Their verse plays combined Bible stories and references to…

  • Yiddishbbuk (work by Golijov)

    Osvaldo Golijov: One of his earliest successes, Yiddishbbuk (1992), was written for the St. Lawrence and the clarinetist Todd Palmer, and the Kronos Quartet performed and recorded a number of his works. In 2000 Golijov received acclaim for La Pasión según San Marcos, a Latin American setting of the Passion commissioned by…

  • Yidgha-Munji languages

    Iranian languages: Dialects: …people speak dialects of the Yidghā-Munjī group. Monjān is a very remote valley located in northern Afghanistan, and it is separated by a mountain pass from the Sanglechī-speaking region. Yidghā is spoken in the valley of the Lutkho River and in the nearby city of Chitrāl, a region now in…

  • Yidi (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Zhengde, reign name (nianhao) of the 11th emperor (reigned 1505–21) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), during whose reign eunuchs achieved such power within the government that subsequent rulers proved unable to dislodge them. Zhu Houzhao ascended the throne in 1505, taking the reign name Zhengde.

  • Yidi (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Tongzhi, reign name (niaohao) of the eighth emperor (reigned 1861–1874/75) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose reign occurred a short revitalization of the beleaguered Qing government, known as the Tongzhi Restoration. Ascending the throne at the age of five (six by Chinese reckoning),

  • Yidish-taytshn (book by Glatstein)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in New York: With the book Yidish-taytshn (1937; “Yiddish Meanings,” alluding to the Yiddish Bible translations called taytshn), Glatstein began his return to Jewish themes. In one poem (“Shomer”) he acknowledges that he previously avoided Yiddish characters such as Abramovitsh’s Fishke the Lame, but he there reaffirms his link to folk…

  • Yidisher Visnshaftlikher Institut (international research institution)

    Avrom Sutzkever: …in the 1990s by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.

  • Yie Ar Kung-Fu (electronic game)

    electronic fighting game: Eight-bit era: Konami’s Yie Ar Kung-Fu (1985) added a variety of punch and kick maneuvers, each activated by moving the joystick in a specific direction—an innovation that would be greatly expanded by later games—as well as a “health bar” that indicated a player’s relative strength. Capcom Co., Ltd.’s…

  • yield (chemistry)

    chemical compound: Evaluation of a synthetic method: Second, the yield in each step must be considered. A step in a synthesis may give a very low yield of the desired product. For example, a proportion of the reactant may be converted into a different product by an alternative process that competes with the desired…

  • yield curve (economics)

    Yield curve, in economics and finance, a curve that shows the interest rate associated with different contract lengths for a particular debt instrument (e.g., a treasury bill). It summarizes the relationship between the term (time to maturity) of the debt and the interest rate (yield) associated

  • yield point (mechanics)

    Yield point, in mechanical engineering, load at which a solid material that is being stretched begins to flow, or change shape permanently, divided by its original cross-sectional area; or the amount of stress in a solid at the onset of permanent deformation. The yield point, alternatively called

  • yield strength (mechanics)

    materials testing: Radiation: Tensile and yield strength of a type of carbon-silicon steel increase with exposure to neutron radiation, although elongation, reduction in area, and probably fracture toughness apparently decrease with exposure. Certain wood/polymeric composite materials are even prepared by a process that employs radiation. The wood is first impregnated…

  • yield stress (mechanics)

    stress: Yield stress, marking the transition from elastic to plastic behaviour, is the minimum stress at which a solid will undergo permanent deformation or plastic flow without a significant increase in the load or external force. The Earth shows an elastic response to the stresses caused…

  • Yifta? (opera by Idelsohn)

    Abraham Zevi Idelsohn: …composed the first Hebrew opera, Yifta? (1922; “Jephthah”), which incorporates traditional melodies, and an unfinished opera, Eliyahu (“Elijah”). Although the song “Hava nagila” (“Come, Let’s Rejoice”) traditionally has been attributed to Idelsohn as a setting of his own text to a tune that he adapted from a Hasidic (a pietistic…

  • Yifter the Shifter (Ethiopian athlete)

    Miruts Yifter: Yifter the Shifter: Distance runner Miruts Yifter, a captain in the Ethiopian air force, became as famous for his quirks and setbacks as he did for his tenacity and victories. His introduction to the international track-and-field scene came at a meet in North Carolina, U.S., in 1971. Unfamiliar…

  • Yifter, Miruts (Ethiopian athlete)

    Miruts Yifter: Yifter the Shifter: Distance runner Miruts Yifter, a captain in the Ethiopian air force, became as famous for his quirks and setbacks as he did for his tenacity and victories. His introduction to the international track-and-field scene came at a meet in North Carolina, U.S., in 1971. Unfamiliar…

  • Yigdal (Jewish hymn)

    Thirteen Articles of Faith: …of Faith include the hymn Yigdal, written about 1300 and adopted into most prayer services.

  • Yige dou bu neng shao (film by Zhang [1999])

    Zhang Yimou: …dou bu neng shao (1999; Not One Less). The latter movie, centring on a school in a poor village, won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. In 1999 Zhang also released the acclaimed Wode fuqin muqin (The Road Home), a romantic drama in which a son recounts his…

  • Yihequan (Chinese secret society)

    Boxer Rebellion: “Boxers” was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the Yihequan (“Righteous and Harmonious Fists”). The group practiced certain boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that this made them invulnerable. It was thought to be an offshoot of the…

  • Yihetuan (Chinese secret society)

    Boxer Rebellion: “Boxers” was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the Yihequan (“Righteous and Harmonious Fists”). The group practiced certain boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that this made them invulnerable. It was thought to be an offshoot of the…

  • Yiheyuan (19th century palace and park, Beijing, China)

    Beijing: Recreation: The Summer Palace—called Yiheyuan in Chinese (“Garden of Good Health and Harmony”)—lies close to the Western Hills, about 6 miles (10 km) northwest of the Xizhi Gate site. Designated a World Heritage site in 1998, it is the largest park on the outskirts of Beijing and…

  • yihua (art)

    Chinese painting: Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12): …based on the concept of yihua, the “unifying line.”

  • yi?udim (Judaism)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: …special kawwanot (ritual meditations) and yi?udim (“unifications”) that were in essence a kind of lesser redemption whereby the souls were lifted up from the kelipot (“shells”; i.e., the impure, evil forms) into which they were banned until the coming of the Messiah.

  • Yijing (ancient Chinese text)

    Yijing, (Chinese: “Classic of Changes” or “Book of Changes”) an ancient Chinese text, one of the Five Classics (Wujing) of Confucianism. The main body of the work, traditionally attributed to Wenwang (flourished 12th century bc), contains a discussion of the divinatory system used by the Zhou

  • Yilan (county, Taiwan)

    I-lan, county (hsien, or xian), northeastern Taiwan. It is bordered by New Taipei City special municipality to the north, T’ao-yüan (Taiyuan) special municipality and Hsin-chu (Xinzhu) county to the west, T’ai-chung (Taizhong) special municipality and Hua-lien (Hualian) county to the south, and the

  • Yildirim (Ottoman sultan)

    Bayezid I, Ottoman sultan in 1389–1402 who founded the first centralized Ottoman state based on traditional Turkish and Muslim institutions and who stressed the need to extend Ottoman dominion in Anatolia. In the early years of Bayezid’s reign, Ottoman forces conducted campaigns that succeeded in

  • Yildirim, Cem (Turkish mathematician)

    twin prime conjecture: …Daniel Goldston and Turkish mathematician Cem Yildirim published a paper, “Small Gaps Between Primes,” that established the existence of an infinite number of prime pairs within a small difference (16, with certain other assumptions, most notably that of the Elliott-Halberstam conjecture). Although their proof was flawed, they corrected it with…

  • Y?ld?z Mountains (mountains, Turkey)

    Turkey: The northern folded zone: …and the main mountain range—the Y?ld?z (Istranca)—reaches only 3,379 feet (1,030 metres). Lowlands also occur to the south of the Sea of Marmara and along the lower Sakarya River east of the Bosporus. High ridges trending east-west rise abruptly from the Black Sea coast, and the coastal plain is thus…

  • Yildiz, Tāj-al-Dīn (ruler of Ghazna)

    Iltutmish: …also with the claim of Tāj al-Dīn Yildoiz, the Ghazna ruler, to succession to all of Mu?izz al-Dīn’s conquests and with the attempts by the Hindus to recover portions of their lost territory. In 1215 he captured Yildoiz, who died in prison. In 1225 he forced the unruly Bengali governor…

  • Yilgarn block (geological region, Australia)

    Precambrian: Occurrence and distribution of Precambrian rocks: …provinces in Canada; and the Yilgarn and Pilbara blocks in Western Australia. Linear belts, up to several thousand kilometres long, that are frequently though not exclusively of Proterozoic age include the Limpopo, Mozambique, and Damaran belts in Africa, the Labrador Trough

  • Yili (Chinese ritual text)

    Yili, (Chinese: “Ceremonies and Rituals”) the “Book of Ritual,” a collection of Chinese rituals probably compiled during the Western Han dynasty (206 bce–8 ce) and listed, along with two other ritual texts (Liji, “Record of Rites”; Zhouli, “Rites of Zhou”), among the Confucian classics. Its subject

  • Yili He (river, Central Asia)

    Ili River, river in western Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China, and southeastern Kazakhstan. It is 870 miles (1,400 km) long and drains the basin between the Tien Shan range to the south and the Borohoro (Poluokenu) Mountains to the north. Both ranges are extremely high. The drainage basin

  • Yiling Zhou (China)

    Yichang, city, western Hubei sheng (province), China. It extends along the left bank of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), at a point marking the division between the river’s middle and lower courses. A number of hills rise directly behind the city, and the small island of Xiba forms a harbour in the

  • Y?lmaz, Mesut (prime minister of Turkey)

    Turkey: The Kurdish conflict: …the liberals, whose young leader, Mesut Y?lmaz, became prime minister.

  • Yilou (people)

    Manchu: …it is evident that the Yilou, the Tungus ancestors of the Manchu, were essentially hunters, fishers, and food gatherers, though in later times they and their descendants, the Juchen and Manchu, developed a primitive form of agriculture and animal husbandry. The Juchen-Manchu were accustomed to braid their hair into a…

  • Yima (Iranian religion)

    Yima, in ancient Iranian religion, the first man, the progenitor of the human race, and son of the sun. Yima is the subject of conflicting legends obscurely reflecting different religious currents. According to one legend, Yima declined God’s (Ahura Mazdā’s) offer to make him the vehicle of the

  • yin (Eastern philosophy)

    Yinyang, in Eastern thought, the two complementary forces that make up all aspects and phenomena of life. Yin is a symbol of earth, femaleness, darkness, passivity, and absorption. It is present in even numbers, in valleys and streams, and is represented by the tiger, the colour orange, and a

  • Yin (China)

    Anyang, city, northern Henan sheng (province), northeast-central China, on the Anyang River, a tributary of the Wei River. It was important in history as the site of the ancient city of Yin, the capital of the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 bce) from the 14th century bce; the Shang palace stood about 10

  • yin and yang (Eastern philosophy)

    Yinyang, in Eastern thought, the two complementary forces that make up all aspects and phenomena of life. Yin is a symbol of earth, femaleness, darkness, passivity, and absorption. It is present in even numbers, in valleys and streams, and is represented by the tiger, the colour orange, and a

  • Yin and Yang of Mr. Go, The (film by Meredith [1970])

    Burgess Meredith: …the Eiffel Tower (1950) and The Yin and Yang of Mr. Go (1978), the latter of which he wrote.

  • Yin dynasty (Chinese history)

    Shang dynasty, the first recorded Chinese dynasty for which there is both documentary and archaeological evidence. The Shang dynasty was the reputed successor to the quasi-legendary first dynasty, the Xia (c. 2070–c. 1600 bce). The dates given for the founding of the Shang dynasty vary from about

  • Yin hsien-chang (work by Ch’en Jo-hsi)

    Chinese literature: Literature in Taiwan after 1949: …of stories Yin hsien-chang (1976; The Execution of Mayor Yin) by Ch’en Jo-hsi, are given broad exposure.

  • Yin Mountains (mountains, China)

    Yin Mountains, series of ranges in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China. From west to east, it comprises the Lang, Sheyten, Hara-narin, Wula, Daqing, and Damaqun mountains. The Yin Mountains, a divide of internal and external drainage systems in northern China, mostly rise to

  • Yin Shan (mountains, China)

    Yin Mountains, series of ranges in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China. From west to east, it comprises the Lang, Sheyten, Hara-narin, Wula, Daqing, and Damaqun mountains. The Yin Mountains, a divide of internal and external drainage systems in northern China, mostly rise to

  • Yin, Leslie Charles Bowyer (British-American writer)

    Leslie Charteris, author of highly popular mystery-adventure novels and creator of Simon Templar, better known as “the Saint” and sometimes called the “Robin Hood of modern crime.” From 1928 some 50 novels and collections of stories about “the Saint” were published; translations existed in at least

  • Yin, Ruins of (ruins, China)

    Anyang: Yinxu (“The Ruins of Yin”), the site of the Shang capital at Anyang, had been known to scholars since the turn of the 20th century through the accidental discovery in 1899 of inscribed oracle bones, the earliest Chinese written records. It was not until 1928,…

  • Yin-ch’uan (China)

    Yinchuan, city and capital of the Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia, north-central China. It is located in northern Ningxia in the south-central section of the Helan Mountains (which define the western extent of the Ordos Desert), near the western end of the Great Wall of China. The city lies west

  • yin-yang (Eastern philosophy)

    Yinyang, in Eastern thought, the two complementary forces that make up all aspects and phenomena of life. Yin is a symbol of earth, femaleness, darkness, passivity, and absorption. It is present in even numbers, in valleys and streams, and is represented by the tiger, the colour orange, and a

  • yin-yang li (Chinese chronology)

    calendar: The Chinese calendar: …thus consider their calendar as yinyang li, or a lunar-solar (literally, “heaven-earth”) calendar.

  • Yin: New Poems (poetry by Kizer)

    Carolyn Kizer: …in 1985 for her collection Yin: New Poems (1984).

  • Yinchuan (China)

    Yinchuan, city and capital of the Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia, north-central China. It is located in northern Ningxia in the south-central section of the Helan Mountains (which define the western extent of the Ordos Desert), near the western end of the Great Wall of China. The city lies west

  • Yinchwan (China)

    Yinchuan, city and capital of the Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia, north-central China. It is located in northern Ningxia in the south-central section of the Helan Mountains (which define the western extent of the Ordos Desert), near the western end of the Great Wall of China. The city lies west

  • Ying (film by Zhang [2018])

    Zhang Yimou: Ying (2018; Shadow) is an action drama inspired by China’s Three Kingdoms.

  • ying ch’ing ware (Chinese porcelain)

    Yingqing ware, type of refined, thinly potted Chinese porcelain produced at Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, and in Hebei province. It was created primarily during the Song dynasty (960–1279), although it is likely that production began in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and continued into the Ming dynasty

  • Ying hung boon sik (film by Woo [1986])

    John Woo: …gangster film Yingxiong bense (A Better Tomorrow). A huge box-office success, it initiated a series of action films that won Woo international acclaim for their unprecedented mixture of expressive slow motion, nostalgia for lost codes of honour, Christian symbolism, melodramatic emotions, and hyperbolic violence. Chow Yun-Fat (Zhou Runfa) became…

  • Ying Zheng (emperor of Qin dynasty)

    Qin Shi Huang, emperor (reigned 221–210 bce) of the Qin dynasty (221–207 bce) and creator of the first unified Chinese empire (which collapsed, however, less than four years after his death). Zhao Zheng was born the son of Zhuangxiang (who later became king of the state of Qin in northwestern

  • ying-ch’ing ware (Chinese porcelain)

    Yingqing ware, type of refined, thinly potted Chinese porcelain produced at Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, and in Hebei province. It was created primarily during the Song dynasty (960–1279), although it is likely that production began in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and continued into the Ming dynasty

  • ying-ching ware (Chinese porcelain)

    Yingqing ware, type of refined, thinly potted Chinese porcelain produced at Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, and in Hebei province. It was created primarily during the Song dynasty (960–1279), although it is likely that production began in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and continued into the Ming dynasty

  • Ying-k’ou (China)

    Yingkou, city and port, southwestern Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated just inland from Liaodong Bay (an arm of the Bo Hai [Gulf of Chihli]) near the mouth of the Daliao River, some 11 miles (18 km) from the mouth of the Liao River. Yingkou began to develop as a river

  • Ying-tsao fa-shih (manual by Li Jie)

    Chinese architecture: The Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: …chiefly as the compiler of Yingzao fashi (“Building Standards”), which he presented to the throne in 1100. This illustrated work deals in encyclopaedic fashion with all branches of architecture: layout, construction, stonework, carpentry, bracketing, decoration, materials, and labour. The Yingzao fashi became a standard text, and, while it was influential…

  • Yinghuo-1 (Chinese spacecraft)

    Phobos-Grunt: Phobos-Grunt carried the Chinese spacecraft Yinghuo-1 (Chinese for “firefly”), China’s first spacecraft to another planet. Yinghuo-1 would have orbited Mars for one year, studying the Martian climate and environment. Phobos-Grunt contained sealed vials of microorganisms (including bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaeans) that would have returned to Earth with the Phobos soil…

  • Yingkou (China)

    Yingkou, city and port, southwestern Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated just inland from Liaodong Bay (an arm of the Bo Hai [Gulf of Chihli]) near the mouth of the Daliao River, some 11 miles (18 km) from the mouth of the Liao River. Yingkou began to develop as a river

  • yingqing ware (Chinese porcelain)

    Yingqing ware, type of refined, thinly potted Chinese porcelain produced at Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, and in Hebei province. It was created primarily during the Song dynasty (960–1279), although it is likely that production began in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and continued into the Ming dynasty

  • Yingtianfu (China)

    Nanjing, city, capital of Jiangsu sheng (province), east-central China. It is a port on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and a major industrial and communications centre. Rich in history, it served seven times as the capital of regional empires, twice as the seat of revolutionary government, once

  • yingwu xianxing (Chinese aesthetics)

    Chinese painting: Three Kingdoms (220–280) and Six Dynasties (220–589): …the vital spirit is expressed; yingwu xianxing (“fidelity to the object in portraying forms”); suilei fucai (conforming to kind in applying colours); jingying weizhi (planning and design in placing and positioning); and chuanyi moxie (transmission of ancient models by copying). The last principle seems to refer to the copying of…

  • Yingxiong (film by Zhang Yimou [2002])

    Zhang Yimou: Yingxiong (2002; Hero) was nominated for an Oscar for best foreign-language film, and it became the highest-grossing film in China. His subsequent action films included Shimian mai fu (2004; House of Flying Daggers) and Man cheng jin dai huangjinjia (2006; Curse of the Golden Flower). Zhang shifted…

  • Yingzao fashi (manual by Li Jie)

    Chinese architecture: The Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: …chiefly as the compiler of Yingzao fashi (“Building Standards”), which he presented to the throne in 1100. This illustrated work deals in encyclopaedic fashion with all branches of architecture: layout, construction, stonework, carpentry, bracketing, decoration, materials, and labour. The Yingzao fashi became a standard text, and, while it was influential…

  • Yingzikou (China)

    Yingkou, city and port, southwestern Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated just inland from Liaodong Bay (an arm of the Bo Hai [Gulf of Chihli]) near the mouth of the Daliao River, some 11 miles (18 km) from the mouth of the Liao River. Yingkou began to develop as a river

  • Yingzong (emperor of Song dynasty)

    China: Consolidation: During the brief reign of Yingzong (1063–67), relatively minor disputes and symbolically important issues concerning ceremonial matters embroiled the bureaucracy in mutual and bitter criticism.

  • Yingzong (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Zhengtong, reign name (nianhao) of the sixth and eighth emperor (reigned 1435–49 and 1457–64) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), whose court was dominated by eunuchs who weakened the dynasty by a disastrous war with Mongol tribes. In 1435 Zhu Qizhen ascended the throne and became known as the

  • Yining (China)

    Kuldja, city, western Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. It is the chief city, agricultural market, and commercial centre of the Ili River valley, which is a principal route from the Xinjiang region into Central Asia. The valley is far wetter than any other part of Xinjiang and has rich

  • Yinlong (dinosaur)

    Yinlong, ceratopsian dinosaur genus known from a single nearly complete skeleton taken from the Junggar Basin of western China. Yinlong was discovered in rock deposits dating from 159 million to 154 million years ago, during the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian stages of the Late Jurassic Epoch. The

  • Yinlong downsi (dinosaur)

    Yinlong, ceratopsian dinosaur genus known from a single nearly complete skeleton taken from the Junggar Basin of western China. Yinlong was discovered in rock deposits dating from 159 million to 154 million years ago, during the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian stages of the Late Jurassic Epoch. The

  • Yinreng (Qing prince)

    Kangxi: Administration of the empire: He nominated the second son, Yinreng, crown prince in 1675, at the age of little more than a year and a half; this was against the Manchu tradition of giving all sons equal rights of succession, and it resulted in vicious fights among Kangxi’s sons. The hapless Yinreng was deposed…

  • Yinxu (ruins, China)

    Anyang: Yinxu (“The Ruins of Yin”), the site of the Shang capital at Anyang, had been known to scholars since the turn of the 20th century through the accidental discovery in 1899 of inscribed oracle bones, the earliest Chinese written records. It was not until 1928,…

  • yinyang (Eastern philosophy)

    Yinyang, in Eastern thought, the two complementary forces that make up all aspects and phenomena of life. Yin is a symbol of earth, femaleness, darkness, passivity, and absorption. It is present in even numbers, in valleys and streams, and is represented by the tiger, the colour orange, and a

  • Yinzhen (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Yongzheng, reign name (nianhao) of the third emperor (reigned 1722–35) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose rule the administration was consolidated and power became concentrated in the emperor’s hands. As the fourth son of the Kangxi emperor, Yinzhen was not immediately in line for the

  • Yip Kam-tim (Chinese production designer and art director)
  • Yip, Tim (Chinese production designer and art director)
  • Yippies (American political organization)

    Chicago Seven: …Jerry Rubin, cofounders of the Youth International Party (Yippies); Tom Hayden, cofounder of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); Black Panther Chairman Bobby Seale, the only African American of the group; David Dellinger and Rennie Davis of the National

  • yipwon (art)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The Sepik River regions: The figures, known as yipwon, represent patron spirits of hunting and war. They are topped by a downcurved hook; directly beneath this is a human face, and below that is a vertical series of downcurved hooks. An oval element, representing the heart, appears next at about the centre of…

  • Yirmeyahu (Hebrew prophet)

    Jeremiah, Hebrew prophet, reformer, and author of a biblical book that bears his name. He was closely involved in the political and religious events of a crucial era in the history of the ancient Near East; his spiritual leadership helped his fellow countrymen survive disasters that included the

  • Yishuv (Jewish settlement, Palestine)

    Palestine: The British mandate: …Jewish community in Palestine, the Yishuv, established its own assembly (Va?ad Leumi), trade union and labour movement (Histadrut), schools, courts, taxation system, medical services, and a number of industrial enterprises. It also formed a military organization called the Haganah. The Jewish Agency came to be controlled by a group called…

  • Yisrael Beiteinu (political party, Israel)

    Yisrael Beiteinu, (Hebrew: “Israel Our Home”) Israeli political party established in 1999 by Avigdor Lieberman. Like the Likud Party, Yisrael Beiteinu was founded as a national movement meant to follow the path of Zionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky (1880–1940) and focus on immigration, Israeli

  • Yisrael Beytenu (political party, Israel)

    Yisrael Beiteinu, (Hebrew: “Israel Our Home”) Israeli political party established in 1999 by Avigdor Lieberman. Like the Likud Party, Yisrael Beiteinu was founded as a national movement meant to follow the path of Zionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky (1880–1940) and focus on immigration, Israeli

  • Yisra?el (Hebrew patriarch)

    Jacob, Hebrew patriarch who was the grandson of Abraham, the son of Isaac and Rebekah, and the traditional ancestor of the people of Israel. Stories about Jacob in the Bible begin at Genesis 25:19. According to the Old Testament, Jacob was the younger twin brother of Esau, who was the ancestor of E

  • Yisra?el, Muse?on (museum, Jerusalem)

    Israel Museum, museum in Jerusalem opened in 1965 and consisting of the Bezalel National Art Museum, the Samuel Bronfman Biblical and Archaeological Museum, a Youth Wing, the Shrine of the Book, and The Billy Rose Art Garden. The Shrine of the Book houses the Dead Sea Scrolls in a building whose

  • Yitz?aqi, Rabbi Shlomo (French religious scholar)

    Rashi, renowned medieval French commentator on the Bible and the Talmud (the authoritative Jewish compendium of law, lore, and commentary). Rashi combined the two basic methods of interpretation, literal and nonliteral, in his influential Bible commentary. His commentary on the Talmud was a

  • YIVO bleter (American publication)

    Yiddish literature: Yiddish periodicals, yearbooks, and anthologies: YIVO bleter (“YIVO Journal”) has been an important forum for scholarship in Yiddish studies since 1931. Its primary headquarters moved from Vilna to New York in 1940, together with the Yidisher Visnshaftlikher Institut (YIVO; “Institute for Jewish Research”). Yiddish writers also contributed to Di tsukunft…

  • YIVO Institute for Jewish Research (international research institution)

    Avrom Sutzkever: …in the 1990s by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.

  • Yixian (Chinese leader)

    Sun Yat-sen, leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang [Pinyin: Guomindang]), known as the father of modern China. Influential in overthrowing the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1911/12), he served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China (1911–12) and later as de facto ruler

  • Yixin (Chinese official)

    Gong Qinwang, (Chinese: Prince Gong) leading official in the closing years of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), who tried to repair a weakened government and to effect a rapprochement with the West. A brother of the Xianfeng emperor (reigned 1850–61), Prince Gong was assigned to make peace with the

  • Yixing ware (Chinese pottery)

    pottery: Provincial and export wares: The stoneware of Yixing in Jiangsu province was known in the West as Buccaro, or Boccaro, ware and was copied and imitated at Meissen, Germany; at Staffordshire, England; and in the Netherlands by Ary de Milde and others. Its teapots were much valued in 17th-century Europe, where tea…

  • Yiyang (China)

    Yiyang, city, northern Hunan sheng (province), southeast-central China. The city is situated approximately 47 miles (75 km) northwest of Changsha (the provincial capital) on the Zi River, to the south of Dongting Lake, on the main highway from Changsha to Changde farther to the northwest. An

  • Yiyang opera (Chinese music)

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    Jiangxi: Cultural life: …the home of the influential Yiyang opera style, which is believed to be one of the earliest forms of Chinese opera. It originated in the region around the northeastern city of Yiyang in the mid- to late 14th century and gradually spread to other areas of the country. Despite its…

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