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  • Yesenin, Sergey Aleksandrovich (Russian poet)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Yesenin, the self-styled “last poet of wooden Russia,” whose dual image—that of a devout and simple peasant singer and that of a rowdy and blasphemous exhibitionist—reflects his tragic maladjustment to the changing world of the revolutionary era. The son of a peasant family of

  • Yesh Atid (political party, Israel)

    Israel: Domestic politics: …reinvigorated centre-left emerged, led by Yesh Atid, a new party formed by media mogul Yair Lapid that campaigned on those middle-class socioeconomic concerns that had prompted the 2011 protests. After weeks of negotiations, the Likud–Yisrael Beiteinu bloc, Yesh Atid, and several smaller parties agreed to form a centrist coalition led…

  • Yeshaq I (Solomonid king of Ethiopia)

    Ifat: …Sultan S?adad-Dīn was foiled by Yeshaq I of Ethiopia, who subsequently annexed Ifat to his kingdom.

  • Yesha?yahu (Hebrew prophet)

    Isaiah, prophet after whom the biblical Book of Isaiah is named (only some of the first 39 chapters are attributed to him), a significant contributor to Jewish and Christian traditions. His call to prophecy in about 742 bce coincided with the beginnings of the westward expansion of the Assyrian

  • yeshibah (Judaism)

    Yeshiva, any of numerous Jewish academies of Talmudic learning, whose biblical and legal exegesis and application of Scripture have defined and regulated Jewish religious life for centuries. The early history of the yeshiva as an institution is known only through indirect evidence, and the word

  • yeshiva (Judaism)

    Yeshiva, any of numerous Jewish academies of Talmudic learning, whose biblical and legal exegesis and application of Scripture have defined and regulated Jewish religious life for centuries. The early history of the yeshiva as an institution is known only through indirect evidence, and the word

  • Yeshiva College (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    Yeshiva University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in New York City, New York, U.S. It is a comprehensive research university comprising six undergraduate schools and seven graduate or professional schools at the Wilf Campus, Israel Henry Beren Campus, and Brookdale Center in

  • Yeshiva Eitz Chaim (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    Yeshiva University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in New York City, New York, U.S. It is a comprehensive research university comprising six undergraduate schools and seven graduate or professional schools at the Wilf Campus, Israel Henry Beren Campus, and Brookdale Center in

  • Yeshiva University (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    Yeshiva University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in New York City, New York, U.S. It is a comprehensive research university comprising six undergraduate schools and seven graduate or professional schools at the Wilf Campus, Israel Henry Beren Campus, and Brookdale Center in

  • yeshivah (Judaism)

    Yeshiva, any of numerous Jewish academies of Talmudic learning, whose biblical and legal exegesis and application of Scripture have defined and regulated Jewish religious life for centuries. The early history of the yeshiva as an institution is known only through indirect evidence, and the word

  • Ye?il Mosque (mosque, Bursa, Turkey)

    Bursa: Ye?il Mosque (1421) marked the beginning of a purely Turkish style; it includes a theological college, library, and ablution fountain. Nearby is the Ye?il Mausoleum, containing the tomb of Sultan Mehmed I. The Muradiye Mosque (15th century) is surrounded by the tombs of sultans and…

  • Ye?il River (river, Turkey)

    Turkey: The northern folded zone: …deltas of the K?z?l and Ye?il rivers. These rivers break through the mountain barrier in a zone of weakness where summits are below 2,000 feet (600 metres), dividing the Pontic Mountains into western and eastern sections. In the western section, between the Sakarya and K?z?l rivers, there are four main…

  • Yessentuki (Russia)

    Yessentuki, city, Stavropol kray (territory), southwestern Russia, in the valley of the Podkumok River. It was founded in 1798, developed as a fortress in the 1830s, and became a city in 1917. It is located at mineral springs at the base of the Caucasus Mountains. The city is composed of an old

  • Yesterday (novel by Dermo?t)

    Maria Dermo?t: …novels, Nog pas gisteren (1951; Yesterday) and De tienduizend dingen (1955; The Ten Thousand Things), are fictionalized accounts of her youth. Although written in an economic style, the two novels are rich in details of island life as experienced by both the colonials and the native people. Among Dermo?t’s other…

  • Yesterday (film by Boyle [2019])

    Danny Boyle: Boyle returned to movies with Yesterday (2019), a comedy that imagines an alternate universe where the Beatles never existed.

  • Yesterday (song by McCartney)

    Paul McCartney: Other work and assessment: The 1965 Beatles track “Yesterday” (wholly written by McCartney and performed alone with a string quartet) has been played some six million times on U.S. radio and television, far outstripping its nearest competitor. Moreover, with over 3,000 cover versions, it is also the most-recorded song ever. In 2010 McCartney…

  • Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (film by De Sica [1964])

    Sophia Loren: …Mastroianni: Ieri, oggi, domani (1963; Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow), a film that earned an Oscar for best foreign film; and Matrimonio all’italiana (1964; Marriage, Italian Style). The best performance of her late career, again with Mastroianni, was for director Ettore Scola in Una giornata particolare (1977, A Special Day). Loren’s…

  • Yesügei (Mongolian chieftain)

    Genghis Khan: Early struggles: …was defeated by his father, Yesügei, when Temüjin was born. The chronology of Temüjin’s early life is uncertain. He may have been born in 1155, in 1162 (the date favoured today in Mongolia), or in 1167. According to legend, his birth was auspicious, because he came into the world holding…

  • Yesuj (Iran)

    Yesuj, city, capital of Kohgīlūyeh va Būyer A?mad province, southwestern Iran. The town has a sugar mill and other local industry producing bricks and mosaic tiles, livestock feed, mats and baskets, and carpets and rugs. Roads link it with Dogonbaden, Dehdasht, Shiraj, Nūrābād, and Bandar-e

  • Yet Do I Marvel (poem by Cullen)

    Yet Do I Marvel, sonnet by Countee Cullen, published in the collection Color in 1925. Reminiscent of the Romantic sonnets of William Wordsworth and William Blake, the poem is concerned with racial identity and injustice. The poet ponders the nature of God, stating “I do not doubt God is good,

  • Yeti (mythology)

    Abominable Snowman, mythical monster resembling a large, hairy, apelike being supposed to inhabit the Himalayas at about the level of the snow line. Though reports of actual sightings of such a creature are rare, certain mysterious markings in the snow have traditionally been attributed to it.

  • Yeti Su (historical region, Central Asia)

    history of Central Asia: …hence its Russian name of Semirechye.

  • Yetl (mythology)

    nature worship: Tides: The animal hero and trickster Yetl, the raven, is successful in conquering (with the aid of the mink) the seashore from the moon at low tide, and thus an extended area is gained for nourishment with small sea animals.

  • yetzer ha-ra? (Judaism)

    Judaism: The ethically bound creature: The biblical word yetzer, for example, means “plan,” that which is formed in human minds. In the two occurrences of the word in Genesis (6:5; 8:21), the plan or formation of the human mind is described as ra?, perhaps “evil” in the moral sense or maybe no more…

  • yetzer ha-?ov (Judaism)

    Judaism: The ethically bound creature: …disobedience, and subsequently the counter-term yetzer ha-?ov (“the good impulse”) was used to indicate humans’ obedience. These terms more clearly suggest the ethical quality of human duality, while their opposition and conflict point to human freedom and the ethical choices humans must make. Indeed, it is primarily within the realm…

  • Yetzira (Hebrew literature)

    Sefer Yetzira, (Hebrew: “Book of Creation”), oldest known Hebrew text on white magic and cosmology; it contends that the cosmos derived from the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet and from the 10 divine numbers (sefirot). Taken together, they were said to comprise the “32 paths of secret wisdom” by

  • Yevgeny Onegin (work by Pushkin)

    Eugene Onegin: of Aleksandr Pushkin’s masterpiece Eugene Onegin (1833). Onegin is the original superfluous man, a character type common in 19th-century Russian literature. He is a disillusioned aristocrat who is drawn into tragic situations through his inability or unwillingness to take positive action to prevent them.

  • Yevpatoriya (Ukraine)

    Yevpatoriya, city, Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the Kalamit Bay on the west coast of the Crimean Peninsula. Founded in the 6th century bce as a Greek colony and later renamed for Mithradates VI Eupator, sixth king of Pontus, the city has known many masters, passing to Russia with the annexation of

  • Yevreyskaya Avtonomnaya Oblast (oblast, Russia)

    Jewish Autonomous Region, autonomous oblast (region), far eastern Russia, in the basin of the middle Amur River. Most of the oblast consists of level plain, with extensive swamps, patches of swampy forest, and grassland on fertile soils, now largely plowed up. In the north and northwest are the

  • Yevtushenko, Yevgeny (Russian poet)

    Yevgeny Yevtushenko, poet and spokesman for the younger post-Stalin generation of Russian poets, whose internationally publicized demands for greater artistic freedom and for a literature based on aesthetic rather than political standards signaled an easing of Soviet control over artists in the

  • Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Aleksandrovich (Russian poet)

    Yevgeny Yevtushenko, poet and spokesman for the younger post-Stalin generation of Russian poets, whose internationally publicized demands for greater artistic freedom and for a literature based on aesthetic rather than political standards signaled an easing of Soviet control over artists in the

  • yew (plant)

    Yew, any tree or shrub of the genus Taxus (family Taxaceae), approximately eight species of ornamental evergreens, distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Other trees called yew but not in this genus are the plum-yew, Prince Albert yew (see Podocarpaceae), and stinking yew. Two species are

  • yew family (plant family)

    Taxaceae, the yew family, in the order Pinales, containing 6 genera and 30 species of evergreen trees and shrubs, distributed mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. The plants have many branches, covered with alternate, needlelike leaves. Pollen-bearing and ovule-bearing plants are usually separate;

  • Yeysk (Russia)

    Yeysk, city, Krasnodar kray (territory), southwestern Russia. It was founded as a port in 1848 on the southern side of Taganrog Gulf of the Sea of Azov. Fishing and associated industries (fish canning) are important; other industries include agricultural processing. The city is a noted health

  • Yezd (Iran)

    Yazd, city, capital of Yazd province, central Iran. The city dates from the 5th century ce and was described as the “noble city of Yazd” by Marco Polo. It stands on a mostly barren sand-ridden plain about 4,000 feet (1,200 metres) above sea level. The climate is completely desertic. A network of

  • Yezdegerd I (Sāsānian king)

    Yazdegerd I , king of the Sāsānian Empire (reigned 399–420). Yazdegerd was a highly intelligent ruler who tried to emancipate himself from the dominion of the magnates and of the Magi (a priestly caste serving a number of religions); thus, his reign is viewed differently by Christian and Magian

  • Yezdegerd II (Sāsānian king)

    Yazdegerd II, king of the Sāsānian dynasty (reigned 438–457), the son and successor of Bahrām V. Although Yazdegerd was at first tolerant of the Christians, he remained a zealous Zoroastrian and later persecuted both Christians and Jews. He was engaged in a short war with Rome in 442 and also

  • Yezdegerd III (Sāsānian king)

    Yazdegerd III, the last king of the Sāsānian dynasty (reigned 632–651), the son of Shahryār and a grandson of Khosrow II. A mere child when he was placed on the throne, Yazdegerd never actually exercised power. In his first year the Arab invasion began, and in 636/637 the Battle of al-Qādisīyah on

  • Yezdegird I (Sāsānian king)

    Yazdegerd I , king of the Sāsānian Empire (reigned 399–420). Yazdegerd was a highly intelligent ruler who tried to emancipate himself from the dominion of the magnates and of the Magi (a priestly caste serving a number of religions); thus, his reign is viewed differently by Christian and Magian

  • Yezdegird II (Sāsānian king)

    Yazdegerd II, king of the Sāsānian dynasty (reigned 438–457), the son and successor of Bahrām V. Although Yazdegerd was at first tolerant of the Christians, he remained a zealous Zoroastrian and later persecuted both Christians and Jews. He was engaged in a short war with Rome in 442 and also

  • Yezdegird III (Sāsānian king)

    Yazdegerd III, the last king of the Sāsānian dynasty (reigned 632–651), the son of Shahryār and a grandson of Khosrow II. A mere child when he was placed on the throne, Yazdegerd never actually exercised power. In his first year the Arab invasion began, and in 636/637 the Battle of al-Qādisīyah on

  • Yezernitzky, Yitz?ak (prime minister of Israel)

    Yitz?ak Shamir, Polish-born Zionist leader and prime minister of Israel in 1983–84 and 1986–90 (in alliance with Shimon Peres of the Labour Party) and in 1990–92. Shamir joined the Beitar Zionist youth movement as a young man and studied law in Warsaw. He immigrated to Palestine in 1935 and

  • Yezhov, Nikolay Ivanovich (Soviet official)

    Nikolay Ivanovich Yezhov, Russian Communist Party official who, while chief of the Soviet security police (NKVD) from 1936 to 1938, administered the most severe stage of the great purges, known as Yezhovshchina (or Ezhovshchina). Nothing is known of his early life (he was nicknamed the “Dwarf”

  • Yezhovshchina (Soviet history)

    Soviet Union: Internal, 1930–37: …Nikolay Yezhov, from whom the Yezhovshchina, the worst phase of the terror in 1937–38, took its name. A new group, headed by Grigory (Yury) Pyatakov, was now arrested, figuring in the second great trial in January 1937. This time the charges included espionage, sabotage, and treason, in addition to terrorism.

  • Yezīdī (religious sect)

    Yazīdī, member of a Kurdish religious minority found primarily in northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northern Syria, the Caucasus region, and parts of Iran. The Yazīdī religion includes elements of ancient Iranian religions as well as elements of Judaism, Nestorian Christianity, and Islam.

  • Yezierska, Anzia (American author)

    American literature: Lyric fictionists: …followed in the footsteps of Anzia Yezierska, a prolific writer of the 1920s whose passionate books about immigrant Jews, especially Bread Givers (1925), have been rediscovered by contemporary feminists.

  • Yezo (island, Japan)

    Hokkaido, northernmost of the four main islands of Japan. It is bordered by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the west, the Sea of Okhotsk to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the east and south. Together with a few small adjacent islands, it constitutes a dō (province) of Japan. Sapporo, in the

  • Yggdrasill (Norse mythology)

    Yggdrasill, in Norse mythology, the world tree, a giant ash supporting the universe. One of its roots extended into Niflheim, the underworld; another into J?tunheim, land of the giants; and the third into Asgard, home of the gods. At its base were three wells: Urdarbrunnr (Well of Fate), from which

  • Yglesias, José (American author)

    José Yglesias, U.S. author and journalist (born Nov. 29, 1919, Tampa, Fla.—died Nov. 7, 1995, New York, N.Y.), wrote fiction about Latinos and nonfiction about life in Latin America and Spain, the latter of which was particularly concerned with revolutions and how they affect individuals. In a

  • Yhombi-Opango, Joachim (president of Republic of the Congo)

    Republic of the Congo: Congo since independence: Joachim Yhombi-Opango, soon clashed with the PCT, and Col. Denis Sassou-Nguesso replaced Yhombi-Opango in 1979.

  • YHWH

    Yahweh, the god of the Israelites, whose name was revealed to Moses as four Hebrew consonants (YHWH) called the tetragrammaton. After the Babylonian Exile (6th century bce), and especially from the 3rd century bce on, Jews ceased to use the name Yahweh for two reasons. As Judaism became a universal

  • yi (Chinese vessel)

    pan: The yi was often mentioned together with the pan in ancient documents. While the yi was used for pouring water during washing, the pan collected the used water beneath the washing.

  • Yi (people)

    Yi, ethnic group of Austroasiatic origin living largely in the mountains of southwest China and speaking a Tibeto-Burman language. The Yi people numbered more than 7.5 million in the early 21st century. Their principal concentrations were in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, with smaller numbers in

  • Yi Am (Korean painter)

    Korean art: Painting: Yi Am, Sin Saim-dang, and Yi Ch?ng are the better scholar-painters of the first period. Unlike the professional court painters, who made Chinese landscapes their specialty, these amateur scholar-painters devoted themselves to painting the so-called Four Gentlemen—the pine tree, bamboo, plum tree, and orchid—as well…

  • Yi Ch?ng (Korean painter)

    Yi Ch?ng, painter who was one of the most popular 16th-century Korean artists. The great-great-grandson of King Sejong (1397–1450), Yi is said to have personified the ideal Korean aristocrat. He is as famous for his regal and generous disposition and his scholarly tastes as he is for his painting,

  • Yi Ch?ng-Bo (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Later Chos?n: 1598–1894: Yi Ch?ng-Bo wrote of the pleasure of removing oneself from worldly cares. Quite a few of his works take up the theme of love—a rarity in the poetry of scholar-bureaucrats. Yi Se-Bo, a member of the royal family who wrote some 450 sijo, wrote on…

  • Yi dai zong shi (film by Wong Kar-Wai [2013])

    Wong Kar-Wai: …genre with Yutdoi jungsi (2013; The Grandmaster), a biography of martial artist Yip Man (Leung), who was best known as the trainer of Bruce Lee. Wong wrote the screenplay for and produced the romantic comedy Bai du ren (2016; “See You Tomorrow”). It was directed by Zhang Jiajia, who wrote…

  • Yi dynasty (Korean history)

    Chos?n dynasty, the last and longest-lived imperial dynasty (1392–1910) of Korea. Founded by Gen. Yi S?ng-Gye, who established the capital at Hanyang (present-day Seoul), the kingdom was named Chos?n for the state of the same name that had dominated the Korean peninsula in ancient times. The regime

  • Yi Gang (Chinese economist)

    Zhou Xiaochuan: …PBC and was succeeded by Yi Gang.

  • Yi H’ui (Korean ruler)

    Kojong, 26th monarch of the Chos?n (Yi) dynasty and the last to effectively rule Korea. Kojong became king of Korea while still a young boy. During the first years of his reign, power was in the hands of his father, Taew?n-gun, who as regent attempted to restore and revitalize the country. When

  • Yi Ha-?ng (Korean regent)

    Taew?n-gun, father of the Korean king Kojong. As regent from 1864 to 1873, Taew?n-gun inaugurated a far-ranging reform program to strengthen the central administration; he modernized and increased its armies and rationalized the administration. Opposed to any concessions to Japan or the West,

  • Yi Haejo (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Transitional literature: 1894–1910: …s?ng (1907; “A Demon’s Voice”); Yi Haejo, Chayujong (1910; “Liberty Bell”); and Ch’oe Ch’ansik, Ch’uw?lsaek (1912; “Colour of the Autumn Moon”). In their works these writers advocated modernization, a spirit of independence, contact with Western countries, study abroad, the diffusion of science and technology, and the abolition of conventions and…

  • Yi Hwang (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Early Chos?n: 1392–1598: …while 16th-century works such as Yi Hwang’s “Tosan shibi kok” (“Twelve Songs of Mount To”) and Yi I’s “Kosan kugok ka” (“Nine Songs of Mount Ko”) established a tradition that glorified the truths to be found in nature. Hwang Chin-I and Yi Mae-Ch’ang pioneered a new realm of sijo that…

  • Yi Il-Lo (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Later Kory?: 12th century to 1392: …was established by O Se-Jae, Yi Il-Lo, Yi Kyu-Bo, and others. This group was integral to the emergence and proliferation of literary criticism during this period. Yi Il-Lo, in his P’ahan chip (1260; “Jottings to Break Up Idleness”), defends the value of literature and praises the beautifully chiseled sentence. Yi…

  • Yi In-mun (Korean painter)

    Yi In-mun, famous Korean landscape painter. A follower of the traditional Northern school of Chinese painting, Yi was known for the subtlety of his designs and the confidence of his brushstrokes. His most famous work, “River in Spring,” is a long horizontal scroll depicting an endless landscape

  • Yi Injik (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Transitional literature: 1894–1910: …writers and their works are Yi Injik, Kwi ?i s?ng (1907; “A Demon’s Voice”); Yi Haejo, Chayujong (1910; “Liberty Bell”); and Ch’oe Ch’ansik, Ch’uw?lsaek (1912; “Colour of the Autumn Moon”). In their works these writers advocated modernization, a spirit of independence, contact with Western countries, study abroad, the diffusion of…

  • Yi Ku (Korean royal)

    Yi Ku, Korean royal (born Dec. 29, 1931, Tokyo, Japan—died July 16, 2005, Tokyo), was heir to the throne of Korea though he was born in exile and spent most of his life in Japan. The Yi family ruled Korea for more than 500 years, but Japan ended its dynasty in 1910. Yi’s father, Crown Prince

  • Yi Kwangsu (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Modern literature: 1910 to the end of the 20th century: …launched by Ch’oe Nams?n and Yi Kwangsu. In 1908 Ch’oe published the poem “Hae egeso pada ege” (“From the Sea to Children”) in Sony?n (“Children”), the first literary journal aimed at producing cultural reform. Inspired by Lord Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Ch’oe celebrates in clean masculine diction the strength of…

  • Yi Kyu-Bo (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Later Kory?: 12th century to 1392: …by O Se-Jae, Yi Il-Lo, Yi Kyu-Bo, and others. This group was integral to the emergence and proliferation of literary criticism during this period. Yi Il-Lo, in his P’ahan chip (1260; “Jottings to Break Up Idleness”), defends the value of literature and praises the beautifully chiseled sentence. Yi Kyu-Bo’s Paegun…

  • Yi language

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Tibeto-Burman languages: … in its widest application) includes Yi (Lolo), Hani, Lahu, Lisu, Kachin (Jingpo), Kuki-Chin, the obsolete Xixia (Tangut), and other languages. The Tibetan writing system (which dates from the 7th century) and the Burmese (dating from the 11th century) are derived from the Indo-Aryan (Indic)

  • Yi Muny?l (South Korean author)

    Yi Muny?l, South Korean author, regarded as a master of the short story and novella genres. Yi was born two years before the outbreak of the Korean War. When the war began, his father defected to North Korea. As a consequence, his family had to contend with poverty, social stigma, and police

  • Yi Saek (Korean scholar)

    Yi Saek, Korean literary figure and Neo-Confucian scholar. Patronized by kings during the Koryo period (918–1392), he promoted an educational system based on the Confucian texts and was responsible for establishing a Confucian tradition of public mourning. While favoring Confucianism in public m

  • Yi Sang-chwa (Korean painter)

    Yi Sang-chwa, noted Korean painter famous for the freshness and originality of his style. Yi was originally a slave in a scholar’s household, but his great artistic talents soon came to the attention of the king, and he was admitted to the Korean Royal Academy. He is known for his landscapes as

  • Yi Shu (Chinese author)

    Hong Kong literature: Yi Shu (Ni Yishu) wrote mainly popular romances that catered to a mostly female audience. In science fiction, Ni Kuang (Ni Yiming), brother of Yi Shu, was a productive author whose works were imaginative and entertaining. Tang Ren (Yan Qingshu), a pro-communist writer, was famous…

  • Yi Song-gye (Korean ruler)

    Yi Song-gye, Founder of the Korean Chos?n dynasty (1392–1910). A military leader in the Kory? dynasty, he rose through the ranks by battling invading forces. He defeated his rivals and drove out the last king of the Kory? dynasty, taking the throne in 1392. He established his capital at Hanyang

  • Yi Soyeon (South Korean scientist and astronaut)

    Yi Soyeon, South Korean scientist and astronaut, the first South Korean citizen in space. Yi earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) in Taej?n in 2001 and 2002, respectively. In 2006 she was working toward a

  • Yi style (Korean art)

    Chos?n style, Korean visual arts style characteristic of the Chos?n dynasty (1392–1910). Chos?n craftsmen and artisans, unable except occasionally to draw inspiration from imported Chinese art, relied on their own sense of beauty and perfection. Particularly in the decorative arts, the Chos?n style

  • Yi Sun-shin (Korean admiral)

    Yi Sun-shin, Korean admiral and national hero whose naval victories were instrumental in repelling Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s. After passing the government examinations to become a military officer in 1576, Yi served at various army and navy posts. Although he was twice discharged

  • Yi Sun-sin (Korean admiral)

    Yi Sun-shin, Korean admiral and national hero whose naval victories were instrumental in repelling Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s. After passing the government examinations to become a military officer in 1576, Yi served at various army and navy posts. Although he was twice discharged

  • Yi T’oegye (Korean scholar)

    Confucianism: The age of Confucianism: Chos?n-dynasty Korea, Tokugawa Japan, and Qing China: Yi T’oegye (1501–70), the single most-important Korean Confucian, helped shape the character of Chos?n Confucianism through his creative interpretation of Zhu Xi’s teaching. Critically aware of the philosophical turn engineered by Wang Yangming, T’oegye transmitted the Zhu Xi legacy as a response to the advocates…

  • Yi Yi (Taiwanese motion picture)

    history of the motion picture: Taiwan: Yi yi (2000), a compelling portrait of a family and society, was honoured by the National Society of Film Critics in the United States as the year’s best film released there. Tsai Ming-liang, a filmmaker originally from Malaysia, continued Yang’s scrutiny of contemporary urban mores,…

  • Yi Yuksa (Korean poet)

    Korean literature: Modern literature: 1910 to the end of the 20th century: …or hatred, was produced by Yi Yuksa and Yun Tongju. In Yi’s poem “Ch?lch?ng” (1939; “The Summit”), he re-creates the conditions of an existence in extremity and forces the reader to contemplate his ultimate destiny. The poetry of Yun Tongju, a dispassionate witness to Korea’s national humiliation, expresses sorrow in…

  • Yi Yulgok (Korean scholar)

    Confucianism: The age of Confucianism: Chos?n-dynasty Korea, Tokugawa Japan, and Qing China: In addition, Yi Yulgok’s (1536–84) challenge to T’oegye’s re-presentation of Zhu Xi’s Confucianism, from the perspective of Zhu’s thought itself, significantly enriched the repertoire of the learning of the principle. The leadership of the central government, supported by the numerous academies set up by aristocratic families and…

  • Yi’an Jushi (Chinese poet)

    Li Qingzhao, China’s greatest woman poet, whose work, though it survives only in fragments, continues to be as highly regarded as it was in her own day. Li Qingzhao was born into a literary family and produced well-regarded poetry while still a teenager. In 1101 she married Zhao Mingcheng, a noted

  • Yi, Mount (mountain, China)

    Huangshan: …named for the famous scenic Mount Huang (Huang Shan). According to Chinese legend, Huangdi (the “Yellow Emperor”), the third of the mythical emperors of ancient China, went to the mountain (then called Mount Yi) to gather herbal medicines from which to make pills of immortality. In 747 the name was…

  • Yi-Ching (ancient Chinese text)

    Yijing, (Chinese: “Classic of Changes” or “Book of Changes”) an ancient Chinese text, one of the Five Classics (Wujing) of Confucianism. The main body of the work, traditionally attributed to Wenwang (flourished 12th century bc), contains a discussion of the divinatory system used by the Zhou

  • yi-dam (Buddhism)

    Yi-dam, in Tibetan Buddhism, a tutelary, or guardian, deity with whom a lama (monk) has a special, secret relationship. The lama first prepares himself by meditation, then selects from among the guardian deities the one that reveals itself as offering the right guidance for a specific or lifelong

  • Yi-gi debates (Korean philosophy)

    Yi-gi debates, series of religious and philosophical arguments about the essential (yi; Chinese li: “principle”) or existential/material (gi, or ki; Chinese qi: “vital breath”) nature of reality conducted by two groups of Korean Neo-Confucians in the 16th and 17th centuries. They paralleled similar

  • Yianbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture (prefecture, Jilin, China)

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