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  • Yemonja (Yoruban deity)

    Yemonja, Yoruban deity celebrated as the giver of life and as the metaphysical mother of all orisha (deities) within the Yoruba spiritual pantheon. Yemonja’s name is derived from the Yoruba words Yeye or Iya (“mother”), omo (“child/children”), and eja (“fish”) and thus literally means “Mother whose

  • yen (bronze vessel)

    Yan, type of ancient Chinese bronze steamer, or cooking vessel, used particularly for grain. It consisted of a deep upper bowl with a pierced bottom, which was placed upon or attached to a lower, legged vessel similar in shape to the li. It was produced during the Shang, or Yin (18th–12th century

  • yen (Japanese currency)

    Yen, monetary unit of Japan. The yen was divided into 100 sen and into 1,000 rin until 1954, when these tiny denominations were removed from circulation. Despite having suffered enormous devastation during World War II, Japan enjoyed an economic miracle in the second half of the 20th century,

  • Yen Bai uprising (Vietnamese history)

    Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang: …action—an event known as the Yen Bai uprising—occurred on the night of Feb. 9, 1930, when the military garrison at Yen Bai, a small town along the Chinese border, mutinied. Before the remainder of the country could follow suit, however, the French, who had been alerted, crushed the revolt with…

  • Yen Chia-kan (Chinese statesman)

    Chiang Kai-shek: …he was succeeded temporarily by Yen Chia-kan (C.K. Yen), who was in 1978 replaced by Chiang’s son Chiang Ching-kuo.

  • Yen Fu (Chinese scholar)

    Yan Fu, Chinese scholar who translated into Chinese works by T.H. Huxley, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, Adam Smith, and others in an attempt to show that the secret to Western wealth and power did not lie in Western technological advances, such as gunmaking, but in the ideas and institutions

  • Yen Jo-chü (Chinese scholar)

    Yan Ruoqu, great Chinese scholar from the early period of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12) who proved that 25 chapters of the Shujing, or Shangshu, one of the Five Classics of Confucianism, upon which the government modeled itself for more than a thousand years, were forged. Yan early became

  • Yen Li-pen (Chinese painter)

    Yan Liben, one of the most famous Chinese figure painters in the early years of the Tang dynasty (618–907). Yan was a high official within the imperial court, but his fame derives from his skill as a painter. He is recorded as having painted Buddhist and Daoist subjects and as having received

  • Yen Yüan (Chinese philosopher)

    Yan Yuan, Chinese founder of a pragmatic empirical school of Confucianism opposed to the speculative neo-Confucian philosophy that had dominated China since the 11th century. Yan’s father was abducted into the Manchu army when Yan was three. He never returned, and the family lived in poverty. As a

  • Yen, C. K. (Chinese statesman)

    Chiang Kai-shek: …he was succeeded temporarily by Yen Chia-kan (C.K. Yen), who was in 1978 replaced by Chiang’s son Chiang Ching-kuo.

  • Yen, Vivian Wu (Taiwanese businesswoman)

    Vivian Wu Yen, Chinese-born Taiwanese businesswoman (born December 1913, Wujin, Jiangsu province, China—died Aug. 9, 2008, Taipei, Taiwan), was the tenacious chairwoman of the Yulon Group, the largest auto manufacturer in Taiwan; she became known as the “Iron Lady” after taking the reins and

  • Yen-an (China)

    Yan’an, city, northern Shaanxi sheng (province), north-central China. It became famous as the wartime stronghold of the Chinese communists from the mid-1930s to 1949. Yan’an is on the heavily dissected Loess Plateau, which consists of loess (windblown soil) that is deeply etched by gullies. The

  • Yen-ch’eng (China)

    Yancheng, city, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), eastern China, in the province’s eastern coastal district. Yancheng is now some 25 miles (40 km) from the coast, but in ancient times it was close to the sea and, from the 8th century onward, had to be constantly protected by dikes. The most

  • Yen-chi (China)

    Yanji, city, eastern Jilin sheng (province), far northeastern China. It is a county-level shi (municipality) and the administrative seat of Yanbian Chaoxianzu (Korean) Autonomous Prefecture, which covers a mountainous area on the North Korean–Chinese border, more than half of whose inhabitants are

  • Yen-ching (national capital, China)

    Beijing, city, province-level shi (municipality), and capital of the People’s Republic of China. Few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural centre of an area as immense as China. The city has been an integral part of China’s history over the past

  • Yen-t’ai (China)

    Yantai, port city, northeastern Shandong sheng (province), northeast-central China. It is located on the northern coast of the Shandong Peninsula on the Yellow Sea, about 45 miles (70 km) west of Weihai. The city was traditionally known as Zhifu (Chefoo), which was the name of the island that

  • Yenagoa (Nigeria)

    Yenagoa, town, capital of Bayelsa state, southern Nigeria, in the Niger River delta. Situated in an area of swamps and mangrove and tropical rain forests, it is a traditional home of the Ijo people, a fishing group who, following contact with European traders, became middlemen in the export of

  • Yenakiyeve (Ukraine)

    Yenakiyeve, city, eastern Ukraine. It lies along the Krynka River. A pig-iron concern began there in 1858 but lasted only eight years; not until the first coal mines opened in the locality in 1883 did industrialization begin. A metallurgical factory established in 1895–97 was later reconstructed.

  • Yenakiyevo (Ukraine)

    Yenakiyeve, city, eastern Ukraine. It lies along the Krynka River. A pig-iron concern began there in 1858 but lasted only eight years; not until the first coal mines opened in the locality in 1883 did industrialization begin. A metallurgical factory established in 1895–97 was later reconstructed.

  • Yenangyaung (Myanmar)

    Yenangyaung, town, west-central Myanmar (Burma), on the Irrawaddy River, 135 miles (217 km) southwest of Mandalay. It is the centre of oil fields that were long the most productive in Myanmar. Pop. (1993 est.)

  • Yenbo (Saudi Arabia)

    Yanbu?, town, western Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea north of Jiddah. It serves as the country’s second Red Sea port, after Jiddah, and is the main port for Medina, 100 miles (160 km) to the east. The economy of Yanbu? was traditionally based on the pilgrim trade and the export of agricultural

  • Yendys, Sydney (British poet)

    Sydney Thompson Dobell, English poet of the so-called Spasmodic school. The long dramatic poem The Roman (1850), which Dobell published under the name Sydney Yendys, celebrated the cause of Italian liberation. Another long poem, Balder (1853), is concerned with the inner life of a poet who kills

  • Yengema (Sierra Leone)

    Yengema, town, east-central Sierra Leone. The headquarters of a diamond-mining area inhabited mainly by the Kono and Mandingo peoples, the town has diamond-washing plants, a hospital, and several schools. Pop. (latest est.)

  • Yeni Osmanlilar (Turkish organization)

    Young Ottomans, secret Turkish nationalist organization formed in Istanbul in June 1865. A forerunner of other Turkish nationalist groups (see Young Turks), the Young Ottomans favoured converting the Turkish-dominated multinational Ottoman Empire into a more purely Turkish state and called for t

  • Yeni?eri (Turkish military)

    Janissary, member of an elite corps in the standing army of the Ottoman Empire from the late 14th century to 1826. Highly respected for their military prowess in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Janissaries became a powerful political force within the Ottoman state. During peacetime they were used

  • Yeni?ehir (Turkey)

    Osman I: …several former Byzantine fortresses, including Yeni?ehir, which provided the Ottomans with a strong base to lay siege to Bursa and Nicaea (now ?znik), in northwestern Anatolia. Osman was succeded by his son Orhan, who captured Bursa on April 6, 1326. Ottoman tradition holds that Osman died just after the capture…

  • Yenisei River (river, Russia)

    Yenisey River, river of central Russia, one of the longest rivers in Asia. The world’s sixth largest river in terms of discharge, the Yenisey runs from south to north across the great expanse of central Siberia. It traverses a vast region of strikingly varied landscapes where ancient peoples and

  • Yeniseian languages

    Yeniseian languages, small group of languages generally classified among the Paleo-Siberian languages. That category includes Yeniseian languages with three other genetically unrelated groups—Nivkh, Luorawetlan languages, and Yukaghir (itself now sometimes considered to be a distant relative of the

  • Yeniseiok (people)

    Enets, an indigenous Arctic people who traditionally resided on the east bank of the lower Yenisey River of Russia. They numbered about 300 in the Russian census of 2002. The Enets live in the Arctic tundra, a region of permafrost, and are divided into two major groups, the so-called Tundra Enets

  • Yenisey (people)

    Enets, an indigenous Arctic people who traditionally resided on the east bank of the lower Yenisey River of Russia. They numbered about 300 in the Russian census of 2002. The Enets live in the Arctic tundra, a region of permafrost, and are divided into two major groups, the so-called Tundra Enets

  • Yenisey language

    Samoyedic languages: …subgroup consists of Nenets (Yurak), Enets (Yenisey), and Nganasan (Tavgi). The South Samoyedic subgroup comprises Selkup and the practically extinct Kamas language. None of these languages was written before 1930, and they are currently used only occasionally for educational purposes in some elementary schools.

  • Yenisey Ostyak (people)

    Ket, indigenous people of central Siberia who live in the Yenisey River basin; in the late 20th century they numbered about 500. Certain traits of the Ket suggest a southerly origin. Their language, Ket, is the last true survivor of the Yeniseian group spoken in the area. Usually classed as

  • Yenisey River (river, Russia)

    Yenisey River, river of central Russia, one of the longest rivers in Asia. The world’s sixth largest river in terms of discharge, the Yenisey runs from south to north across the great expanse of central Siberia. It traverses a vast region of strikingly varied landscapes where ancient peoples and

  • Yenisey Samoyed (people)

    Enets, an indigenous Arctic people who traditionally resided on the east bank of the lower Yenisey River of Russia. They numbered about 300 in the Russian census of 2002. The Enets live in the Arctic tundra, a region of permafrost, and are divided into two major groups, the so-called Tundra Enets

  • Yenisey-Ostyak language

    Ket language, one of two surviving members of the Yeniseian family of languages spoken by about 500 people living in central Siberia. (The other, a moribund close relative called Yug [Yugh], or Sym, is sometimes considered a dialect of Ket.) The Yeniseian languages are not known to be related to

  • Yenisey-Ostyak languages

    Yeniseian languages, small group of languages generally classified among the Paleo-Siberian languages. That category includes Yeniseian languages with three other genetically unrelated groups—Nivkh, Luorawetlan languages, and Yukaghir (itself now sometimes considered to be a distant relative of the

  • Yeniseyan languages

    Yeniseian languages, small group of languages generally classified among the Paleo-Siberian languages. That category includes Yeniseian languages with three other genetically unrelated groups—Nivkh, Luorawetlan languages, and Yukaghir (itself now sometimes considered to be a distant relative of the

  • Yentl (film by Streisand [1983])

    Barbra Streisand: …directorial debut in 1983 with Yentl, based on a story by Isaac Bashevis Singer about a young woman who pretends to be a man in order to continue her studies. Streisand starred in the title role—which she had wanted to play since 1968—as well as cowriting and coproducing the movie.…

  • Yeobright, Clym (fictional character)

    Clym Yeobright, fictional character, an idealistic young man who returns from a stay in Paris to his home on England’s Egdon Heath, in Thomas Hardy’s novel The Return of the Native

  • yeoman (English social class)

    Yeoman, in English history, a class intermediate between the gentry and the labourers; a yeoman was usually a landholder but could also be a retainer, guard, attendant, or subordinate official. The word appears in Middle English as yemen, or yoman, and is perhaps a contraction of yeng man or yong

  • Yeoman South (region, United States)

    United States: The South: The Upland South, which comprises the southern Appalachians, the upper Appalachian Piedmont, the Cumberland and other low interior plateaus, and the Ozarks and Ouachitas, was colonized culturally and demographically from the Chesapeake Bay hearth area and the Midland; it is most emphatically white Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP)…

  • yeoman warder (guardian of Tower of London)

    Yeoman warder, the official guardian of the Tower of London. The office of yeoman warder has existed since the Tower was constructed in the 11th century; it is one of the oldest such offices in the world (compare Swiss Guards). In early times yeoman warders were charged with guarding the Tower’s

  • yeomanry (English social class)

    Yeoman, in English history, a class intermediate between the gentry and the labourers; a yeoman was usually a landholder but could also be a retainer, guard, attendant, or subordinate official. The word appears in Middle English as yemen, or yoman, and is perhaps a contraction of yeng man or yong

  • Yeomen of the Guard (British military)

    Yeomen of the Guard, the personal bodyguard of the sovereign of England, in continuous existence since they were established by King Henry VII in 1485. They should not be confused with the yeomen warders of the Tower of London, often called “Beefeaters,” who, like the Yeomen of the Guard, wear

  • Yeosu (South Korea)

    Y?su, city, South Ch?lla (Jeolla) do (province), on Y?su Peninsula, extreme southern South Korea. Such large islands as Namhae, Tolsan (Dolsan), and K?mo (Geumo) protect its natural port. The Korean navy headquarters was located there during the Chos?n (Yi) dynasty (1392–1910) before being moved to

  • Yeosu Expo: South Korea’s Ecological Extravaganza

    After four years of construction, Expo 2012 Yeosu Korea (officially, International Exposition Yeosu Korea 2012) opened to the public on May 12, 2012, and ran until August 12, for a total of 93 days. The exposition was one of the biggest events hosted by South Korea since the 1988 Seoul Olympic

  • Yeosu-Suncheon Rebellion (South Korean history)

    Y?su-Sunch’?n Rebellion, (1948) left-wing military and civilian protest against the nascent South Korean government in southern Korea during the post-World War II period. In mid-October 1948, when the Korean peninsula was still coping with its recent division into the two separate political

  • Yeotmal (India)

    Yavatmal, city, northeastern Maharashtra state, western India. It is situated in a plateau region about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of the Wardha River. Yavatmal lies on major roads to Nagpur (northeast), Mumbai (Bombay; southwest), and Hyderabad, Telangana state (south). It is the regional centre

  • Yeovil (England, United Kingdom)

    South Somerset: …town and administrative centre is Yeovil. Its rapidly developing industries include food processing, light engineering, and the manufacture of helicopters and aircraft equipment, in addition to its traditional glove-making and leather-dressing trades. Area 370 square miles (959 square km). Pop. (2001) 150,969; (2011) 161,243.

  • Yepes y álvarez, Juan de (Spanish mystic)

    St. John of the Cross, ; canonized 1726; feast day December 14), one of the greatest Christian mystics and Spanish poets, doctor of the church, reformer of Spanish monasticism, and cofounder of the contemplative order of Discalced Carmelites. John became a Carmelite monk at Medina del Campo, Spain,

  • Yepes, Narciso García (Spanish musician)

    Narciso García Yepes, Spanish classical guitarist and composer who was known for both his brilliant technique and his interpretations and who designed a 10-string guitar to aid him in arranging music; his arrangements, compositions, and performance for the 1952 film Jeux interdits brought him

  • Yeppoon (Queensland, Australia)

    Yeppoon, coastal town, east-central Queensland, eastern Australia. It lies 26 miles (42 km) northeast of Rockhampton and 435 miles (700 km) north of the state capital, Brisbane. Surveyed in 1872, the town was at first known as Bald Hill. European settlement of the area began in 1865, and the town’s

  • Yeráki (village, Laconia, Greece)

    Laconia: …the Maléa peninsula, and elsewhere; Yeráki, a quiet village southeast of Sparta, has been occupied continuously since Neolithic times and has remains from several periods of its history. In the Late Mycenaean period (1400–1100 bce) numerous settlements were founded; Laconia was a strong kingdom ruled by Menelaus, according to Homer.…

  • Yerba Buena Cove (cove, California, United States)

    San Francisco: Exploration and early settlement: …up on the shore of Yerba Buena Cove, 2 miles (3 km) east of the mission. The pioneer settler was an Englishman, Captain William Anthony Richardson, who in 1835 cleared a plot of land and erected San Francisco’s first dwelling—a tent made of four pieces of redwood and a ship’s…

  • Yerba Buena Island (island, California, United States)

    Bay Bridge: …San Francisco to Oakland via Yerba Buena Island. One of the preeminent engineering feats of the 20th century, it was built during the 1930s under the direction of C.H. Purcell. The double-deck crossing extends 8 miles (13 km) and consists of two end-to-end suspension bridges of 2,310-foot (704-metre) main spans…

  • yerba maté (plant)

    holly: …made from the leaves of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis).

  • yerba mate (beverage)

    Mate, tealike beverage, popular in many South American countries, brewed from the dried leaves of an evergreen shrub or tree (Ilex paraguariensis) related to holly. It is a stimulating drink, greenish in colour, containing caffeine and tannin, and is less astringent than tea. Mate is especially

  • Yerby, Frank (American author)

    Frank Yerby, American author of popular historical fiction. Yerby’s story “Health Card” won the O. Henry Memorial Award for best first published short story in 1944. In 1946 his first novel, The Foxes of Harrow, was an immediate success. His novels are action-packed, usually featuring a strong hero

  • Yerby, Frank Garvin (American author)

    Frank Yerby, American author of popular historical fiction. Yerby’s story “Health Card” won the O. Henry Memorial Award for best first published short story in 1944. In 1946 his first novel, The Foxes of Harrow, was an immediate success. His novels are action-packed, usually featuring a strong hero

  • Yerebatan Palace (cistern, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Western architecture: The early Byzantine period (330–726): In some, like the great Basilica Cistern near Hagia Sophia called by the Turks the Yerebatan (Underground) Palace, old material was reused; in others, like the even more impressive Binbirdirek (Thousand and One Columns) cistern, new columns of unusually tall and slender proportions and new capitals of cubic form were…

  • Yeremenko, Andrey I. (Soviet marshal)

    Nikita Khrushchev: Political career under Stalin: …was political adviser to Marshal Andrey I. Yeremenko during the defense of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) and to Lieutenant General Nikolay F. Vatutin during the huge tank battle at Kursk.

  • Yerevan (national capital, Armenia)

    Yerevan, capital of Armenia. It is situated on the Hrazdan River, 14 miles (23 km) from the Turkish frontier. Though first historically recorded in 607 ce, Yerevan dates by archaeological evidence to a settlement on the site in the 6th–3rd millennia bce and subsequently to the fortress of Yerbuni

  • Yergeni hills (region, Russia)

    Kalmykiya: The Yergeni hills and the Salsk-Manych ridge rise to a maximum of 725 feet (221 metres) along the republic’s western boundary. A long panhandle of the republic extends westward through the Manych Depression, containing large salt lakes by way of which the Caspian was formerly linked…

  • Yerkes classification system (astronomy)

    star: Classification of spectral types: …of spectral classification, called the MK system (after the American astronomers William W. Morgan and Philip C. Keenan, who introduced it), luminosity class is assigned to the star along with the Draper spectral type. For example, the star Alpha Persei is classified as F5 Ib, which means that it falls…

  • Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology (research centre, Florida, United States)

    Robert M. Yerkes: …of behaviour, it was renamed Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology after his resignation as director in 1941. Chimpanzees (1943), his other major work, was also his last. He retired from his teaching post at Yale in 1944.

  • Yerkes Observatory (observatory, Williams Bay, Wisconsin, United States)

    Yerkes Observatory, astronomical observatory located at Williams Bay on Lake Geneva in southeastern Wisconsin, U.S. The Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago was named for its benefactor, transportation magnate Charles T. Yerkes, and was opened in 1897. It contains the largest refracting

  • Yerkes, Charles Tyson (American financier)

    Charles Tyson Yerkes, American financier who put together the syndicate of companies that built Chicago’s mass-transit system. Yerkes started as a clerk at a Philadelphia commission broker, and by 1862 he was able to purchase his own banking house. In 1871 a stock exchange panic brought on by the

  • Yerkes, Robert M. (American psychologist)

    Robert M. Yerkes, American psychologist and a principal developer of comparative (animal) psychology in the United States. After graduating from Ursinus College, Yerkes took his Ph.D. degree at Harvard University in 1902 and then served first as instructor and then as professor of psychology at

  • Yerkes, Robert Mearns (American psychologist)

    Robert M. Yerkes, American psychologist and a principal developer of comparative (animal) psychology in the United States. After graduating from Ursinus College, Yerkes took his Ph.D. degree at Harvard University in 1902 and then served first as instructor and then as professor of psychology at

  • Yerkes-Dodson law (psychology)

    motivation: The inverted-U function: The relationship between changes in arousal and motivation is often expressed as an inverted-U function (also known as the Yerkes-Dodson law). The basic concept is that, as arousal level increases, performance improves, but only to a point, beyond which increases in arousal lead…

  • Yerma (play by García Lorca)

    Yerma, tragedy in three acts by Federico García Lorca, produced in 1934 and published in 1937. It is the second play in a trilogy that also includes Blood Wedding and The House of Bernarda Alba. The drama’s frustrated title character cannot accept her childlessness, and she is driven to

  • Yermak Timofeyevich (Russian folk hero)

    Yermak Timofeyevich, Cossack leader of an expeditionary force during Russia’s initial attempts to annex western Siberia. He became a hero of Russian folklore. In 1579 the merchant and factory-owning Stroganov family enlisted the assistance of Yermak and a band of Cossacks to force Siberian

  • Yermalner (island, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Australia: The Portuguese: …including a reference indicating that Melville Island, off the northern coast, supplied slaves. Certainly the Portuguese debated the issue of a terra australis incognita (Latin: “unknown southern land”)—an issue in European thought in ancient times and revived from the 12th century onward. The so-called Dieppe maps present a landmass, “Java…

  • Yermilov, Prov Mikhailovich (Russian actor)

    Prov Sadovsky, Russian character actor and patriarch of a three-generation theatrical family. He is regarded as the greatest interpreter of Aleksandr Ostrovsky’s plays and was responsible, in part, for securing Ostrovsky’s reputation. Sadovsky was reared and trained by his maternal uncles, who were

  • Yermolova, Maria Nikolayevna (Russian actress)

    Maria Nikolayevna Yermolova, Russian dramatic actress whose 50-year career was devoted to imbuing her portrayals of stage heroines with a liberal spirit of active independence. Yermolova was trained at the Moscow Theatre School and made her debut at age 17 in the title role of Gotthold Lessing’s

  • Yerofeyev, Venedikt (Russian author)

    Russia: The 20th century: …leave the Soviet Union; and Venedikt Yerofeyev, whose grotesque latter-day picaresque Moscow-Petushki—published in a clandestine (samizdat) edition in 1968—is a minor classic.

  • Yersin, Alexandre (French bacteriologist)

    Alexandre Yersin, Swiss-born French bacteriologist and one of the discoverers of the bubonic plague bacillus, Pasteurella pestis, now called Yersinia pestis. Yersin studied medicine at the universities of Marburg and Paris and bacteriology with émile Roux in Paris and Robert Koch in Berlin. In 1888

  • Yersin, Alexandre-émile-John (French bacteriologist)

    Alexandre Yersin, Swiss-born French bacteriologist and one of the discoverers of the bubonic plague bacillus, Pasteurella pestis, now called Yersinia pestis. Yersin studied medicine at the universities of Marburg and Paris and bacteriology with émile Roux in Paris and Robert Koch in Berlin. In 1888

  • Yersin, Alexandre-John-émile (French bacteriologist)

    Alexandre Yersin, Swiss-born French bacteriologist and one of the discoverers of the bubonic plague bacillus, Pasteurella pestis, now called Yersinia pestis. Yersin studied medicine at the universities of Marburg and Paris and bacteriology with émile Roux in Paris and Robert Koch in Berlin. In 1888

  • Yersinia (bacteria)

    Yersinia, (genus Yersinia), any of a group of ovoid- or rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Yersinia are gram-negative bacteria and are described as facultative anaerobes, which means that they are capable of surviving in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Though several

  • Yersinia enterocolitica (bacterium)

    Yersinia: …important pathogens in humans include Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Y. enterocolitica is widespread in domestic animals, including pigs and cattle, and is found in birds and in aquatic species, such as frogs and oysters. It also has been isolated from soil and from the surface layers of various bodies…

  • Yersinia pestis (bacterium)

    plague: >Yersinia pestis, a bacterium transmitted from rodents to humans by the bite of infected fleas. Plague was the cause of some of the most-devastating epidemics in history. It was the disease behind the Black Death of the 14th century, when as much as one-third of…

  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (bacterium)

    Yersinia: enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Y. enterocolitica is widespread in domestic animals, including pigs and cattle, and is found in birds and in aquatic species, such as frogs and oysters. It also has been isolated from soil and from the surface layers of various bodies of water, including…

  • Yersinia ruckeri (bacterium)

    Yersinia: frederiksenii, and Y. ruckeri. The latter is pathogenic in salmonids (family Salmonidae), including rainbow trout and Pacific salmon. In these species, Y. ruckeri causes enteric redmouth disease, which is characterized by hemorrhaging of the subcutaneous tissues under the fins and around the eyes and mouth.

  • Yersinia tularensis (bacillus)

    tularemia: …agent is the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. The disease is primarily one of animals; human infections are incidental. It occurs naturally in many types of wildlife. In the United States the rabbit, especially the cottontail (Sylvilagus), is an important source of human infection, but other mammals, birds, and insects also…

  • yersiniosis (pathology)

    Yersiniosis, acute gastrointestinal infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica, characterized by fever, often-bloody diarrhea, and abdominal pain. A temporary rash called erythema nodosum also may appear on the skin, and the disease can lead to a temporary arthritis of the knees,

  • Yerushalayim (Middle East)

    Jerusalem, ancient city of the Middle East that since 1967 has been wholly under the rule of the State of Israel. Long an object of veneration and conflict, the holy city of Jerusalem has been governed, both as a provincial town and a national capital, by an extended series of dynasties and states.

  • Yerushalmi (religious text)

    Jerusalem Talmud, one of two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in Palestine. The other such compilation, produced in Babylon, is called the Babylonian Talmud, or Talmud

  • yerva do polos (beverage)

    mate: …powder, producing a mate called caa gazu or yerva do polos. In Paraguay and parts of Argentina the leaves, with midribs removed before roasting, are made into a mate called caaminí. In a newer method, similar to the Chinese procedure for drying tea leaves, the leaves are heated in large…

  • Yervoy (antibody)

    immune system: Immunity against cancer: Known as ipilimumab (Yervoy), the antibody was approved in 2011 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of late-stage melanoma. Likewise, the discovery of a negative immune regulatory protein known as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), which occurs on the surface of T…

  • Yerwa (Nigeria)

    Maiduguri, capital and largest city of Borno state, northeastern Nigeria. It is located along the seasonal Ngadda (Alo) River, the waters of which disappear in the firki (“black cotton”) swamps of Lake Chad, northeast of the city. Modern Maiduguri actually comprises the twin towns of Yerwa and

  • Yerwa Kanuri (dialect)

    Kanuri language: …main dialects, Manga Kanuri and Yerwa Kanuri (also called Beriberi, which its speakers consider pejorative), spoken in central Africa by more than 5,700,000 individuals at the turn of the 21st century. Manga Kanuri is a trade language spoken by about 450,000 people in Niger and more than 250,000 in neighbouring…

  • Yerwa-Maiduguri (Nigeria)

    Maiduguri, capital and largest city of Borno state, northeastern Nigeria. It is located along the seasonal Ngadda (Alo) River, the waters of which disappear in the firki (“black cotton”) swamps of Lake Chad, northeast of the city. Modern Maiduguri actually comprises the twin towns of Yerwa and

  • Yes (British rock group)

    Yes, British progressive rock band known for its extended compositions and virtuoso musicianship. Its principal members were Jon Anderson (b. October 25, 1944, Accrington, Lancashire, England), Chris Squire (b. March 4, 1948, London, England—June 27, 2015, Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.), Steve Howe (b.

  • Yes and No (work by Abelard)

    Peter Abelard: Career as a monk: …findings in a compilation entitled Sic et non (“Yes and No”); and for it he wrote a preface in which, as a logician and as a keen student of language, he formulated basic rules with which students might reconcile apparent contradictions of meaning and distinguish the various senses in which…

  • Yes I Am (album by Etheridge)

    Melissa Etheridge: The album Yes I Am followed later that year, with the hit singles “Come to My Window” (another Grammy winner) and “I’m the Only One.” Soon Etheridge’s relationship with film director Julie Cypher became a matter of public record. The couple, who had been together since 1990,…

  • Yes Man (film by Reed [2008])

    Jim Carrey: …The Number 23 (2007), and Yes Man (2008).

  • Yes, Giorgio (film by Schaffner [1982])

    Franklin J. Schaffner: Yes, Giorgio (1982), which featured Luciano Pavarotti in his big-screen debut, was widely panned. Lionheart (1987), an offbeat Crusades adventure with Eric Stolz and Gabriel Byrne, was given only a limited release, and moviegoers largely ignored Welcome Home (1989), a drama about a soldier (Kris…

  • Yes, Minister (British television program)

    Sir Nigel Barnard Hawthorne: …in the British television series Yes, Minister (1980–83, 1985–86) and Yes, Prime Minister (1986–87).

  • Yes, Prime Minister (British television program)

    Sir Nigel Barnard Hawthorne: …Yes, Minister (1980–83, 1985–86) and Yes, Prime Minister (1986–87).

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