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  • United States v. Isaac Williams (law case)

    Oliver Ellsworth: Life: His most controversial opinion was United States v. Isaac Williams (1799), which applied in the United States the common-law rule that a citizen may not expatriate himself without the consent of his government.

  • United States v. Jones (law case)

    Antonin Scalia: Judicial philosophy: …track a suspect’s movements (United States v. Jones [2012]), and allowing a drug-detection dog to sniff at a suspect’s front door (Florida v. Jardines [2013]). Another of Scalia’s opinions that upset many conservatives was his ruling for the majority in Employment Division v. Smith (1990), which reduced the level…

  • United States v. Leon (law case)

    exclusionary rule: …under legal attack, and in U.S. v. Leon (1984) the Supreme Court held that evidence obtained “in good faith” with a search warrant later ruled invalid was admissible. A central argument was the unacceptable social cost of excluding such evidence, a reason subsequently given for creating further exceptions to the…

  • United States v. Lopez (law case)

    United States v. Lopez, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on April 26, 1995, ruled (5–4) that the Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 was unconstitutional because the U.S. Congress, in enacting the legislation, had exceeded its authority under the commerce clause. In March 1992 Alfonso Lopez, Jr.,

  • United States v. Lovett (law case)

    attainder: Similarly, in United States v. Lovett (1946), the court invalidated as a bill of attainder a section of an appropriation bill forbidding the payment of salaries to named government officials who had been accused of being subversive. Later decisions, however, have declined to treat requirements of loyalty…

  • United States v. Midwest Oil Company (law case)

    Joseph Rucker Lamar: …leaders on procedural grounds, and United States v. Midwest Oil Company (1914), which upheld the president’s right to withhold public oil lands from private entry.

  • United States v. Miller (law case)

    Second Amendment: Supreme Court interpretations: ” Meanwhile, in United States v. Miller (1939), in a prosecution under the National Firearms Act (1934), the Supreme Court avoided addressing the constitutional scope of the Second Amendment by merely holding that the “possession or use of a shotgun having a barrel of less than eighteen inches…

  • United States v. Nixon (law case)

    executive privilege: Executive privilege in law and practice: Burger wrote in United States v. Nixon (1974), explaining the Supreme Court’s unanimous decision in the case involving audiotapes made by the Richard M. Nixon’s White House that were at the centre of the Watergate scandal:

  • United States v. O’Brien (law case)

    Selective Service Acts: Supreme Court ruled in United States v. O’Brien (1968) that the destruction of a draft card inhibited the furtherance of an important government objective that was unrelated to the stifling of unpopular speech. The decision severely curtailed the burning of draft cards as a form of protest, but the…

  • United States v. Rabinowitz (law case)

    Sherman Minton: In an important opinion in United States v. Rabinowitz (1950), Minton reversed a lower-court ruling that search warrants must be procured when “practicable,” declaring that the Fourth Amendment prohibited only “unreasonable searches.” In 1951 he sided with the majority in denying speech rights to American communists (Dennis v. United States)…

  • United States v. Richardson (law case)

    standing to sue: …in the previously mentioned case, United States v. Richardson (1974), Chief Justice Burger, writing for the majority, rejected Richardson’s standing, commenting that Richardson was seeking “to employ a federal court as a forum in which to air his generalized grievances about the conduct of government.”

  • United States v. Salerno (law case)

    preventive detention: Supreme Court in United States v. Salerno, decided in 1987. The court held that the preventive detention bill violated neither the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment nor the excessive bail language of the Eighth Amendment. After Salerno, preventive detention laws were adopted in a number of…

  • United States v. Schwimmer (law case)

    Second Amendment: Supreme Court interpretations: …than four decades later, in United States v. Schwimmer (1929), the Supreme Court cited the Second Amendment as enshrining that the duty of individuals “to defend our government against all enemies whenever necessity arises is a fundamental principle of the Constitution” and holding that “the common defense was one of…

  • United States v. Stevens (law case)

    United States v. Stevens, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on April 20, 2010, ruled (8–1) that a federal law banning depictions of animal cruelty violated the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of speech. The law had been enacted primarily to prevent the production of so-called “crush”

  • United States v. Thomas (law case)

    United States v. Thomas, U.S. legal case that was one of the first prosecutions involving the distribution of “obscene” material in cyberspace. The case was notable because it extended the concepts of “community” and “community standards” beyond physical location and into the Internet and virtual

  • United States v. Virginia (law case)

    Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan: …gender-related admissions cases, notably including United States v. Virginia (1996), in which it found that the Virginia Military Institute’s refusal to admit women violated the equal protection clause.

  • United States v. Washington (law case)

    Native American: Termination: Of the many cases filed, United States v. Washington (1974) had perhaps the most famous and far-reaching decision. More commonly referred to as the Boldt case, after the federal judge, George Boldt, who wrote the decision, this case established that treaty agreements entitled certain Northwest Coast and Plateau tribes to…

  • United States v. Wheeler (law case)

    Native American: Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries: …decided to the contrary in United States v. Wheeler (1978). Wheeler, a Navajo who had been convicted in a tribal court, maintained that the prosecution of the same crime in another (federal or state) court amounted to double jeopardy. In this case the Supreme Court favoured tribal sovereignty, finding that…

  • United States v. Windsor (law case)

    United States v. Windsor, legal case, decided on June 26, 2013, in which the U.S. Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act (1996; DOMA), which had defined marriage for federal purposes as a legal union between one man and one woman. Noting the traditional authority

  • United States Virgin Islands (island territory, West Indies)

    United States Virgin Islands, organized unincorporated island territory of the United States, situated at the eastern end of the Greater Antilles, about 40 miles (64 km) east of Puerto Rico, in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. The territory is geographically part of the Virgin Islands group, which

  • United States Virgin Islands, flag of (United States territorial flag)

    U.S. territorial flag consisting of a white field (background) on which is centred a yellow eagle grasping in its right and left talons, respectively, a green branch and three light blue arrows and bearing on its chest a shield with a blue chief (top) and, below that, 13 alternating white and red

  • United States Volleyball Association (American organization)

    volleyball: History: …1928 the USVBA—now known as USA Volleyball (USAV)—has conducted annual national men’s and senior men’s (age 35 and older) volleyball championships, except during 1944 and 1945. Its women’s division was started in 1949, and a senior women’s division (age 30 and older) was added in 1977. Other national events in…

  • United States War of Independence (United States history)

    American Revolution, (1775–83), insurrection by which 13 of Great Britain’s North American colonies won political independence and went on to form the United States of America. The war followed more than a decade of growing estrangement between the British crown and a large and influential segment

  • United States Weather Bureau (United States agency)

    National Weather Service (NWS), official weather bureau of the United States, founded on February 9, 1870, and charged with providing weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its possessions, and its marine and freshwater approaches. Such weather forecasts and

  • United States Women’s Amateur Championship (golf)

    United States Women’s Amateur Championship, golf tournament conducted annually in the United States for female golfers with handicaps of five or less. A field of 150 players, chosen by sectional qualifying tournaments, plays 36 holes of medal play (fewest strokes), and the 32 lowest scores compete

  • United States Women’s Bureau (United States federal agency)

    United States Women’s Bureau, U.S. federal agency, established in 1920 and charged with promoting the rights and welfare of working women. Such events as the Triangle shirtwaist factory fire in a New York City sweatshop—in which 146 women and girls died—alerted the public to the desperate

  • United States Women’s National Team (association football)

    Abby Wambach: She helped the U.S. Women’s National Team (USWNT) win two Olympic gold medals (2004 and 2012) and a World Cup (2015). In 2012 she was named Women’s Player of the Year by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA).

  • United States Women’s Open Championship (golf)

    United States Women’s Open Championship, annual golf tournament conducted by the United States Golf Association (USGA) that is open to all qualified amateur and professional female golfers. The U.S. Women’s Open is recognized by the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) as one of the

  • United States, 1830–1850: The Nation and Its Sections, The (work by Turner)

    historiography: The United States: His book The United States, 1830–1850: The Nation and Its Sections (1935), emphasized the importance of sectional conflict and demonstrated how cultural traits interacted with the natural environment; he thus achieved his goal of making history not just “the brilliant annals of the few” but also the…

  • United States, Bank of the (American financial institution)

    Bank of the United States, central bank chartered in 1791 by the U.S. Congress at the urging of Alexander Hamilton and over the objections of Thomas Jefferson. The extended debate over its constitutionality contributed significantly to the evolution of pro- and antibank factions into the first

  • United States, Great Seal of the (official seal, United States)

    Great Seal of the United States, official seal of the United States of America. The design of the obverse is the coat of arms of the United States—an official emblem, mark of identification, and symbol of the authority of the government. On the reverse is an unfinished pyramid topped with an eye

  • United States, history of

    United States: History: The territory represented by the continental United States had, of course, been discovered, perhaps several times, before the voyages of Christopher Columbus. When Columbus arrived, he found the New World inhabited by peoples who in all likelihood had originally come from the continent of…

  • United States, Seal of the (official seal, United States)

    Great Seal of the United States, official seal of the United States of America. The design of the obverse is the coat of arms of the United States—an official emblem, mark of identification, and symbol of the authority of the government. On the reverse is an unfinished pyramid topped with an eye

  • United States, Supreme Court of the (highest court, United States)

    Supreme Court of the United States, final court of appeal and final expositor of the Constitution of the United States. Within the framework of litigation, the Supreme Court marks the boundaries of authority between state and nation, state and state, and government and citizen. The Supreme Court

  • United States-Japan Security Treaty (United States-Japan [1951])

    Japan: International relations: …which it exercised through the United States–Japan Security Treaty (1951) by which U.S. forces remained in Japan until the Japanese secured their own defense. Japan agreed not to grant similar rights to a third power without U.S. approval. Americans promised to assist Japan’s Self-Defense Forces while U.S. military units (except…

  • United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (international agreement [2018])

    Canada: Response to the U.S. presidency of Donald Trump: …agreement, which was dubbed the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. Under the terms of the agreement, Canada made concessions that opened access to its market for dairy products, but it won the preservation of a special dispute process that U.S. negotiators had sought to remove. Trudeau, Trump, and outgoing Mexican president Enrique…

  • United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union (American labour union)

    United Steelworkers (USW), American labour union representing workers in metallurgical industries as well as in healthcare and other service industries. The union grew out of an agreement reached in 1936 between the newly formed Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO; later the Congress of

  • United Steelworkers (American labour union)

    United Steelworkers (USW), American labour union representing workers in metallurgical industries as well as in healthcare and other service industries. The union grew out of an agreement reached in 1936 between the newly formed Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO; later the Congress of

  • United Steelworks Co. (German company)

    Thyssen family: …holdings into a trust (Vereinigte Stahlwerke AG [United Steelworks Co.]) that controlled more than 75 percent of Germany’s ore reserve and employed 200,000 workers.

  • United Struggle (Indonesian coalition)

    Ibrahim Datuk Tan Malaka: …creating a coalition, called the Persatuan Perdjuangan (United Struggle), to oppose any negotiated settlement with the Dutch, which Sjahrir favoured. When Sjahrir resigned in February 1946, Tan Malaka was asked to form a Cabinet. The members of the coalition failed to reach accord, however, and Sjahrir was recalled. Tan Malaka…

  • United Synagogue (British organization)

    Nathan Marcus Adler: …founded Jews’ College and the United Synagogue.

  • United Synagogue of America (religious organization)

    United Synagogue of America (USA), central federation of some 835 Conservative Jewish congregations located in the United States and Canada. It was organized in 1913 by Solomon Schechter, a Talmudic scholar and spokesman for the Conservative movement. To assist and increase individual participation

  • United Tasmania Group (political party, Australia)

    United Tasmania Group (UTG), Australian political party that was the world’s first green political party. The UTG was created on March 23, 1972, by protest groups opposed to the construction of a dam that was flooding Lake Pedder in the southwest of the Australian state of Tasmania. The UTG ran

  • United Technologies Corporation (American corporation)

    United Technologies Corporation (UTC), American multi-industry company with significant business concentrations in aerospace products and services, including jet engines. Formed in 1934 as United Aircraft Corporation, it adopted its present name in 1975. Headquarters are in Hartford, Connecticut.

  • United Thai People’s Party (political party, Thailand)

    Thanom Kittikachorn: Thanom’s United Thai People’s Party won a parliamentary majority, and Thanom continued as both prime minister and minister of defense.

  • United Tribes flag

    flag of New Zealand: Now generally known as the United Tribes flag, it has remained significant as a Maori symbol. Maori chiefs on the North Island essentially relinquished their sovereignty to Great Britain in the Treaty of Waitangi (February 6, 1840), but the first distinctive colonial flag (the British Blue Ensign with the letters…

  • United Tribes of New Zealand, flag of the

    flag of New Zealand: Now generally known as the United Tribes flag, it has remained significant as a Maori symbol. Maori chiefs on the North Island essentially relinquished their sovereignty to Great Britain in the Treaty of Waitangi (February 6, 1840), but the first distinctive colonial flag (the British Blue Ensign with the letters…

  • United Workers’ Party (political party, Israel)

    Mapam, left-wing labour party in Israel and in the World Zionist Organization, founded in 1948 by the ha-Shomer ha-Tza?ir (Young Guard) and the A?dut ?Avoda-Po?ale Tziyyon (Labour Unity-Workers of Zion), which were both Marxist Zionist movements. Mapam maintains a Marxist ideology and is

  • United Workers’ Party (political party, Saint Lucia)

    Saint Lucia: Independence: …conservative United Workers’ Party (UWP). The SLP governments favoured the socialist regimes of the Caribbean, establishing relations with Cuba and joining the nonaligned movement. They also helped form the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States in 1981.

  • Uniti, Compagnia degli (Italian acting company)

    Compagnia degli Uniti, (Italian: “Company of the United”) company of actors performing commedia dell’arte (improvised popular comedy) in Italy in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. This period is acknowledged as the golden age of the genre. The performers were noted for their skills, culture,

  • unities (dramatic literature)

    Unities, in drama, the three principles derived by French classicists from Aristotle’s Poetics; they require a play to have a single action represented as occurring in a single place and within the course of a day. These principles were called, respectively, unity of action, unity of place, and

  • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (United States [2001])

    USA PATRIOT Act, U.S. legislation, passed by Congress in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and signed into law by Pres. George W. Bush in October 2001, that significantly expanded the search and surveillance powers of federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies. The USA

  • Uniting for Peace Resolution (UN)

    United Nations: Maintenance of international peace and security: ” By the “Uniting for Peace” resolution of November 1950, however, the General Assembly granted to itself the power to deal with threats to the peace if the Security Council fails to act after a veto by a permanent member. Although these provisions grant the General Assembly a…

  • unitized method (construction)

    automotive industry: Manufacturing processes: …on this process is “unitized” construction, whereby the body and frame are assembled as a unit. In this system the undercarriage still goes down the chassis line for the power train, front suspension, and rear axle, to be supported on pedestals until they are joined to the unitized body…

  • unity (mathematics)

    mechanics of solids: Free vibrations: …brackets shows the correction, from unity, of what would be the expression giving the frequencies of free vibration for a beam when there is no σ0. The correction from unity can be quite significant, even though σ0/E is always much smaller than unity (for interesting cases, 10?6 to, say, 10?3…

  • Unity (new religious movement)

    Unity, new religious movement founded in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1889 by Charles Fillmore (1854–1948), a real-estate agent, and his wife, Myrtle (1845–1931). Mrs. Fillmore believed that spiritual healing had cured her of tuberculosis. As a result, the Fillmores began studying spiritual healing.

  • unity (dramatic literature)

    Unities, in drama, the three principles derived by French classicists from Aristotle’s Poetics; they require a play to have a single action represented as occurring in a single place and within the course of a day. These principles were called, respectively, unity of action, unity of place, and

  • Unity (American magazine)

    Myrtle Page Fillmore: …Modern Thought (after 1895 called Unity). In 1893 they began publishing a second magazine, Wee Wisdom, for children. In 1890 they organized the Society of Silent Unity, which offered the service of effective prayer on behalf of beset persons who wrote to request it. Though it was not their intention,…

  • Unity (United States space module)

    space station: The International Space Station: -built element, named Unity, a connecting node with multiple docking systems.

  • unity (art)

    garden and landscape design: Principles: …design—which deal with overall relations—are unity and variety, rhythm and balance, accent and contrast, scale and proportion, and composite three-dimensional spatial form.

  • Unity and National Progress (political party, Burundi)

    Burundi: Burundi under colonial rule: …in 1955, three years later Unity for National Progress (Unité pour le Progrès National; UPRONA) was established in Burundi. In 1959 the mwami was made a constitutional monarch in Burundi.

  • unity government (Israeli government)

    Israel Labour Party: …sometimes resulted in so-called “unity governments” of both Labour and Likud.

  • Unity of Philosophical Experience, The (work by Gilson)

    étienne Gilson: …idea of a Christian philosophy; The Unity of Philosophical Experience (1937) and Being and Some Philosophers (1949), perhaps the best examples of his use of the history of philosophy as though it were a laboratory for investigating ideas; and Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages (1938).

  • Unity of Science movement (philosophy)

    Unity of Science movement, movement within Logical Positivism that held that propositions in science should describe objectively existing, directly observable states of affairs or events and that there should be a unitary set of physical premises from which the regularities of all of reality could

  • Unity of St. Gregory the Illuminator, Friars of (Armenian monks)

    Armenian Catholic Church: …Catholic monks, known as the Friars of Unity of St. Gregory the Illuminator, laid the groundwork for the future Armenian Catholic Church under Dominican influence.

  • Unity of the Czech Brethren (religious group)

    Unitas Fratrum, (Latin: “Unity of Brethren”), Protestant religious group inspired by Hussite spiritual ideals in Bohemia in the mid-15th century. They followed a simple, humble life of nonviolence, using the Bible as their sole rule of faith. They denied transubstantiation but received the

  • Unity of the Human Race, The (book by Bachman)

    John Bachman: In 1850 he wrote The Unity of the Human Race, in which he insisted correctly that all humans constitute a single species.

  • Unity Party of Nigeria (political party, Nigeria)

    Obafemi Awolowo: …as the leader of the Unity Party of Nigeria. He ran for president in the elections of 1979 and 1983 but was defeated both times by Shehu Shagari. Following a military coup at the end of 1983, parties were once again banned, and Awolowo retired from politics.

  • Unity Temple (church, Oak Park, Illinois, United States)

    Frank Lloyd Wright: The early Chicago years: …church of Oak Park, Illinois, Unity Temple, was under way; in 1971 it was registered as a national historic landmark. Built on a minimal budget, the small house of worship and attached social centre achieved timeless monumentality. The congregation still meets in the building’s intimate, top-lit cube of space, which…

  • Unity Village (Missouri)

    Unity: …I, the Fillmores began developing Unity Village, 15 miles from Kansas City and eventually covering 1,400 acres, and by 1949 all departments of Unity were located there. After Charles Fillmore’s death, Unity was led by the Fillmores’ sons and grandchildren.

  • Unity-National Liberals (political party, Israel)

    Likud, right-wing Israeli political party. It was founded in September 1973 to challenge the Israel Labour Party, which had governed the country since its independence in 1948, and first came to power in 1977, with Menachem Begin as prime minister. For decades thereafter, Likud alternated in

  • UNIVAC (computer)

    UNIVAC, one of the earliest commercial computers. After leaving the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, J. Presper Eckert, Jr., and John Mauchly, who had worked on the engineering design of the ENIAC computer for the United States during World War II, struggled

  • univalent-divalent electrolyte (chemistry)

    liquid: Solutions of electrolytes: 001 molal solution of a univalent-divalent electrolyte (yielding three ions) such as magnesium bromide, Mg2+Br2-, correspond to those of a nonelectrolyte solution with a molality of 0.003. At somewhat higher concentrations the experimental data showed some inconsistencies with Arrhenius’ dissociation theory, and initially these were ascribed to incomplete, or partial,…

  • Univers, L’? (French newspaper)

    Louis Veuillot: He became editor of L’Univers in 1843, and that newspaper subsequently served as the medium for his Ultramontane campaign. Veuillot quickly became disillusioned with the Second French Republic (1848–52) and was a champion of Emperor Napoleon III and the Second Empire (1852–70) until the emperor threatened Pope Pius IX’s…

  • universal

    creole languages: Theories of creolization: Universalists claim that creoles developed according to universals of language development. According to the version of this hypothesis called the language bioprogram hypothesis, which was later revised and became known as the lexical learning hypothesis, children who were exposed to a pidgin at an early…

  • universal (logic)

    Universal, in philosophy, an entity used in a certain type of metaphysical explanation of what it is for things to share a feature, attribute, or quality or to fall under the same type or natural kind. A pair of things resembling each other in any of these ways may be said to have (or to

  • universal affirmative proposition (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …of the following forms:

  • Universal Automatic Computer (computer)

    UNIVAC, one of the earliest commercial computers. After leaving the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, J. Presper Eckert, Jr., and John Mauchly, who had worked on the engineering design of the ENIAC computer for the United States during World War II, struggled

  • Universal Availability of Publication (library science)

    library: Criteria for selection: …by two additional programs, the Universal Availability of Publication and Universal Dataflow and Telecommunications, which aim to provide the necessary follow-up service of document delivery.

  • universal background check (gun-control legislation)

    Barack Obama: The gun-control debate and sequestration: …enact legislation that would institute universal background checks for gun purchases, ban the sales of assault weapons and high-capacity (more than 10-round) magazines, provide for greater protection in schools, and place a renewed focus on treating mental illness. He also took the issue to the public, passionately advocating legislation in…

  • Universal Baseball Association, Inc., The (novel by Coover)

    Robert Coover: The protagonist of The Universal Baseball Association, Inc. (1968) creates an imaginary baseball league in which fictitious players take charge of their own lives. Written in the voice of Richard Nixon and satirizing the national mood of the early 1950s, The Public Burning (1976) is what Coover called…

  • Universal Basic Income (economics)

    Abundance and Unemployment: Our Future: …will be the creation of Universal Basic Income (UBI) programs by governments around the world, programs in which everyone earns an income independent of their profession and employment. Once we no longer have to worry about earning funds to meet our basic needs, it will allow us all to be…

  • Universal Bibliographic Catalog (bibliographic catalog)

    Paul Otlet: …announced plans to create a Universal Bibliographic Repertory that would serve as a global clearinghouse for bibliographical data. Despite considerable resistance from other European librarians, they pressed forward with their plans, creating a headquarters for the institute and obtaining recognition and a small subsidy from the Belgian government.

  • Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC (library science)

    library: Criteria for selection: The program, called Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC, aims to encourage national libraries, or groups of libraries, to institute methods of recording their national publications in a standard format and, wherever possible, of entering them into computer files. This program is accompanied by two additional programs, the…

  • Universal Bibliographic Repertory (bibliographic catalog)

    Paul Otlet: …announced plans to create a Universal Bibliographic Repertory that would serve as a global clearinghouse for bibliographical data. Despite considerable resistance from other European librarians, they pressed forward with their plans, creating a headquarters for the institute and obtaining recognition and a small subsidy from the Belgian government.

  • Universal Catholic Church

    New Apostolic Church, church organized in Germany in 1863 as the Universal Catholic Church, by members of the Catholic Apostolic Church who believed that new apostles must be appointed to replace deceased apostles and rule the church until the Second Coming of Christ. The present name was adopted

  • universal constant

    Physical constant, any of a set of fundamental invariant quantities observed in nature and appearing in the basic theoretical equations of physics. Accurate evaluation of these constants is essential in order to check the correctness of the theories and to allow useful applications to be made on

  • universal constant of gravitation (physics)

    gravity: The constant of gravitation: The constant of gravitation has been measured in three ways:

  • Universal Copyright Convention

    Universal Copyright Convention, (1952), convention adopted at Geneva by an international conference convened under the auspices of UNESCO, which for several years had been consulting with copyright experts from various countries. The convention came into force in 1955. Its main features are the

  • universal cover (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Packing and covering: …size and shape of the universal cover of least area? Here a convex set C is called universal cover if for each set A in the plane such that diam A 1 it is possible to move C to a suitable position in which it covers A. The diameter diam…

  • Universal Dataflow and Telecommunication (library science)

    library: Criteria for selection: …Universal Availability of Publication and Universal Dataflow and Telecommunications, which aim to provide the necessary follow-up service of document delivery.

  • Universal Decimal Classification (library science)

    Universal Decimal Classification, system of library organization. It is distinguished from the Dewey Decimal Classification by expansions using various symbols in addition to Arabic numerals, resulting in exceedingly long notations. This system grew out of the international subject index of the

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

    Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), foundational document of international human rights law. It has been referred to as humanity’s Magna Carta by Eleanor Roosevelt, who chaired the United Nations (UN) Commission on Human Rights that was responsible for the drafting of the document. After

  • Universal Dictionary of the English Language (British dictionary)

    dictionary: General-purpose dictionaries: …Henry Cecil Wyld produced his Universal Dictionary of the English Language (1932), admirable in every way except for its social class elitism. The smaller-sized dictionaries of the Oxford University Press deserved their wide circulation.

  • universal egoism (philosophy)

    ethics: Ethical egoism: Universal egoism is expressed in this principle: “Everyone should do what is in his own interests.” Unlike the principle of individual egoism, this principle is universalizable. Moreover, many self-interested people may be disposed to accept it, because it appears to justify acting on desires that…

  • Universal Encyclopaedia of Sciences and Arts (German encyclopaedia)

    Allgemeine Enzyklop?die der Wissenschaften und Künste, (German: “Universal Encyclopaedia of Sciences and Arts”), monumental uncompleted German encyclopaedia of which 167 volumes were published from 1818 to 1889. Founded by a German bibliographer, Johann Samuel Ersch, who began work on it in 1813,

  • Universal English Shorthand, The (work by Byrom)

    John Byrom: …of shorthand, posthumously printed as The Universal English Shorthand (1767), was soon superseded, it marked a stage in the development of shorthand.

  • universal equation of state (chemistry and physics)

    absolute zero: Therefore, the ideal gas law is only an approximation to real gas behaviour. As such, however, it is extremely useful.

  • Universal Etymological English Dictionary, An (dictionary by Bailey)

    dictionary: From 1604 to 1828: In 1721 he produced An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, which for the rest of the century was more popular even than Samuel Johnson’s. A supplement in 1727 was the first dictionary to mark accents for pronunciation. Bailey’s imposing Dictionarium Britannicum of 1730 was used by Johnson as a repository…

  • Universal Exposition (exposition, Paris, France)

    Henri Rousseau: Civil service career and early paintings: …at this time was the Universal Exposition held in Paris in 1889; it is probable that the reconstructions of Senegalese, Tonkinese, and Tahitian landscapes at the exposition provided further inspiration for the exoticism of his later paintings. Rousseau’s enthusiasm for the fair was so great that he wrote a vaudeville…

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