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  • unitary system (government)

    Unitary state, a system of political organization in which most or all of the governing power resides in a centralized government, in contrast to a federal state. A brief treatment of the unitary state follows. For additional discussion, see Political system: Unitary nation-states. In a unitary

  • Unitas Confession (religion)

    Bohemian Confession: Previously, the Unitas Confession (1535), introduced by Martin Luther and published by him at Wittenberg as a sign of agreement between Lutherans and Utraquists, had been presented to Emperor Ferdinand I for legal recognition, but without success.

  • Unitas Fratrum (religious group)

    Unitas Fratrum, (Latin: “Unity of Brethren”), Protestant religious group inspired by Hussite spiritual ideals in Bohemia in the mid-15th century. They followed a simple, humble life of nonviolence, using the Bible as their sole rule of faith. They denied transubstantiation but received the

  • Unitas, John Constantine (American football player)

    Johnny Unitas, American professional gridiron football player who is considered to be one of the all-time greatest National Football League (NFL) quarterbacks. Unitas excelled in football at St. Justin’s High School in Pittsburgh, but his slight stature (he weighed only 145 pounds [66 kg])

  • Unitas, Johnny (American football player)

    Johnny Unitas, American professional gridiron football player who is considered to be one of the all-time greatest National Football League (NFL) quarterbacks. Unitas excelled in football at St. Justin’s High School in Pittsburgh, but his slight stature (he weighed only 145 pounds [66 kg])

  • UNITE (trade union, North America)

    Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees, North American trade union formed in 1995 by the merger of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (q.v.) and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (q.v.). The union represents apparel workers in the United States,

  • unite (English coin)

    coin: Gold coinage: …most important being the “unite,” or sovereign (20 shillings), so called from its legend (Faciam eos in gentem unam [“I will make them into one race”]) alluding to the union of the crowns of Scotland and England. Charles I made no changes in the coinage until the Civil War…

  • Unite (British labour union)

    Unite, largest labour union in Great Britain. It was formed in May 2007 as a result of the merger of two major British unions—Amicus and the Transport and General Workers’ Union. At the time of its creation, Unite brought together hundreds of thousands of workers from Great Britain and Ireland,

  • Unité d’Habitation (urban complex, Marseille, France)

    Unité d’Habitation, 18-story residential block in Marseille, France, that expressed Le Corbusier’s ideal of urban family lodging. Completed in 1952, it is a vertical mixed-use community, with a shopping floor halfway up and other communal facilities on the roof. Two-story living rooms make for

  • Unité pour le Progrès National (political party, Burundi)

    Burundi: Burundi under colonial rule: …in 1955, three years later Unity for National Progress (Unité pour le Progrès National; UPRONA) was established in Burundi. In 1959 the mwami was made a constitutional monarch in Burundi.

  • Unité Syndicale Africaine, Organisation de l’ (international labour organization)

    Organization of African Trade Union Unity, labour organization founded in 1973 at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on the initiative of the Organization of African Unity and replacing the former All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF; founded in 1961) and the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC;

  • United African National Council (political party, Zimbabwe)

    Zimbabwe: Rhodesia and the UDI: …a third nationalist movement, the United African National Council (UANC), led by the Methodist bishop Abel Muzorewa. Unlike ZAPU and ZANU—both banned and operating only from exile in Zambia and Mozambique, respectively—UANC was able to organize inside Rhodesia and held talks with the government during the 1970s. During the early…

  • United Aircraft and Transportation Company (American corporation)

    United Technologies Corporation (UTC), American multi-industry company with significant business concentrations in aerospace products and services, including jet engines. Formed in 1934 as United Aircraft Corporation, it adopted its present name in 1975. Headquarters are in Hartford, Connecticut.

  • United Aircraft Corporation (American corporation)

    United Technologies Corporation (UTC), American multi-industry company with significant business concentrations in aerospace products and services, including jet engines. Formed in 1934 as United Aircraft Corporation, it adopted its present name in 1975. Headquarters are in Hartford, Connecticut.

  • United Airlines (American corporation)

    United Airlines, American international airline serving North America, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Europe. Headquarters for the air carrier’s parent company, United Continental Holdings, are in Chicago. United Airlines dates to 1929, when William E. Boeing (1881–1956), Frederick B.

  • United Airlines Flight 232 (aviation disaster, Sioux City, Iowa, United States [1989])

    United Airlines Flight 232, flight scheduled to fly from Stapleton International Airport in Denver to O’Hare International Airport in Chicago on July 19, 1989, that crash-landed at Sioux Gateway Airport in Sioux City, Iowa, after the failure of its tail engine caused the loss of all hydraulic

  • United All-England XI (cricket)

    cricket: The early years: …cricketing) seceded to form the United All-England XI, these two teams monopolized the best cricket talent until the rise of county cricket. They supplied the players for the first English touring team overseas in 1859.

  • United American Company (Russian company)

    Russian-American Company, Russian trading monopoly that established colonies in North America (primarily in California and Alaska) during the 19th century. The Northeastern Company, headed by the merchants Grigory I. Shelikov and Ivan I. Golikov, was organized in 1781 to establish colonies on the N

  • United Arab Emirates

    United Arab Emirates, federation of seven emirates along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The largest of these emirates, Abu Dhabi (Abū ?aby), which comprises more than three-fourths of the federation’s total land area, is the centre of its oil industry and borders Saudi Arabia on the

  • United Arab Emirates University (university, United Arab Emirates)

    Abu Dhabi: …within the emirate, among them United Arab Emirates University (1976) and Abu Dhabi University (2003), as well as a branch of the Sorbonne (2006), which offers French-language courses designed to conform to the academic standards of the Sorbonne in Paris. Area 28,210 square miles (73,060 square km). Pop. (2012 est.)…

  • United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of the (bank, United Arab Emirates)

    United Arab Emirates: Finance: The Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates was established in 1980, with Dubai and Abu Dhabi each depositing half of their revenues in the institution. The bank also issues the UAE dirham, the emirates’ national currency. There are commercial, investment, development, foreign, and domestic banks…

  • United Arab Emirates, flag of the

    national flag consisting of horizontal stripes of green, white, and black and a vertical red stripe at the hoist. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.Great Britain compelled many of the small Arab states on the southern coast of the Persian Gulf to sign the so-called “General Treaty” of

  • United Arab Emirates, history of

    United Arab Emirates: History: This discussion focuses on the United Arab Emirates since the 19th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see Arabia, history of.

  • United Arab Republic (historical republic, Egypt-Syria)

    United Arab Republic (U.A.R.), political union of Egypt and Syria proclaimed on February 1, 1958, and ratified in nationwide plebiscites later that month. It ended on September 28, 1961, when Syria, following a military coup, declared itself independent of Egypt. Years of political turmoil in

  • United Artists Corporation (American company)

    United Artists Corporation, major investor in and distributor of independently produced motion pictures in the United States. The corporation was formed in 1919 by Charlie Chaplin, the comedy star; Mary Pickford and her husband, Douglas Fairbanks, the popular film stars; and D.W. Griffith, the

  • United Australia Party (political party, Australia)

    United Australia Party, (UAP; 1931–44), political party formed by a fusion of Nationalist Party and conservative erstwhile Australian Labor Party members, which alone or in coalition with the Country Party controlled the Australian commonwealth government for 10 years. Brought to power in the

  • United Auto Workers (North American industrial union)

    United Automobile Workers (UAW), North American industrial union of automotive and other vehicular workers, headquartered in Detroit, Mich., and representing workers in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. The creation of the United Automobile Workers resulted from attempts made by the

  • United Automobile Workers (North American industrial union)

    United Automobile Workers (UAW), North American industrial union of automotive and other vehicular workers, headquartered in Detroit, Mich., and representing workers in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. The creation of the United Automobile Workers resulted from attempts made by the

  • United Automobile Workers of America (North American industrial union)

    United Automobile Workers (UAW), North American industrial union of automotive and other vehicular workers, headquartered in Detroit, Mich., and representing workers in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. The creation of the United Automobile Workers resulted from attempts made by the

  • United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (North American industrial union)

    United Automobile Workers (UAW), North American industrial union of automotive and other vehicular workers, headquartered in Detroit, Mich., and representing workers in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. The creation of the United Automobile Workers resulted from attempts made by the

  • United Bahamian Party (political party, The Bahamas)

    The Bahamas: Independence: …party of their own, the United Bahamian Party (UBP), controlled by British-descended politicians. As the political battle progressed, the PLP raised the cry for majority rule. The climax came after the general elections of 1967, when the PLP, under the leadership of Lynden Pindling, was able to form a government…

  • United Bank of Switzerland AG (bank, Switzerland)

    UBS AG, major bank formed in 1998 by the merger of two of Switzerland’s largest banks, the Swiss Bank Corporation and the Union Bank of Switzerland. The Swiss Bank Corporation was founded in 1854 as the Basler Bank-Verein (Basel Bank Corporation) and became a joint-stock company in 1872. It

  • United Baptist Convention of the Atlantic Provinces

    Baptist Federation of Canada: …1960s it was renamed the United Baptist Convention of the Atlantic Provinces.

  • United Baptist Convention of the Maritime Provinces

    Baptist Federation of Canada: …1960s it was renamed the United Baptist Convention of the Atlantic Provinces.

  • United Belgian States (historical area, Belgium)

    Jean-Fran?ois Vonck: …new but short-lived government, the United Belgian States. Van der Noot then exploited clerical opposition to Vonck’s democratic views to force him into exile in March 1790. After the Austrians regained power in the southern Netherlands in December 1790, Vonck organized a legion to assist in the expected French liberation,…

  • United Bermuda Party (political party, Bermuda)

    John Swan: …as the head of the United Bermuda Party, he became Bermuda’s premier. Few political leaders around the world could have enjoyed a better inheritance: prosperity, low taxes, and little crime. Although at that time Bermuda was still a colony of the United Kingdom (its status changed to that of overseas…

  • United Bible Societies (religious organization)

    Christianity: Scripture translations: Bible societies, including the United Bible Societies (1946), have coordinated and aided the translation work of missionaries in this task for almost 200 years. Wycliffe Bible Translators (1936) concentrated its work among the language groups having the smallest numbers of speakers. From 1968, Roman Catholics and the United Bible…

  • United Bowmen of Philadelphia (American sports organization)

    archery: History: …American archery organization was the United Bowmen of Philadelphia, founded in 1828. In the early days the sport was, as in England, a popular upper- and middle-class recreation. In the 1870s many archery clubs sprang up, and in 1879 eight of them formed the National Archery Association of the United…

  • United Brands Company (American corporation)

    Chiquita Brands International, Inc., American corporation formed in 1970 as the United Brands Company in the merger of United Fruit Company and AMK Corporation (the holding company for John Morrell and Co., meat packers). The company, which adopted its present name in 1990, markets and distributes

  • United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America (American labour organization)

    John Sweeney: …March 2001 when the 500,000-member United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (UBC), led by its president, Douglas J. McCarron, pulled out of the AFL-CIO. Sweeney won an uncontested reelection during the AFL-CIO convention in July 2005, but in the same week the federation lost three of its biggest unions when…

  • United Center (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Jerry Reinsdorf: …1994 Reinsdorf unveiled the new United Center to replace Chicago Stadium—another iconic Chicago sports arena—for the Bulls. Later that year, when players of Major League Baseball went on strike, Reinsdorf came under fire as one of the most powerful representatives of baseball’s 28-team ownership bloc, who precipitated the strike with…

  • United Christian Missionary Society (religious organization)

    Disciples of Christ: Disciples in the 20th century: …in 1920 to form the United Christian Missionary Society. Ten years later most state and national agencies entered Unified Promotion, a cooperative program of fund raising, with voluntarily accepted restraints on independent campaigns, and with distribution on the basis of agreed allocations. Thus they gradually evolved, in effect, one general…

  • United Church of Canada

    United Church of Canada, church established June 10, 1925, in Toronto, Ont., by the union of the Congregational, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches of Canada. The three churches were each the result of mergers that had taken place within each denomination in Canada in the 19th and early 20th

  • United Church of Christ (Protestant church)

    United Church of Christ, Protestant denomination in the United States, formed by the union of the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the General Council of Congregational Christian Churches. Each was itself the result of a former union. Negotiations toward union of the two bodies were begun in

  • United Colonies of New England (historical area, United States)

    New England Confederation, in British American colonial history, a federation of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth established in May 1643 by delegates from those four Puritan colonies. Several factors influenced the formation of this alliance, including the solution of trade,

  • United Company of Barber Surgeons (British medical organization)

    surgery: History: The organization of the United Company of Barber Surgeons of London in 1540 marked the beginning of some control of the qualifications of those who performed operations. This guild was the precursor of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

  • United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies (English trading company)

    East India Company, English company formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India, incorporated by royal charter on December 31, 1600. Starting as a monopolistic trading body, the company became involved in politics and acted as an agent of British imperialism in India

  • United Continental Holdings (American company)

    United Airlines: …the air carrier’s parent company, United Continental Holdings, are in Chicago.

  • United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

    United Evangelical Lutheran Church, church organized in 1896 in Minneapolis, Minn., as the United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America by merger of the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America (the North Church) and the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church Association in America

  • United Daughters of the Confederacy (American organization)

    United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), American women’s patriotic society, founded in Nashville, Tenn., on Sept. 10, 1894, that draws its members from descendants of those who served in the Confederacy’s armed forces or government or who gave to either their loyal and substantial private

  • United Democratic Front (antiapartheid organization)

    South Africa: The unraveling of apartheid: …500 community groups formed the United Democratic Front, which became closely identified with the exiled ANC. Strikes, boycotts, and attacks on black police and urban councillors began escalating, and a state of emergency was declared in many parts of the country in 1985; a year later the government promulgated a…

  • United Democratic Front (political party, Mala?i)

    Malawi: Political process: …parties have emerged, with the United Democratic Front (UDF) quickly becoming one of the most prominent.

  • United Democratic Movement (political party, South Africa)

    South Africa: Political process: …IFP member in 2011; the United Democratic Movement, formed in 1997 by former officials of the ANC and the National Party; the Freedom Front Plus, a right-wing white party originally founded in 1994 as the Freedom Front that was joined by the Conservative Party of South Africa and Afrikaner Eenheid…

  • United Democratic Party (political party, Belize)

    Belize: Independence: In domestic politics the United Democratic Party (UDP), formed in 1973 and led by Manuel Esquivel, won the general election in 1984, but in 1989 the PUP won the election and Price again became prime minister (as the office was now called). The UDP won in a close election…

  • United Democratic Party (political party, South Korea)

    Democratic Party of Korea (DP), centrist-liberal political party in South Korea. The party supports greater human rights, improved relations with North Korea, and an economic policy described as “new progressivism.” The party was founded by Kim Dae-Jung in 1995 as the National Congress for New

  • United Development Party (political party, Indonesia)

    United Development Party, moderate Islamist political party in Indonesia. The PPP was formed in 1973 through the merger of four Islamic groups—the Council of Scholars (Nahdlatul Ulama), the Indonesian Islamic Party (Partai Muslimin Indonesia), the United Islamic Party of Indonesia (Partai Syarikat

  • United East India Company (Dutch trading company)

    Dutch East India Company, trading company founded in the Dutch Republic (present-day Netherlands) in 1602 to protect that state’s trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in the Dutch war of independence from Spain. The company prospered through most of the 17th century as the instrument of the

  • United Empire Loyalists (Canadian history)

    Canada: The influence of the American Revolution: The refugees, known as United Empire Loyalists, were the object of considerable concern to the British government, which sought to compensate them for their losses and to assist them in establishing new homes. Some went to the United Kingdom, others to the British West Indies, but the majority emigrated…

  • United Energy Systems of Ukraine (Ukrainian company)

    Yulia Tymoshenko: …1995 Tymoshenko became president of United Energy Systems of Ukraine (UESU). The company imported gas from Russia, which could then be reexported to the West or sold internally. In return, UESU exported metals, pipes, and other goods to Russia. The business earned her the epithet of “the gas princess.” She…

  • United Evangelical Lutheran Church

    United Evangelical Lutheran Church, church organized in 1896 in Minneapolis, Minn., as the United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America by merger of the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America (the North Church) and the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church Association in America

  • United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany

    United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany, union of 10 Lutheran territorial churches in Germany, organized in 1948 at Eisenach, E.Ger. The territorial churches were those of Bavaria, Brunswick, Hamburg, Hanover, Mecklenburg, Saxony, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thüringia. The

  • United Export Import Bank (Russian bank)

    Mikhail Prokhorov: In 1993 the partners formed United Export Import Bank (UNEXIM), with Prokhorov as chairman and Potanin as president. In 1995 Potanin used his ministerial connections to create an arrangement whereby Russian banks would make loans to the struggling Russian government, which would put up its mining, oil, and telecommunications holdings…

  • United Farm Workers (American labour union)

    United Farm Workers (UFW), U.S. labour union founded in 1962 as the National Farm Workers Association by the labour leaders and activists Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. The union merged with the American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) in 1966 and was re-formed

  • United Farm Workers of America (American labour union)

    United Farm Workers (UFW), U.S. labour union founded in 1962 as the National Farm Workers Association by the labour leaders and activists Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. The union merged with the American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) in 1966 and was re-formed

  • United Farmers of Ontario (political party, Canada)

    Canada: Turmoil at home: …farmer-labour alliance led by the United Farmers of Ontario. United Farmers governments were elected shortly afterward in Alberta (1921) and Manitoba (1922). In federal politics in 1921 the agrarian-based Progressive Party became the second largest party in the House of Commons. The agrarian revolt was marked by demands for farm…

  • United Farmers Party (political party, Canada)

    Canada: Turmoil at home: …farmer-labour alliance led by the United Farmers of Ontario. United Farmers governments were elected shortly afterward in Alberta (1921) and Manitoba (1922). In federal politics in 1921 the agrarian-based Progressive Party became the second largest party in the House of Commons. The agrarian revolt was marked by demands for farm…

  • United Features (news agency)

    United Press International: …and it developed the subsidiary United Features syndicate to sell special features. It also established UP Movietone News to supply news film to television stations.

  • United Federated Forces of the Symbionese Liberation Army (American militant group)

    Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), a small group of multiracial militant revolutionaries based in California during the 1970s that owes nearly all its notoriety to the kidnapping and subsequent indoctrination of Patty Hearst, the newspaper heiress. Founded in the Berkeley, California-area in 1973 by

  • United Food and Commercial Workers (American labour organization)

    John Sweeney: …Teamsters, the SEIU, and the United Food and Commercial Workers announced their withdrawal from the AFL-CIO. In 2009 he stepped down as AFL-CIO president; he was succeeded by Richard Trumka. Two years later Sweeney was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

  • United Free Church of Scotland

    United Free Church of Scotland, Presbyterian church formed in 1900 as the result of the union between the Free Church of Scotland and the United Presbyterian Church (qq.v.). A series of unanimous decisions brought the United Presbyterian Church into the union. In the Free Church, however, a small

  • United Front (political coalition, Zimbabwe)

    Ian Smith: In 1992 Smith led the United Front, a coalition of his party (now known as the Conservative Alliance of Zimbabwe) and black parties opposed to Mugabe’s policies. His involvement in the coalition was short-lived, however, and by the end of the decade he had largely retired from active national politics.…

  • United Front (Chinese history [1924-1927])

    United Front: United Front, in modern Chinese history, either of two coalitions between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang [KMT]).

  • United Front (Chinese history [1937-1945])

    United Front, in modern Chinese history, either of two coalitions between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang [KMT]). The first United Front was begun in 1924. In return for Soviet military and organizational aid, Sun Yat-sen (Sun Zhongshan), the leader of the

  • United Front (political coalition, India)

    Indian National Congress: The party since 1991: The United Front (UF) government—a coalition of 13 parties—came to power in 1996 as a minority government with the support of the Congress Party. However, as the largest single party in opposition in parliament after the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP; Indian People’s Party), the Congress Party…

  • United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (political party, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: The 1990s: …Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (Funcinpec), a royalist political faction sponsored by Prince Sihanouk, who had returned home in 1992 after 12 years of residence in China and North Korea. The incumbent Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) and the former prime minister, Hun Sen, refused to accept the results of the…

  • United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (populist movement, Thailand)

    Thailand: Yellow shirts and red shirts: …a populist movement called the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD). The UDD organized protests against this latest change of government, which in April forced the cancellation of an Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) summit meeting outside Bangkok. Security forces were able to disperse the protesters, but antigovernment…

  • United Fruit Company (American company)

    United Fruit Company, major division of United Brands Company

  • United Gold Coast Convention (political organization, Ghana)

    J.B. Danquah: …1947 he cofounded the moderate United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC), a party that comprised mainly the elite of Gold Coast society and demanded constitutional reforms and eventual self-government. Danquah led the UGCC in inviting Nkrumah to be secretary-general of the nascent party but, along with the rest of the party’s…

  • United Greens of Austria (political party, Austria)

    Austria: Political process: …GA; founded 1986) and the United Greens of Austria (Vereinte Grüne ?sterreichs; VG?; founded 1982), have come to be known collectively as the Greens. The Greens first won seats in the Austrian parliament in 1986.

  • United Hindu Party (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: …Reform Party (later called the Progressive Reform Party [Vooruitstrvende Hervormde Partij; VHP]) and the Indonesian Peasants’ Party (now the Party of National Unity and Solidarity [Kerukunan Tulodo Pranatan Inggil; KTPI]). Universal suffrage was instituted in 1948.

  • United House of Prayer for All People (American religious organization)

    United House of Prayer for All People, Pentecostal Holiness church in the United States. It was founded by Bishop Charles Emmanuel Grace (1881/84?–1960), an immigrant from Cape Verde whose birth name was Marcelino Manuel da Graca. After leaving a job as a cook on a Southern railway, he began to

  • United Independent Broadcasters, Inc. (American company)

    CBS Corporation, major American mass-media company that operates the CBS national television network and that includes the Simon & Schuster publishing groups and the Showtime cable network, among other holdings. The company was incorporated in 1927 as United Independent Broadcasters, Inc. Its name

  • United International Bureau for the Protection of Intellectual Property (international organization)

    World Intellectual Property Organization: …in 1893 to become the United International Bureau for the Protection of Intellectual Property (BIRPI), which was based in Bern, Switzerland.

  • United Iraqi Alliance (political coalition, Iraq)

    Iraq: Forming a new government: …on December 15, the Shi?i United Iraqi Alliance (UIA) gained the most seats but not enough to call a government. After four months of political wrangling, Nūrī al-Mālikī of the Shi?i party Islamic Da?wah formed a coalition government that included both Arabs and Kurds. ?ālabānī, who was reelected as president…

  • United Ireland Party (political party, Ireland)

    Fine Gael, (Irish: “Irish Race” or “Gaelic Nation”) centrist political party that has provided the major political opposition to the Fianna Fáil party in Ireland. Fine Gael was founded in September 1933 in the amalgamation of Cumann na nGaedheal (“Party of the Irish”)—the party of William Thomas

  • United Irishmen, Society of (political organization, Ireland)

    Society of United Irishmen, Irish political organization formed in October 1791 by Theobald Wolfe Tone, James Napper Tandy, and Thomas Russell to achieve Roman Catholic emancipation and (with Protestant cooperation) parliamentary reform. British attempts to suppress the society caused its

  • United Kingdom

    Until 1964, almost a decade after Bill Haley’s “Rock Around the Clock” had introduced a new musical era to British youth, pop music fans found few stations to set their dial to. Apart from the record-company-sponsored, evenings-only broadcasts of Radio Luxembourg, pop was represented essentially by

  • United Kingdom

    United Kingdom, island country located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe. The United Kingdom comprises the whole of the island of Great Britain—which contains England, Wales, and Scotland—as well as the northern portion of the island of Ireland. The name Britain is sometimes used to

  • United Kingdom Independence Party (political party, United Kingdom)

    United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), British political party founded in 1993. It espouses a populist libertarian philosophy centred on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. The party has its roots in the Anti-Federalist League, a group led by London School of Economics

  • United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (astronomy)

    infrared telescope: …an infrared telescope is the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), which has a 3.8-metre (12.5-foot) mirror made of Cer-Vit, a glass ceramic that has a very low coefficient of expansion. This instrument, located at the Mauna Kea Observatories, is configured in a Cassegrain design and employs a thin monolithic primary…

  • United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves

    Brazil: Independence: …designated the Portuguese dominions the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, thus making Brazil coequal with Portugal. Dom Jo?o’s mother died in 1816, whereupon he ascended to the throne.

  • United Kingdom Trust (British organization)

    Elizabeth Sanderson Haldane: …trustee (1913–37) of Andrew Carnegie’s United Kingdom Trust, which she induced to rescue the Sadler’s Wells Theatre and Ballet (London) from penury. In addition, she was the first woman to be justice of the peace in Scotland (appointed 1920).

  • United Kingdom, flag of the

    red, white, and blue flag in which are combined the Crosses of St. George (England), St. Andrew (Scotland), and St. Patrick (Ireland). Initially the flag was called a jack only when it was flown at the bowsprit of British naval vessels. It was commonly called the Union Jack by the late 17th

  • United Kingdom, history of

    United Kingdom: Ancient Britain: Archaeologists working in Norfolk in the early 21st century discovered stone tools that suggest the presence of humans in Britain from about 800,000 to 1 million years ago. These startling discoveries underlined the extent to which archaeological research is responsible for any knowledge of…

  • United Latin American Citizens, League of (American organization)

    League of United Latin American Citizens, one of the oldest and largest Latino organizations in the United States. Since its founding in 1929, it has focused on education, employment, and civil rights for Hispanics. The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) was formally established in

  • United League (Chinese political party)

    Nationalist Party, political party that governed all or part of mainland China from 1928 to 1949 and subsequently ruled Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek and his successors for most of the time since then. Originally a revolutionary league working for the overthrow of the Chinese monarchy, the

  • United Left (political party, Spain)

    Communist Party of Spain: Subsequently, the PCE joined the United Left (Izquierda Unida), a coalition of left-wing and ecologist parties. Although failing to attract wide support, the United Left did succeed in becoming Spain’s third largest national party.

  • United Left (political party, Denmark)

    Denmark: The Right and the Left: …in 1870 to form the United Left (Forenede Venstre), which in 1872 secured a majority in the Folketing. The Left demanded a return to the June constitution of 1849 as well as a number of other reforms, such as making the government responsible to the parliament instead of to the…

  • United Liberation Front of Assam (Indian insurgent group)

    Assam People's Council: …a free hand to the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA), a militant separatist group whose violent activities had increased dramatically in the state after the AGP took power. The revelations of direct links between the AGP ministers and the ULFA led New Delhi to dismiss the government in Assam…

  • United Lutheran Church in America (American church organization)

    Lutheranism: North American Lutheranism: …three German-language synods formed the United Lutheran Church in America (ULCA). In 1930 the Joint Synod of Ohio, the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa, and the Buffalo Synod formed the American Lutheran Church (German). In 1960 the American Lutheran Church (German) merged with the United Evangelical Lutheran Church (Danish) and…

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