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  • Unhook the Stars (film by Cassavetes [1996])

    Marisa Tomei: Her other movies included Unhook the Stars (1996; with Gena Rowlands) and the comedy Slums of Beverly Hills (1998). She appeared on Broadway in 1998 in Wait Until Dark. Tomei received an Oscar nomination for best supporting actress for the drama In the Bedroom (2001) but followed that with…

  • Uni (ancient Egyptian official)

    Merenre: …elevated his father’s trusted minister, Uni, to the post of governor of Upper Egypt, an unprecedented honour that placed all Upper Egypt under a single official. The king also expanded the authority of the son of his father’s vizier over two nomes (administrative districts). These appointments undid a program of…

  • Uni (Roman goddess)

    Juno, in Roman religion, chief goddess and female counterpart of Jupiter, closely resembling the Greek Hera, with whom she was identified. With Jupiter and Minerva, she was a member of the Capitoline triad of deities traditionally introduced by the Etruscan kings. Juno was connected with all

  • uni-univalent electrolyte (chemistry)

    liquid: Solutions of electrolytes: 001 molal solution of a uni-univalent electrolyte (one in which each ion has a valence, or charge, of 1, and, when dissociated, two ions are produced) such as sodium chloride, Na+Cl-, exhibits colligative properties corresponding to a nonelectrolyte solution whose molality is 0.002; the colligative properties of a 0.001 molal…

  • UNIA

    Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), primarily in the United States, organization founded by Marcus Garvey, dedicated to racial pride, economic self-sufficiency, and the formation of an independent black nation in Africa. Though Garvey had founded the UNIA in Jamaica in 1914, its main

  • Uni?o das Na??es Sul-Americanas (South American organization)

    UNASUR, South American organization created in 2008 to propel regional integration on issues including democracy, education, energy, environment, infrastructure, and security and to eliminate social inequality and exclusion. It was inspired by and modeled after the European Union. UNASUR’s members

  • Uni?o Democrática Nacional (political party, Brazil)

    Brazil: Political turmoil: …at the head of the National Democratic Union (Uni?o Democrática Nacional; UDN), the largest conservative party. Jo?o Goulart, the vice president under Kubitschek and a member of Vargas’s PTB won the vice presidential race. The two politically divergent politicians took office on January 31, 1961.

  • Uni?o dos Palmares (Brazil)

    Uni?o dos Palmares, city, northeastern Alagoas estado (state), northeastern Brazil. It lies 37 miles (60 km) inland from Maceió, the state capital, on the Atlantic coast. Founded in the 16th century and called Uni?o, it was the scene of a quickly suppressed African slave revolt in 1650. Primarily

  • Uni?o Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (political organization, Angola)

    UNITA, Angolan political party that was originally founded to free the nation from Portuguese colonial rule. UNITA was organized in 1966 by elements formerly associated with the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and the Popular Union of Angola, the latter led by Jonas Savimbi, who

  • Uniate church (Roman Catholic church)

    Eastern rite church, any of a group of Eastern Christian churches that trace their origins to various ancient national or ethnic Christian bodies in the East but have established union (hence, Eastern rite churches were in the past often called Uniates) or canonical communion with the Roman

  • uniaxial crystal (physics)

    hexagonal system: …system are classed as optically uniaxial, meaning that light travels through the crystal at different speeds in different directions.

  • unibody (mechanics)

    automobile: Chassis: …this arrangement, called unit-body (or unibody) construction, the steel body shell is reinforced with braces that make it rigid enough to resist the forces that are applied to it. Separate frames or partial “stub” frames have been used for some cars to achieve better noise-isolation characteristics. The heavier-gauge steel present…

  • unicameral legislature

    constitutional law: Unicameral and bicameral legislatures: A central feature of any constitution is the organization of the legislature. It may be a unicameral body with one chamber or a bicameral body with two chambers. Unicameral legislatures are typical in small countries with unitary systems of government (e.g.,…

  • Unicapsula muscularis (species of protozoa)

    myxosporidian: Representatives are Unicapsula muscularis, the cause of wormy disease in halibut; Myxobolus pfeifferi, the cause of boil disease in barbels; and Myxosoma cerebralis, the cause of twist disease in salmonid fishes.

  • UNICEF (international organization)

    UNICEF, special program of the United Nations (UN) devoted to aiding national efforts to improve the health, nutrition, education, and general welfare of children. UNICEF was created in 1946 to provide relief to children in countries devastated by World War II. After 1950 the fund directed its

  • unicellular organism (eukaryote)

    Protist, any member of a group of diverse eukaryotic, predominantly unicellular microscopic organisms. They may share certain morphological and physiological characteristics with animals or plants or both. The term protist typically is used in reference to a eukaryote that is not a true animal,

  • unicity distance (cryptography)

    Vigenère cipher: …this point is called the unicity distance—and is only about 25 symbols, on average, for simple substitution ciphers. See also Vernam-Vigenère cipher.

  • Unicode (character-encoding system)

    Unicode, international character-encoding system designed to support the electronic interchange, processing, and display of the written texts of the diverse languages of the modern and classical world. The Unicode Worldwide Character Standard includes letters, digits, diacritics, punctuation marks,

  • unicorn (mythological creature)

    Unicorn, mythological animal resembling a horse or a kid with a single horn on its forehead. The unicorn appeared in early Mesopotamian artworks, and it also was referred to in the ancient myths of India and China. The earliest description in Greek literature of a single-horned (Greek monokerōs,

  • unicorn (business start-up)

    Stewart Butterfield: …Technologies ranked among the so-called unicorns, privately held start-up companies with a valuation greater than $1 billion. Four years later Butterfield oversaw its becoming a public company. In an unusual move, however, no new stocks were offered, and only existing shares were made available. After the first day of trading,…

  • unicorn fish (fish, Eumecichthys species)

    unicorn fish: The elongate Eumecichthys fiski, in the crestfish family Lophotidae (order Lampridiformes), is also called unicorn fish.

  • unicorn fish (fish, genus Naso)

    Unicorn fish, any of certain exclusively marine fishes belonging to the genus Naso, in the family Acanthuridae (order Perciformes), occurring in the tropical Indo-Pacific region. The 17 species are herbivorous algae eaters. Unicorn fishes have a pair of sharp forward-pointing spines that protrude

  • unicorn plant (botany)

    Unicorn plant, any North American herb of the family Martyniaceae of the flowering plant order Lamiales, and particularly Proboseidea louisianica. There are nine species of unicorn plants, most having large purple or creamy white flowers. The unicorn plant is often grown for its novel fruits, which

  • Unicorn Start-up Phenomenon, The

    In July 2016 CB Insights, a research and analysis outlet based in New York City, identified 168 privately held Companies that were valued at $1 billion or more—known as unicorns. The list represented a total cumulative valuation of approximately $600 billion, an unprecedented value—at least on

  • unicorn team (driving and coaching)

    driving and coaching: …leader, are known as a unicorn team. In Russia and Hungary three horses are driven abreast, the centre horse trotting and the outside horses galloping; such a team is known as a troika.

  • unicornfish (fish, genus Naso)

    Unicorn fish, any of certain exclusively marine fishes belonging to the genus Naso, in the family Acanthuridae (order Perciformes), occurring in the tropical Indo-Pacific region. The 17 species are herbivorous algae eaters. Unicorn fishes have a pair of sharp forward-pointing spines that protrude

  • Unicorns—They Exist!

    One of the results of the recent Census of Marine Life (2000–10) was the discovery of some 1,200 new species and some 5,000 others awaiting description, confirming, once again, that the Age of Discovery is far from over. It was certainly very far from over when the following entry on “Mammalia”

  • Unidad Popular (Chilean political coalition)

    Salvador Allende: …ran as the candidate of Popular Unity, a bloc of Socialists, Communists, Radicals, and some dissident Christian Democrats, leading in a three-sided race with 36.3 percent of the vote. Because he lacked a popular majority, however, his election had to be confirmed by Congress, in which there was strong opposition…

  • Unidad Revolucionario Nacional Guatemalteco (resistance movement, Guatemala)

    Guatemala: Civil war years: …in the formation of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (Unidad Revolucionario Nacional Guatemalteco; URNG). A series of attempted military coups were put down by the defense minister, Gen. Héctor Alejandro Gramajo. Labour and peasant unrest also increased during the Cerezo presidency. Some painful economic progress was made, but the insurgency…

  • unidentified flying object

    Unidentified flying object (UFO), any aerial object or optical phenomenon not readily identifiable to the observer. UFOs became a major subject of interest following the development of rocketry after World War II and were thought by some researchers to be intelligent extraterrestrial life visiting

  • UNIDO (international organization)

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), international UN development agency, based in Vienna, that was established by the General Assembly on January 1, 1967. UNIDO’s governing body, the General Conference, meets every two years and determines policy and approves the budget. It

  • Unidroit (international organization)

    conflict of laws: The nature of conflicts law: …Unification of Private Law (Unidroit), established in Rome in 1926, sponsors projects for the unification of substantive law. Examples include its early efforts with respect to international sales law and the more recent drafting of the Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts (2004). In Latin America, Mercosur (also known…

  • Unidroit Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (international convention)

    museum: Legality: The 1995 Unidroit Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects was intended to resolve these issues. Similar conventions exist on the regional level as well: for instance, in 1976 the Organization of American States adopted the San Salvador Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological, Historical,…

  • Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties (South American organization)

    UNASUR, South American organization created in 2008 to propel regional integration on issues including democracy, education, energy, environment, infrastructure, and security and to eliminate social inequality and exclusion. It was inspired by and modeled after the European Union. UNASUR’s members

  • uniface blade (stone tool)

    hand tool: The Mousterian flake tools: …surface, is known as a unifacial tool because a single bevel forms the working edge. There are two principal kinds of flakes, points and scrapers. The former are roughly triangular, with two trimmed or sharp edges meeting in a point, the base or butt of the triangle being thick and…

  • unifacial tool (stone tool)

    hand tool: The Mousterian flake tools: …surface, is known as a unifacial tool because a single bevel forms the working edge. There are two principal kinds of flakes, points and scrapers. The former are roughly triangular, with two trimmed or sharp edges meeting in a point, the base or butt of the triangle being thick and…

  • UNIFEM (international organization)

    United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), organization that offers financial and technical support to programs that are designed to encourage the advancement and empowerment of women and gender equality. The United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) was established in 1976 in

  • unification (spirituality)

    ecstasy: … (of the mind); and (4) unification (of one’s being or will with the divine). Other methods are: dancing (as used by the Mawlawiyyah, or whirling dervishes, a Muslim Sufi sect); the use of sedatives and stimulants (as utilized in some Hellenistic mystery religions); and the use of certain drugs, such…

  • unification (religious groups)

    Athanasius I: Because of his anti-unionist activities after the reunification decree of the Council of Lyon, he was compelled by the patriarch John XI Beccus (1275–82) to seek Palestinian refuge. With the accession of the anti-unionist emperor Andronicus II in 1289, however, Athanasius was chosen patriarch of Constantinople and initiated…

  • Unification Church

    Unification Church, religious movement founded in Pusan, South Korea, by the Reverend Sun Myung Moon in 1954. Known for its mass weddings, the church teaches a unique Christian theology. It has generated much controversy, and its members are commonly derided as “Moonies.” Born in 1920, Moon was

  • unification theory (physics)

    Unified field theory, in particle physics, an attempt to describe all fundamental forces and the relationships between elementary particles in terms of a single theoretical framework. In physics, forces can be described by fields that mediate interactions between separate objects. In the mid-19th

  • unified budget

    government budget: Cash and unified budgets: …concepts, has adopted a so-called unified budget concept that is more logical than the cash budget but differs from it only in some details that do not materially affect the budget aggregates. The unified budget differs from the traditional administrative budget in two main ways: it includes the receipts and…

  • Unified Command (Palestinian organization)

    Palestine: The first intifadah: …under the leadership of the Unified National Command of the Uprising, which had links to the PLO. The PLO soon incorporated the Unified Command, but not before the local leaders had pushed Arafat to abandon formally his commitment to armed struggle and to accept Israel and the notion of a…

  • Unified Command Plan (United States Armed Forces)

    Unified Command Plan (UCP), classified document that provides operational instructions to all branches of the U.S. armed forces. Formed in 1946 in response to friction between branches of the military during World War II, the UCP has unified the command structures of the major U.S. military

  • unified field theory (physics)

    Unified field theory, in particle physics, an attempt to describe all fundamental forces and the relationships between elementary particles in terms of a single theoretical framework. In physics, forces can be described by fields that mediate interactions between separate objects. In the mid-19th

  • Unified Marxist-Leninist (political party, Nepal)

    Nepal: Constitutional monarchy: …205 seats), but the moderate Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist)—CPN (UML)—with 69 seats, emerged as a strong opposition party. The two “Pancha” parties usually associated with the old system won only four seats. The elections were thus perceived to constitute a strong endorsement of the 1990 political changes, and…

  • unified model (physics)

    Collective model, description of atomic nuclei that incorporates aspects of both the shell nuclear model and the liquid-drop model to explain certain magnetic and electric properties that neither of the two separately can explain. In the shell model, nuclear energy levels are calculated on the

  • Unified National Command of the Uprising (Palestinian organization)

    Palestine: The first intifadah: …under the leadership of the Unified National Command of the Uprising, which had links to the PLO. The PLO soon incorporated the Unified Command, but not before the local leaders had pushed Arafat to abandon formally his commitment to armed struggle and to accept Israel and the notion of a…

  • unified science (philosophy)

    Unified science, in the philosophy of logical positivism, a doctrine holding that all sciences share the same language, laws, and method or at least one or two of these features. A unity-of-science movement arose in the Vienna Circle, a group of scientists and philosophers that met regularly in

  • Unified Silla dynasty (Korean history)

    Unified Silla Dynasty, (668–935), dynasty that unified the three kingdoms of the Korean peninsula—Silla, Paekche, and Kogury?. The old Silla kingdom had forged an alliance with T’ang China (618–907) and had conquered the kingdom of Paekche to the southeast in 660 and the northern Korean kingdom of

  • Unified State Political Administration (Soviet government)

    OGPU, early security and political police of the Soviet Union and a forerunner of the KGB

  • Unified Task Force (peace-enforcement mission)

    UNOSOM: …peace-enforcement mission known as the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), to which 24 countries contributed some 37,000 troops. The task force’s mandate was to secure the environment to allow the provision of humanitarian relief. The more heavily armed military personnel of UNITAF had greater success than did UNOSOM I, managing to…

  • Unified Team (Olympic athletic team)

    Olympic Games: Barcelona, Spain, 1992: Known as the Unified Team, its members were saluted with their individual national anthems and flags at medal ceremonies. South Africa, which had abandoned its policy of apartheid, returned to the Olympics with its first racially integrated team.

  • Unified Workers Central (trade union, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Labour and taxation: …groupings emerged, most notably the Unified Workers Central (Central Unitaria de Trabajadores; CUT). About one-eighth of workers are members of Paraguay’s more than 1,500 labour unions.

  • UNIFIL

    Lebanon: Civil war: …to the establishment of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)—a peacekeeping force meant to secure Israeli withdrawal and support the return of Lebanese authority in the south—as well as to the creation of the South Lebanese Army (SLA)—a militia led by Sa?d Haddad and armed and financed by Israel…

  • uniflow engine (steam engine)

    history of technology: Steam engines: …the reciprocating design was the uniflow engine, which increased efficiency by exhausting steam from ports in the centre of the cylinder instead of requiring it to change its direction of flow in the cylinder with every movement of the piston. Full success in achieving a high-speed steam engine, however, depended…

  • uniflow two-stroke-cycle engine (gasoline engine)

    gasoline engine: Two-stroke cycle: …two-stroke-cycle engine of a so-called uniflow type. The exhaust gases pass through poppet valves in the cylinder head that are opened and closed by a cam-follower mechanism. The valves are timed to begin opening toward the end of the power stroke, after the cylinder pressure has dropped appreciably. The inlet…

  • uniform acceleration (physics)

    mechanics: Falling bodies and uniformly accelerated motion: … studied the mathematical properties of uniformly accelerated motion. He had little interest in whether that kind of motion could be observed in the realm of actual human existence, but he did discover that, if a particle is uniformly accelerated, its speed increases in direct proportion to time, and the distance…

  • Uniform Arbitration Act (United States [1955])

    arbitration: Commercial arbitration: …sometimes with minor changes, the Uniform Arbitration Act of 1955, as amended in 1956, which had been promoted by the Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and recommended by the American Bar Association. This act provided for the judicial enforcement of an agreement to arbitrate existing and future disputes and thereby…

  • uniform circular motion (physics)

    Uniform circular motion, motion of a particle moving at a constant speed on a circle. In the Figure, the velocity vector v of the particle is constant in magnitude, but it changes in direction by an amount Δv while the particle moves from position B to position C, and the radius R of the circle

  • Uniform Commercial Code (American law)

    contract: Offer and acceptance: (On the other hand, the Uniform Commercial Code, which has been adopted everywhere in the United States, provides that a firm offer made by a merchant is irrevocable even though the other party has given no consideration.) The common law is not entirely insensitive to the offeree’s predicament. The rule…

  • uniform convergence (mathematics)

    Uniform convergence, in analysis, property involving the convergence of a sequence of continuous functions—f1(x), f2(x), f3(x),…—to a function f(x) for all x in some interval (a, b). In particular, for any positive number ε > 0 there exists a positive integer N for which |fn(x) ? f(x)| ≤ ε for all

  • Uniform Crime Reports (American publication)

    police: Early reform efforts: …its auspices he created the Uniform Crime Reports program, which became (after it was taken over by the FBI in 1930) an important indicator of the annual national crime rate and of the performance of local police departments. Finally, through his work on the Wickersham Commission, which was set up…

  • Uniform Determination of Death Act (United States [1981])

    death: Evolution of the concept of brain-stem death: …a model statute, called the Uniform Determination of Death Act, which was subsequently endorsed by the American Medical Association, the American Bar Association, and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and became law in many states. International opinion and practice has moved along similar lines in accepting…

  • uniform distribution (statistics)

    Uniform distribution, in statistics, distribution function in which every possible result is equally likely; that is, the probability of each occurring is the same. As one of the simplest possible distributions, the uniform distribution is sometimes used as the null hypothesis, or initial

  • Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (Internet)

    ICANN: …the Internet, ICANN promulgated a Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy to resolve domain name controversies. ICANN also licensed several arbitration services to interpret and enforce it, with the assistance of the World Intellectual Property Organization. The first cases under ICANN’s dispute resolution policy, including those brought by the World…

  • uniform field (physics)

    electron tube: Electron motion in a vacuum: …of an electron in a uniform field is given by a simple application of Isaac Newton’s second law of motion, force = mass × acceleration, in which the force is exerted on the electron by an applied electric field E (measured in volts per metre). Mathematically, the equation of motion…

  • uniform law (legislation)

    legislation: Uniform laws: Since each state as well as the national government has lawmaking power, it is not surprising that in many instances state and federal laws on the same subject have contained different and conflicting provisions. This has been especially undesirable in regard to commercial…

  • Uniform Marital Property Act (United States law [1983])

    Uniform Marital Property Act (UMPA), U.S. law enacted in 1983 that defined the ownership of property by married persons and the means to divide the property in the event of divorce or death. The Uniform Marital Property Act (UMPA) created a class of property that belonged to the marriage rather

  • Uniform Monday Holiday Bill (United States legislation [1968])

    Presidents' Day: In 1968 Congress passed the Uniform Monday Holiday Bill, which moved a number of federal holidays to Mondays. The change was designed to schedule certain holidays so that workers had a number of long weekends throughout the year, but it has been opposed by those who believe that those holidays…

  • uniform motion (physics)

    Linear motion, motion in one spatial dimension. According to Newton’s first law (also known as the principle of inertia), a body with no net force acting on it will either remain at rest or continue to move with uniform speed in a straight line, according to its initial condition of motion. In

  • Uniform Probate Code (United States [1969])

    inheritance: Uniform Probate Code (U.S.): The latest state of U.S. thinking is expressed in the Uniform Probate Code, approved in 1969 and amended in 1975, 1982, 1987, 1989, 1990–91, and 1997 by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and the American Bar Association.…

  • uniform region (geography)

    region: …or uniform, defined by the homogeneous distribution of some phenomena within it (e.g., a tropical rainforest).

  • Uniform Resource Locator (computer science)

    URL, Address of a resource on the Internet. The resource can be any type of file stored on a server, such as a Web page, a text file, a graphics file, or an application program. The address contains three elements: the type of protocol used to access the file (e.g., HTTP for a Web page, ftp for an

  • uniform spacing (biology)

    dispersion: …gather in clumps; or a uniform pattern, with a roughly equal spacing of individuals. The type of pattern often results from the nature of the relationships within the population. Social animals, such as chimpanzees, tend to gather in groups, while territorial animals, such as birds, tend to assume uniform spacing.…

  • uniform substitution, rule of (logic)

    formal logic: Axiomatization of LPC: Rules of uniform substitution for predicate calculi, though formulable, are mostly very complicated, and, to avoid the necessity for these rules, axioms for these systems are therefore usually given by axiom schemata in the sense explained earlier (see above Axiomatization of PC). Given the formation…

  • uniformitarianism (geology)

    Uniformitarianism, in geology, the doctrine suggesting that Earth’s geologic processes acted in the same manner and with essentially the same intensity in the past as they do in the present and that such uniformity is sufficient to account for all geologic change. This principle is fundamental to

  • uniformity (measurement)

    measurement system: …measures are the concepts of uniformity, units, and standards. Uniformity, the essence of any system of weights and measures, requires accurate, reliable standards of mass and length and agreed-on units. A unit is the name of a quantity, such as kilogram or pound. A standard is the physical embodiment of…

  • Uniformity, Acts of (English law)

    Book of Common Prayer: …Book, enacted by the first Act of Uniformity of Edward VI in 1549, was prepared primarily by Thomas Cranmer, who became archbishop of Canterbury in 1533. It was viewed as a compromise between old and new ideas and was in places diplomatically ambiguous in its implied teaching; it aroused opposition…

  • Unigenitus (bull by Clement XI)

    Unigenitus, bull issued by Pope Clement XI on Sept. 8, 1713, condemning the doctrines of Jansenism, a dissident religious movement within France. The publication of the bull began a doctrinal controversy in France that lasted throughout much of the 18th century and that merged with the French c

  • Unigenitus Dei Filius (bull by Clement XI)

    Unigenitus, bull issued by Pope Clement XI on Sept. 8, 1713, condemning the doctrines of Jansenism, a dissident religious movement within France. The publication of the bull began a doctrinal controversy in France that lasted throughout much of the 18th century and that merged with the French c

  • Unilateral Declaration of Independence (Zimbabwean history)

    Zimbabwe: Rhodesia and the UDI: …independence, Smith’s government announced the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) on November 11, 1965.

  • unilateral emphysema (pathology)

    respiratory disease: Pulmonary emphysema: …the disease appears to be unilateral, involving one lung only and causing few symptoms. Unilateral emphysema is believed to result from a severe bronchiolitis in childhood that prevented normal maturation of the lung on that side. “Congenital lobar emphysema” of infants is usually a misnomer, since there is no alveolar…

  • unilateral shock therapy

    mental disorder: Electroconvulsive treatment: Unilateral ECT produces noticeably less confusion and memory impairment in patients, but more treatments may be needed. Patients recover consciousness rapidly after the treatment but may be confused and may experience a mild headache for an hour or two.

  • unilateral transfer (economics)

    international payment and exchange: The current account: Among unilateral transfers the more important are outright aid by governments, subscriptions to international agencies, grants by charitable foundations, and remittances by immigrants to their former home countries.

  • Unilever (international holding company)

    Unilever, either of twin companies, Unilever PLC (based in London) and Unilever NV (based in Rotterdam), which are the holding companies for more than 500 companies worldwide engaged in the manufacture and sale of soaps, foods, and other products for household consumption. The boards of directors

  • Unilever NV (international holding company)

    Unilever: …PLC (based in London) and Unilever NV (based in Rotterdam), which are the holding companies for more than 500 companies worldwide engaged in the manufacture and sale of soaps, foods, and other products for household consumption. The boards of directors of the two companies are identical in membership, and mutual…

  • Unilever PLC (international holding company)

    Unilever: Unilever PLC (based in London) and Unilever NV (based in Rotterdam), which are the holding companies for more than 500 companies worldwide engaged in the manufacture and sale of soaps, foods, and other products for household consumption. The boards of directors of the two companies…

  • unilineal cultural evolution (social science)

    matriarchy: The theory known as unilineal cultural evolution, now discredited, suggested that human social organization “evolved” through a series of stages: animalistic sexual promiscuity was followed by matriarchy, which was in turn followed by patriarchy. The American anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan, the Swiss anthropologist J.J. Bachofen, and the German philosopher…

  • unilineal descent (kinship)

    clan: This descent is usually unilineal, or derived only through the male (patriclan) or the female (matriclan) line. Normally, but not always, the clans are exogamous, or out-marrying: marriage within the clan is forbidden and regarded as a form of incest. Clans may segment into subclans or lineages, and genealogical…

  • UNIMA

    puppetry: Puppetry in the contemporary world: …usually sponsored by UNIMA, the Union Internationale de la Marionnette, an international society of puppeteers. Originally founded in 1929 and reconstituted in 1957, UNIMA has members in some 65 countries and provides a common meeting ground for professional and amateur performers, critics, and enthusiasts. In the meantime traditional styles of…

  • Unimak (island, Alaska, United States)

    Alaska: Relief: The largest islands are Unimak, Unalaska, and Umnak. On the occasionally clear summer days, active volcanoes and such glacier-covered peaks as symmetrical Shishaldin Volcano (9,372 feet [2,857 metres]) on Unimak can be seen. Usually, however, the weather is wet and stormy, the winds horizontal and cutting, and the fog…

  • Unimate (robot)

    robot: Industrial robots: …industrial robot was the programmable Unimate, an electronically controlled hydraulic heavy-lifting arm that could repeat arbitrary sequences of motions. It was invented in 1954 by the American engineer George Devol and was developed by Unimation Inc., a company founded in 1956 by American engineer Joseph Engelberger. In 1959 a prototype…

  • Unimation Inc. (American company)

    robot: Industrial robots: …Devol and was developed by Unimation Inc., a company founded in 1956 by American engineer Joseph Engelberger. In 1959 a prototype of the Unimate was introduced in a General Motors Corporation die-casting factory in Trenton, New Jersey. In 1961 Condec Corp. (after purchasing Unimation the preceding year) delivered the world’s…

  • unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction (chemistry)

    reaction mechanism: Unimolecular: Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions proceed by a two-stage mechanism in which heterolysis precedes reaction with the nucleophile. The following equation is a typical example:

  • unimolecular substitution reaction (chemistry)

    reaction mechanism: Unimolecular: Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions proceed by a two-stage mechanism in which heterolysis precedes reaction with the nucleophile. The following equation is a typical example:

  • Uninvited, The (film by Allen [1944])

    The Uninvited, American horror film, released in 1944, that is considered a classic of the genre, noted for its serious and understated take on the traditional ghost story. While on vacation, siblings Roderick (played by Ray Milland) and Pamela Fitzgerald (Ruth Hussey) impulsively purchase a house

  • unio mystica (religion)

    Protestantism: The rise of Pietism: …stressed the notion of the unio mystica (mystical union) between the believer and Jesus, a 17th-century Lutheran doctrinal addition, the central Arndtian theme was not that of mystical union but stressed repentance, regeneration, and new life, which would become the essence of Pietism.

  • union

    Organized labour, association and activities of workers in a trade or industry for the purpose of obtaining or assuring improvements in working conditions through their collective action. British trade unionism has a long and continuous history. Medieval guilds, which regulated craft production,

  • Union (county, New Mexico, United States)

    Union, county, northeastern New Mexico, U.S., bordered on the north by Colorado and on the east by Oklahoma and Texas. It lies in the Great Plains. The eastern landscape is marked by black-capped mesas and the twin Rabbit Ear Mountains, ancient volcanic vents that became a landmark on the southern

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