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  • Toltén (river, Chile)

    Araucanía: …rivers, the Imperial and the Toltén, traverse the southern Araucanía region from east to west. The cordilleran ridges and volcanoes at Tolguaca, Lonquimay, and Llaima and the forests, lakes, and hot springs at Tolguaca, Río Blanco, and Manzanares are prime scenic attractions. Tourism, however, ranks below farming (especially in wheat),…

  • Tolton, Augustine John (American priest)

    Augustus Tolton, American religious leader who is regarded as the first African American ordained as a priest in the Roman Catholic Church (see Researcher’s Note). Tolton was born into slavery. His parents, Peter Paul and Martha Jane (née Chisley) Tolton, were baptized Catholics who had been

  • Tolton, Augustus (American priest)

    Augustus Tolton, American religious leader who is regarded as the first African American ordained as a priest in the Roman Catholic Church (see Researcher’s Note). Tolton was born into slavery. His parents, Peter Paul and Martha Jane (née Chisley) Tolton, were baptized Catholics who had been

  • Tolton, John Augustine (American priest)

    Augustus Tolton, American religious leader who is regarded as the first African American ordained as a priest in the Roman Catholic Church (see Researcher’s Note). Tolton was born into slavery. His parents, Peter Paul and Martha Jane (née Chisley) Tolton, were baptized Catholics who had been

  • Toluca (Mexico)

    Toluca, city, capital of México estado (state), central Mexico. It is located about 30 miles (50 km) west-southwest of Mexico City, at the base of Nevado de Toluca volcano, the peak of which rises above 15,000 feet (4,570 metres) just southwest of the city. Toluca itself lies in a cool valley at an

  • Toluca de Lerdo (Mexico)

    Toluca, city, capital of México estado (state), central Mexico. It is located about 30 miles (50 km) west-southwest of Mexico City, at the base of Nevado de Toluca volcano, the peak of which rises above 15,000 feet (4,570 metres) just southwest of the city. Toluca itself lies in a cool valley at an

  • toluene (chemical compound)

    Toluene, aromatic hydrocarbon used extensively as starting material for the manufacture of industrial chemicals. It comprises 15–20 percent of coal-tar light oil and is a minor constituent of petroleum. Both sources provide toluene for commercial use, but larger amounts are made by catalytic r

  • toluene diisocyanate (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Polyurethanes: …used to prepare polyurethanes are toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methylene-4,4′-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and a polymeric isocyanate (PMDI). These isocyanates have the following structures:

  • Tolui (Mongol ruler)

    Mongol: Rise of the Mongol empire: …Xinjiang and western Mongolia; and Tolui was awarded eastern Mongolia. ?g?dei dominated his brothers and undertook further conquests. In the west the Golden Horde under Jochi’s successor, Batu, controlled Russia and terrorized eastern Europe; in the east advances were made into China. With ?g?dei’s death in 1241 the branches fell…

  • toluidine (chemical compound)

    dye: Triphenylmethane dyes: Hofmann showed that toluidine (CH3C6H4NH2) must be present to produce these dyes. All these dyes, including mauve, were prepared from aniline containing unknown amounts of toluidine.

  • Tolyatti (Russia)

    Tolyatti, city, Samara oblast (province), western Russia, on the Volga River. Founded as a fortress in 1738 and known as Stavropol, it was given city status in 1780 and again in 1946. Overshadowed by Samara, it remained unimportant until the beginning in 1950 of the huge V.I. Lenin barrage (dam)

  • Tolype (insect)

    Lappet, any member of the insect genus Tolype of the Lasiocampidae family of moths (order Lepidoptera). The genus includes the eggars, named for their egg-shaped cocoons, and the tent caterpillars, which spin huge, tent-shaped communal webs in trees. Lappets in the larval stage have lateral lobes,

  • Tolypeutes tricinctus (mammal)

    armadillo: The three-, six-, and nine-banded armadillos are named for the number of movable bands in their armour. Only one species, the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), is found in the United States. Its range has expanded into several southern states since it was first observed in Texas…

  • TOM (mathematics)

    game theory: Theory of moves: Another approach to inducing cooperation in PD and other variable-sum games is the theory of moves (TOM). Proposed by the American political scientist Steven J. Brams, TOM allows players, starting at any outcome in a payoff matrix, to move and countermove within…

  • Tom A. Swift Electric Rifle (electronic control device)

    Taser, handheld device that incapacitates a person by transmitting a 50,000-volt electric shock. The Taser fires two small darts, connected to the device with thin wires, up to a distance of approximately 11 metres (35 feet). The darts can penetrate clothing and, once they make contact with the

  • Tom and Jerry (American cartoon series)

    Tom and Jerry, American animated cartoon series about a hapless cat’s never-ending pursuit of a clever mouse. Not yet named in their debut theatrical short, Puss Gets the Boot (1940), Tom (the scheming cat) and Jerry (the spunky mouse) nonetheless were a hit with audiences. Animators William Hanna

  • Tom and Sally: the Jefferson-Hemings paternity debate

    Long before Americans learned about the sexual escapades of their 20th-century presidents—Warren Harding, John Kennedy, and Bill Clinton were the chief offenders—there was the story of Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. Until recently, when newly developed techniques in genetic research made

  • Tom Brown’s School Days (novel by Hughes)

    Tom Brown’s School Days, novel by Thomas Hughes, published in 1857. Tom Brown is an early, well-drawn character in what was to become a familiar genre in English fiction: a chronicle of life at an English boys’ boarding school. In the novel, Tom, a student at Rugby School in the time of Thomas

  • Tom Brown’s School Days (film by Stevenson [1940])

    Robert Stevenson: Early films: Stevenson’s first American film, Tom Brown’s School Days (1940), was a colourful adaptation of Thomas Hughes’s popular novel, with Freddie Bartholomew and Jimmy Lydon. Stevenson followed it with the melodrama Back Street (1941), a fine adaptation of Fannie Hurst’s novel; it starred Charles Boyer and Margaret Sullavan as

  • Tom Clancy’s Jack Ryan (American television series)

    Noomi Rapace: …she joined the TV series Tom Clancy’s Jack Ryan, portraying a German intelligence agent.

  • Tom Collins (alcoholic beverage)

    gin: …such long drinks as the Tom Collins and the gin and tonic.

  • Tom Donahue

    As a Top 40 deejay in Philadelphia and San Francisco, “Big Daddy” Tom Donahue opened his show with a self-spoofing line: “I’m here to clean up your face and mess up your mind.” But it was on the FM band in the late 1960s and ’70s that Donahue changed the face—and sound—of radio. Along with a

  • Tom Dooley (song)

    ballad: Crime: “Tom Dooley” and “Charles Guiteau,” the scaffold confession of the assassin of Pres. James A. Garfield, are the best known American examples.

  • Tom Hark (recording by Elias and His Zigzag Jive Flutes)

    African popular music: …Britain the pennywhistle tune “Tom Hark” was a Top Five hit in 1958 for the South African kivela (kwela) group Elias and His Zigzag Jive Flutes. But none of these records led to any measurable increase in interest in other similar records. They were seen as novelties.

  • Tom Horn (film by Wiard [1980])

    Steve McQueen: …bounty hunter, in the western Tom Horn and in the contemporary action movie The Hunter, his final film.

  • Tom Jones (film by Richardson [1963])

    Tony Richardson: …adaptation of Henry Fielding’s novel Tom Jones (1963), a rousing evocation of the crudeness and vigour of 18th-century English life. The film won four Academy Awards, including those for best picture and best director.

  • Tom Jones (novel by Fielding)

    Tom Jones, comic novel by Henry Fielding, published in 1749. Tom Jones, like its predecessor, Joseph Andrews, is constructed around a romance plot. Squire Allworthy suspects that the infant whom he adopts and names Tom Jones is the illegitimate child of his servant Jenny Jones. When Tom is a young

  • Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers (American music group)

    Tom Petty: … and Stan Lynch to form Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers. The band’s eponymous debut album, released in 1976, initially caused little stir in the United States, but the single “Breakdown” was a smash in Britain, and, when it was re-released in the U.S., the song made the Top 40 in…

  • Tom Price (Western Australia, Australia)

    Tom Price, mining town, northwestern Western Australia. It is situated in the Pilbara region, in the Hamersley Range area near Mount Tom Price, the site of major high-grade deposits of hematite. At an elevation of 2,450 feet (747 metres), Tom Price is the highest populated place in the state. It

  • Tom Price, Mount (mountain, Australia)

    Tom Price: …the Hamersley Range area near Mount Tom Price, the site of major high-grade deposits of hematite.

  • Tom River (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …to the confluence of the Tom River, the middle Ob from the junction with the Tom to the Irtysh confluence, and the lower Ob from the junction with the Irtysh to the Gulf of Ob.

  • Tom Sawyer (novel by Twain)

    Aunt Polly: in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876).

  • Tom Strong (comic book)

    America's Best Comics: The main single-character series were Tom Strong (with artist Chris Sprouse) and Promethea (with artist J.H. Williams III). Tom Strong is a benevolent warrior–wise man in the Doc Savage mold from which Superman himself was cast; Promethea, a kind of self-made muse, is a spirit of creativity, with roots in…

  • Tom Terrific (American baseball player)

    Tom Seaver, American professional baseball player and one of the game’s dominant pitchers between the late 1960s and early 1980s. During his 20-year career (1967–86), Seaver, a right-handed pitcher, posted a record of 311 wins and 205 losses with a 2.86 earned run average (ERA). He won more than 20

  • Tom Thumb (locomotive)

    Peter Cooper: …the diminutive but powerful “Tom Thumb” experimentally pulling a load of 40 persons at 10 miles an hour.

  • tom thumb (film by Pal [1958])

    George Pal: …his feature-film directing debut with tom thumb (1958), a Disneyesque version of the famous children’s story, featuring dancer Russ Tamblyn in the title role. The movie, which included a Puppetoons sequence, won an Academy Award for special effects.

  • Tom Thumb (play by Fielding)

    comedy: The comic outside the theatre: …rant of heroic tragedy in Tom Thumb (1730).

  • Tom Thumb’s Alphabet (English chapbook)

    alphabet rhyme: Another, known as “Tom Thumb’s Alphabet,” enjoyed continuous popularity. The earliest printed record of it is from c. 1712. In its most familiar version, the rhyme begins:

  • Tom Thumb, General (American showman)

    General Tom Thumb, American showman noted for his small stature. He was the first major attraction promoted by the circus impresario P.T. Barnum. Born to parents of normal stature, Charles Stratton ceased growing at the age of six months and remained 25 inches (0.6 metre) tall, weighing 15 pounds

  • Tom Tower (gateway, Oxford University, England)

    Christopher Wren: Concurrent projects: The lower part of Tom Tower, as the gateway was called, had been built by Thomas Cardinal Wolsey in a richly ornamental Gothic style. The octagonal tower that Wren imposed illustrates both his respect for Gothic and his reservations about it. His attitude toward Gothic design was consistent and…

  • Tom Watson, Agrarian Rebel (work by Woodward)

    C. Vann Woodward: …first major work, the biography Tom Watson, Agrarian Rebel (1938), he interpreted the conversion of that fiery agrarian reformer into a racist demagogue as a reflection of the defeat of the Populist reform movement in Southern politics. In Origins of the New South 1877–1913 (1951), he examined the disenfranchisement of…

  • Tom’s Midnight Garden (work by Pearce)

    children's literature: Historical fiction: …supremacy with such classics as Tom’s Midnight Garden (1958), by Ann Philippa Pearce, a haunting, perfectly constructed story in which the present and Victoria’s age blend into one. There is the equally haunting Green Knowe series, by Lucy M. Boston, the first of which, The Children of Greene Knowe, appeared…

  • Tom, Dick, and Harry (film by Kanin [1941])

    Garson Kanin: Film directing: Tom, Dick, and Harry (1941) was a light comedy starring Rogers as a small-town telephone operator who must choose between three suitors (Burgess Meredith, George Murphy, and Alan Marshal).

  • Tom, Georgia (American musician)

    Thomas Andrew Dorsey, American songwriter, singer, and pianist whose many up-tempo blues arrangements of gospel music hymns earned him the title of “Father of Gospel Music.” Dorsey was the son of a revivalist preacher. He was influenced in childhood by blues pianists in the Atlanta, Ga., area and

  • Toma, Lake (lake, Switzerland)

    Rhine River: Physiography: The Vorderrhein emerges from Lake Toma at 7,690 feet (2,344 metres), near the Oberalp Pass in the Central Alps, and then flows eastward past Disentis to be joined by the Hinterrhein from the south at Reichenau above Chur. (The Hinterrhein rises about five miles west of San Bernardino Pass,…

  • Tomacelli, Pietro (pope)

    Boniface IX, pope from 1389 to 1404; he was the second pontiff to rule in Rome during the Western Schism (1378–1417). Created cardinal deacon early in life and cardinal priest by Urban VI in 1385, he succeeded Urban, whose disputed election was the original cause of the rupture between Rome and

  • tomahawk (hand weapon)

    Tomahawk, war hatchet of the North American Indians. “Tomahawk” was derived from the Algonquian word otomahuk (“to knock down”). Early versions were made by tying a stone head to a handle with animal sinew or by passing a double-pointed chipped stone through a hole bored in a handle. After the

  • Tomahawk (cruise missile)

    Tomahawk, American-made low-flying strategic guided missile that may be launched from naval ships or submarines to strike targets on land. It flies at low altitudes to strike fixed targets, such as communication and air-defense sites, in high-risk environments where manned aircraft may be

  • Tomahawk cruise missile (cruise missile)

    Tomahawk, American-made low-flying strategic guided missile that may be launched from naval ships or submarines to strike targets on land. It flies at low altitudes to strike fixed targets, such as communication and air-defense sites, in high-risk environments where manned aircraft may be

  • Tomahawk ground-launched cruise missile

    cruise missile: …cruise missile (SLCM) and the Tomahawk ground-launched cruise missile (GLCM) had a length of 6.4 m (21 feet), a diameter of 53 cm (21 inches), and a range of 2,500 km (1,550 miles).

  • Tomahawk sea-launched cruise missile

    cruise missile: The Tomahawk sea-launched cruise missile (SLCM) and the Tomahawk ground-launched cruise missile (GLCM) had a length of 6.4 m (21 feet), a diameter of 53 cm (21 inches), and a range of 2,500 km (1,550 miles).

  • Tomakomai (Japan)

    Tomakomai, city, southern Hokkaido, Japan, facing the Pacific Ocean. The city was a regional transport and commerce centre in the early 19th century. A pulp and paper industry has operated there since 1910, and chemicals are also produced. Commercial and industrial ports were completed in 1963, to

  • Tomalin, Susan Abigail (American actress)

    Susan Sarandon, American film actress who transcended the early roles of her career, in which she often played characters who were highly sensual but little else, to become a performer of considerable versatility and emotional depth. In 1996 she won an Academy Award for her unglamorous yet engaging

  • Tomanivi, Mount (mountain, Fiji)

    Viti Levu: Tomanivi (formerly Mount Victoria), the highest point in Fiji, rises to 4,344 feet (1,324 metres). The mountain range divides the island climatically into a wet southeastern section (120 inches [3,050 mm] of rain annually) and a dry northwestern section (70–90 inches (1,800–2,300 mm).

  • Tomar (Portugal)

    Tomar, city and concelho (municipality), central Portugal. It is located on the Nab?o River, a tributary of the Zêzere, northeast of Lisbon. The city contains the 12th-century castle of the Knights Templar and the convent of the Order of Christ (Ordem de Cristo; founded 1314), which played an

  • Tomara dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Tomara dynasty, one of the minor early medieval ruling houses of northern India. The family is known from scattered sources, and it is impossible to reconstruct its history in any detail. Puranic evidence (writings of the Puranas) gives its early location in the Himalayan region. According to

  • Tomarctus (extinct mammal genus)

    dog: Ancestry: The Eurasian branch was called Tomarctus and is the progenitor of wolves, dogs, and foxes.

  • Tomasek, Frantisek (Roman Catholic cardinal)

    Frantisek Tomasek, Roman Catholic cardinal, archbishop of Prague (1977–91), whose cautious but resolute opposition to the Czechoslovak communist regime helped to bring about its peaceful demise in the 1989 Velvet Revolution. After being ordained (1922), Tomasek taught in Olomouc at the Saints Cyril

  • Toma?evi?, Stephen (ruler of Bosnia)

    Kotromani? Dynasty: …executed the last Kotromani? king, Stephen Toma?evi? (reigned 1461–63).

  • Tomasi di Lampedusa, Giuseppe (Italian author)

    Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, Italian author, duke of Palma, and prince of Lampedusa, internationally renowned for his only completed novel, Il gattopardo (1958; The Leopard). Born into the Sicilian aristocracy, Lampedusa served as an artillery officer during World War I. After his capture and

  • Tomasi Kulimoetoke II (Wallisian monarch)

    Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, Wallisian monarch (born July 26, 1918 , Mata-Utu, Wallis [Uvea] Island—died May 7, 2007 , Mata-Utu), as the 50th lavelua (paramount chief, or king, of Wallis) was the longest-serving traditional leader in the French South Pacific island dependency Wallis and Futuna. He was a

  • Tomaspis saccharina (insect)

    froghopper: The sugarcane froghopper (Euryaulax carnifex) is very destructive in Trinidad. Aphrophora species are serious pests of willow and pine. One group of froghoppers secretes small calcareous tubes that resemble snail shells and were once classified as snails by zoologists.

  • Tomasz, Alexander (Hungarian microbiologist)

    quorum sensing: …the mid-1960s by Hungarian-born microbiologist Alexander Tomasz in his studies of the ability of Pneumococcus (later known as Streptococcus pneumoniae) to take up free DNA from its environment.

  • Tomaszów Mazowiecki (Poland)

    Tomaszów Mazowiecki, city, ?ódzkie województwo (province), central Poland, on the Pilica River. A textile centre, the city contains synthetic-silk factories as well as carpet factories and leatherworks. A national bison preserve is located in nearby Spalska forest. The city has good road and rail

  • tomatillo (plant and fruit)

    Tomatillo, (Physalis philadelphica), annual plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) and its tart edible fruits. The plant is native to Mexico and Central America, where it has been an important food crop for millennia. The fruits can be eaten raw and are sometimes made into soups, jams, or

  • tomato (fruit)

    Tomato, (Solanum lycopersicum), flowering plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), cultivated extensively for its edible fruits. Labelled as a vegetable for nutritional purposes, tomatoes are a good source of vitamin C and the phytochemical lycopene. The fruits are commonly eaten raw in salads,

  • tomato big-bud virus

    malformation: Alteration of floral parts: The tomato big-bud virus appears to affect the sepals of the tomato flower rather specifically. These structures enlarge greatly under the influence of the virus and fuse to form huge bladderlike structures that may be 10 times or more the normal size. In the Madagascar periwinkle…

  • tomato fruitworm (insect)

    Corn earworm, larva of the moth Heliothis zea (in some classifications H. armigera; family Noctuidae). The smooth, fleshy green or brown caterpillars are serious crop pests before they pupate in the soil. Four or five generations of the pale brown adult moths (wingspan 3.5 cm [about 113 inches])

  • tomato hornworm (insect)

    hawk moth: …hornworm (Manduca sexta) and the tomato, or northern, hornworm (M. quinquemaculata), attack tomato, tobacco, and potato crops. These leaf-feeding pests are green and can be 10 cm (4 inches) long. Control includes the use of a natural enemy, the braconid wasp (Apanteles congregatus), which parasitizes the larvae. Pupation occurs in…

  • tomato paste

    frozen prepared food: Preparing ingredients: …sauce is often made from tomato paste. Tomato paste usually contains from 24 to 36 percent tomato solids. Typically, it is procured in drums or flexible multiwall bags. Water is pumped in to flush out the paste and to help in diluting it to the desired concentration for sauce. The…

  • tomato sauce

    frozen prepared food: Preparing ingredients: Tomato sauce is often made from tomato paste. Tomato paste usually contains from 24 to 36 percent tomato solids. Typically, it is procured in drums or flexible multiwall bags. Water is pumped in to flush out the paste and to help in diluting it to…

  • tomb (funerary architecture)

    Tomb, in the strictest sense, a home or house for the dead; the term is applied loosely to all kinds of graves, funerary monuments, and memorials. In many primitive cultures the dead were buried in their own houses, and the tomb form may have developed out of this practice, as a reproduction in

  • Tomb of Philip the Bold (work by Sluter and Marville)

    Claus Sluter: Sluter’s latest preserved work, the tomb of Philip the Bold, was first commissioned from Jean de Marville, who is responsible only for the arcaded gallery below the sepulchral slab of black marble from Dinant. Forty figures, each about 16 inches (41 cm) high and either designed or executed by Sluter,…

  • Tomb of Piero and Giovanni de’ Medici (work by Verrocchio)

    Andrea del Verrocchio: Paintings and sculptures: …his first major commission, the tomb of Piero and Giovanni de’ Medici in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo. Completed in 1472, this sarcophagus, set in an archway, is impressive for its originality of composition and its inspired use of coloured marble and porphyry in conjunction with rich bronze ornamentation.

  • Tomb of the Kings, The (poetry by Hébert)

    Anne Hébert: …by a second poetry collection, Le Tombeau des rois (1953; The Tomb of the Kings), which more clearly reveals her inner anguish and intensity of purpose. Quebec publishers became wary of her work, so aided by a gift from the Royal Society of Canada she moved to Paris to find…

  • Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier (tomb, near Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia)

    Tomb of the Unknown Soldier: The Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier, near Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, holds a World War I veteran but was not established until 1993. Canada’s unknown soldier is also a World War I casualty, but the monument is even newer, having opened in 2000 at the…

  • Tomb Raider (film by Uthaug [2018])

    Alicia Vikander: …the rebooted video game franchise Tomb Raider. In 2019 Vikander lent her voice to the TV series The Dark Crystal: Age of Resistance, a 10-episode prequel to the 1982 puppet fantasy The Dark Crystal, and she starred in the thriller Earthquake Bird, playing a translator whose friend goes missing in…

  • Tomb Raider (electronic game)

    Tomb Raider, action game created in 1996 by British electronic game developers Core Design in partnership with Eidos Interactive Ltd. One of the most influential and critically acclaimed titles of the 1990s, Tomb Raider spawned many sequels and laid the groundwork for its genre with innovative

  • Tomba, Alberto (Italian skier)

    Alberto Tomba, flamboyant Italian Alpine skier who earned five Olympic medals, including gold in both the slalom and the giant slalom at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and in the giant slalom at the 1992 Games in Albertville, France. In 1995 he won the World Cup slalom and

  • Tombador Mountains (mountains, Brazil)

    Bahia: Relief: …and its northern extension, the Tombador Mountains, run north across Bahia from the borders of Minas Gerais and constitute the line of greatest elevation. The Diamantina reaches its maximum elevation at Almas Peak (6,070 feet [1,850 metres]). From the east and west of this dorsal ridge descend plateaus that vary…

  • tombak (musical instrument)

    Darabukka, goblet-shaped small drum that is widely played in Islamic classical and folk music throughout North Africa, Central Asia, and the Middle East. The darabukka is a single-headed drum usually made of clay or wood and is held upright, upside down, or under the arm. It is struck with the

  • Tombalbaye, Fran?ois (president of Chad)

    Chad: Independence: …to some of the opposition, N’Garta (Fran?ois) Tombalbaye, a southern trade union leader, who became the first president of the republic. In March 1961 Tombalbaye achieved a fusion of the PPT with the principal opposition party, the National African Party (PNA), to form a new Union for the Progress of…

  • Tombalbaye, N’Garta (president of Chad)

    Chad: Independence: …to some of the opposition, N’Garta (Fran?ois) Tombalbaye, a southern trade union leader, who became the first president of the republic. In March 1961 Tombalbaye achieved a fusion of the PPT with the principal opposition party, the National African Party (PNA), to form a new Union for the Progress of…

  • Tombali (region, Guinea-Bissau)

    Tombali, region located in southern Guinea-Bissau. The Tombali River flows east-west in the western part of the region, while the Cumbij? River flows east-west through the north and the Cacine River flows east-west in the south; all three empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the coastal area is

  • Tombaugh Regio (physical feature of Pluto)

    Pluto: The surface and interior: That hemisphere is dominated by Tombaugh Regio, a white heart-shaped plain. The western half of Tombaugh Regio is Sputnik Planitia, a smooth plain of nitrogen ice without impact craters. The lack of craters shows that Sputnik Planitia is a very young feature and thus that Pluto likely has some geologic…

  • Tombaugh, Clyde (American astronomer)

    Clyde Tombaugh, American astronomer who discovered Pluto in 1930 after a systematic search for a ninth planet instigated by the predictions of other astronomers. He also discovered several clusters of stars and galaxies, studied the apparent distribution of extragalactic nebulae, and made

  • Tombaugh, Clyde W. (American astronomer)

    Clyde Tombaugh, American astronomer who discovered Pluto in 1930 after a systematic search for a ninth planet instigated by the predictions of other astronomers. He also discovered several clusters of stars and galaxies, studied the apparent distribution of extragalactic nebulae, and made

  • Tombaugh, Clyde William (American astronomer)

    Clyde Tombaugh, American astronomer who discovered Pluto in 1930 after a systematic search for a ninth planet instigated by the predictions of other astronomers. He also discovered several clusters of stars and galaxies, studied the apparent distribution of extragalactic nebulae, and made

  • tombeau (musical form)

    Denis Gaultier: Gaultier also popularized the tombeau, a small piece written to the memory of a great personage.

  • Tombeau des rois, Le (poetry by Hébert)

    Anne Hébert: …by a second poetry collection, Le Tombeau des rois (1953; The Tomb of the Kings), which more clearly reveals her inner anguish and intensity of purpose. Quebec publishers became wary of her work, so aided by a gift from the Royal Society of Canada she moved to Paris to find…

  • Tombigbee River (river, United States)

    Tombigbee River, river formed in northeastern Mississippi, U.S., by the confluence of the West and East forks near Amory, Miss. The river flows south and southeast for nearly 525 miles (845 km) to merge with the Alabama River; the two form the Mobile River, about 45 miles (70 km) north of Mobile,

  • Tombigbee River Valley Water Management District

    Tombigbee River: The Tombigbee River Valley Water Management District has since 1964 been engaged in development of the upper Tombigbee and its tributaries. Aberdeen and Columbus, Miss., and Demopolis are the chief cities on the river. The river system carries heavy traffic between Mobile and Birmingham, Ala. The…

  • tombo (land register)

    Tombo, (Portuguese: “register of grants”), register of landholdings in Ceylon, compiled in the early 17th century under the Portuguese, and in the late 17th and 18th centuries under the Dutch. The traditional system of land tenure in Ceylon was a complex one based on both obligatory service and a

  • tombola (game of chance)

    Bingo, game of chance using cards on which there is a grid of numbers, a row of which constitute a win when they have been chosen at random. Bingo is one of the most popular forms of low-priced gambling in the world. To play bingo, which is a form of lottery, each player purchases one or more c

  • tombolo (geology)

    Tombolo, one or more sandbars or spits that connect an island to the mainland. A single tombolo may connect a tied island to the mainland, as at Marblehead, Mass. A double tombolo encloses a lagoon that eventually fills with sediment; fine examples of these occur off the coast of Italy. The

  • Tombouctou (Mali)

    Timbuktu, city in the western African country of Mali, historically important as a trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route and as a centre of Islamic culture (c. 1400–1600). It is located on the southern edge of the Sahara, about 8 miles (13 km) north of the Niger River. The city was

  • Tombouctou (region, Mali)

    Timbuktu, région, northern Mali, West Africa, bordering Mauritania on the northwest, Algeria on the northeast, and the régions of Gao on the east and Mopti and Ségou on the south. Timbuktu région was created in 1977 from the western part of Gao région. It is entirely within the Sahara (desert)

  • Tombs of the Kings, Valley of the (archaeological site, Egypt)

    Valley of the Kings, long narrow defile just west of the Nile River in Upper Egypt. It was part of the ancient city of Thebes and was the burial site of almost all the kings (pharaohs) of the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties (1539–1075 bce), from Thutmose I to Ramses X. Located in the hills behind

  • Tombs of the Queens, Valley of the (archaeological site, Egypt)

    Valley of the Queens, gorge in the hills along the western bank of the Nile River in Upper Egypt. It was part of ancient Thebes and served as the burial site of the queens and some royal children of the 19th and 20th dynasties (1292–1075 bc). The queens’ necropolis is located about 1.5 miles (2.4

  • tombstone (memorial)

    African art: Horn of Africa: …also of southern Ethiopia, make tombstones of like height, ornamented with engravings filled in with red or black, sometimes showing the deceased in rough relief. Similarly shaped gravestones—sometimes plain, sometimes adorned with decoration—occur in Somalia.

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