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  • toadfish (fish)

    Toadfish, any of about 80 species of bottom-living fishes constituting the family Batrachoididae and the order Batrachoidiformes. They are found chiefly in the New World and mostly in warm seas—occasionally in freshwater. Toadfishes are heavy-bodied fishes with broad, flattened heads and large

  • toadflax (plant)

    Toadflax, (genus Linaria), genus of nearly 150 herbaceous plants in the family Plantaginaceae, native to the north temperate zone, particularly the Mediterranean region. The common name toadflax refers to their flaxlike leaves, and the flowers are two-lipped and spurred like snapdragons. Among the

  • toadstool (fungus)

    Toadstool, any of various inedible or poisonous species of mushrooms (kingdom Fungi). See

  • toadstool poisoning

    Mushroom poisoning, toxic, sometimes fatal, effect of eating poisonous mushrooms (toadstools). There are some 70 to 80 species of mushrooms that are poisonous to humans; many of them contain toxic alkaloids (muscarine, agaricine, phalline). Among the mushrooms that most commonly cause poisoning are

  • Toala (people)

    Celebes: Geography: …ethnic groups inhabit Celebes: the Toala, Toraja, Buginese, Makassarese, Minahasan, Mori, and Gorontalese. The Toala, who live throughout the island, are nomadic, shy jungle dwellers with their own language. The Toraja, inhabiting central, southeastern, and eastern Celebes, are of Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) ancestry; they have their own language and are primarily…

  • Toamasina (Madagascar)

    Toamasina, town, eastern Madagascar. The town lies along the Indian Ocean. It was rebuilt after destruction by hurricane in 1927, with the modern sector centring on the tree-lined avenue Poincaré. Toamasina is Madagascar’s commercial hub and foremost port, handling much of the island’s foreign

  • Toarcian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Toarcian Stage, uppermost of the four divisions of the Lower Jurassic Series, representing all rocks formed worldwide during the Toarcian Age, which occurred between 182.7 million and 174.1 million years ago during the Jurassic Period. The Toarcian Stage overlies the Lower Jurassic Pliensbachian

  • Toast of New Orleans, The (film by Taurog [1950])

    Norman Taurog: Musical comedies and Boys Town: Filmgoers also turned out for The Toast of New Orleans (1950), with Lanza playing a singing fisherman and Grayson as an opera singer. Mrs. O’Malley and Mr. Malone (1950) was a mystery played for laughs, and Rich, Young, and Pretty (1951) had Jane Powell as a diplomat’s daughter who visits…

  • Toast of the Town (American television program)

    Television in the United States: A potpourri of genres: …Red Skelton Show [NBC/CBS/NBC, 1951–71]; The Ed Sullivan Show [CBS, 1948–71]; and others), westerns (Gunsmoke; Bonanza [NBC, 1959–73]; and others), game shows (What’s My Line [CBS, 1950–67]; To Tell the Truth [CBS, 1956–68]; and others), historical dramas (The Untouchables

  • toastmaster’s glass (glassware)

    Toastmaster’s glass, English glass about the size of an ordinary drinking glass but with only about one-quarter of its capacity; the glass creates the illusion of being full by means of a depression in its bowl, which in fact is almost solid. It owed its origin to the clubs of 18th-century

  • Toba (South American people)

    South American nomad: Composite bands: …such as the Abipón, Mocoví, Toba, and Lengua, also became horsemen and raiders. These tribes continued to move their camps in search of pasture for their herds of horses and cattle. Incipient class differences based on war honours and wealth appeared.

  • Toba (Japan)

    Ise-Shima National Park: …for its Shintō shrines, and Toba, a seaport that guards the southern entrance to Ise Bay (Ise-wan). The bay has many islands and is renowned for its Mikimoto cultured-pearl industry. Pearl Island in Toba Harbour is the site where Mikimoto Kōkichi first succeeded in producing a cultured pearl at the…

  • Toba (emperor of Japan)

    Japan: Government by cloistered emperors: …followed by three successive rulers—Shirakawa, Toba, and Go-Shirakawa—who exercised sovereign power both as emperors and then even more effectively as retired emperors. Governmental control in Japan thus passed from Fujiwara regents to the “cloistered emperors” who wielded real power behind the scenes during the late 11th and 12th centuries. This…

  • Toba Batak language

    Austronesian languages: Early classification work: …der Tuuk’s grammar of the Toba Batak language of northern Sumatra, published in two volumes between 1864 and 1867, stands as one of the earliest attempts to represent a non-Western language in terms of inductively derived categories rather than in terms of traditional Latin grammar. Despite his many achievements, however,…

  • Toba II (emperor of Japan)

    Go-Toba, 82nd emperor of Japan, whose attempt to restore power to the imperial house resulted in total subjugation of the Japanese court. He was placed on the throne in 1183, taking the reign name Go-Toba (“Later Toba”), by the Minamoto clan after it had established military hegemony over most of

  • Toba Sōjō (Japanese artist and priest)

    Toba Sōjō, 47th head priest of the Enryaku-ji, which is headquarters of the Tendai sect of Buddhism, near Kyōto in modern Shiga Prefecture. Toba is traditionally regarded as the artist of a series of important narrative scrolls featuring humorous secular subjects: “History of Mount Shigi” and “

  • Toba, Abbot of (Japanese artist and priest)

    Toba Sōjō, 47th head priest of the Enryaku-ji, which is headquarters of the Tendai sect of Buddhism, near Kyōto in modern Shiga Prefecture. Toba is traditionally regarded as the artist of a series of important narrative scrolls featuring humorous secular subjects: “History of Mount Shigi” and “

  • Toba, Danau (lake, Indonesia)

    Lake Toba, lake in the Barisan Mountains, north-central Sumatra, Indonesia. It covers an area of about 440 square miles (1,140 square km), excluding Samosir Island, which occupies a large part of the lake’s centre and which is about 30 miles (50 km) long and 10 miles (15 km) wide. The lake drains

  • Toba, Go- (emperor of Japan)

    Go-Toba, 82nd emperor of Japan, whose attempt to restore power to the imperial house resulted in total subjugation of the Japanese court. He was placed on the throne in 1183, taking the reign name Go-Toba (“Later Toba”), by the Minamoto clan after it had established military hegemony over most of

  • Toba, Lake (lake, Indonesia)

    Lake Toba, lake in the Barisan Mountains, north-central Sumatra, Indonesia. It covers an area of about 440 square miles (1,140 square km), excluding Samosir Island, which occupies a large part of the lake’s centre and which is about 30 miles (50 km) long and 10 miles (15 km) wide. The lake drains

  • Toba, Mount (ancient volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia)

    Mount Toba, ancient volcano located in the Barisan Mountains, north-central Sumatra, Indonesia. A massive eruption sometime between 71,000 and 74,000 years ago expelled an estimated 2,800 cubic km (about 670 cubic miles) of ash and lava. That event is considered by many volcanologists to be the

  • tobacco (plant genus)

    Jean Nicot: …diplomat and scholar who introduced tobacco to the French court in the 16th century, which gave rise to the culture of snuffing and to the plant’s eventual dissemination and popularization throughout Europe.

  • tobacco (plant species)

    Tobacco, common name of the plant Nicotiana tabacum and, to a limited extent, Aztec tobacco (N. rustica) and the cured leaf that is used, usually after aging and processing in various ways, for smoking, chewing, snuffing, and extraction of nicotine. Various other species in the genus Nicotiana are

  • tobacco cloth (fabric)

    gauze: …and used for curtains; and tobacco cloth, used as shade covering for tobacco plants. The main differences between them are in the finishing (for example, cheesecloth that is bleached and stiffened may be called scrim) and in the quality of the fibre (tobacco cloth is commonly made of low-grade yarns).

  • tobacco hornworm (insect)

    hawk moth: …destructive North American species, the tobacco, or southern, hornworm (Manduca sexta) and the tomato, or northern, hornworm (M. quinquemaculata), attack tomato, tobacco, and potato crops. These leaf-feeding pests are green and can be 10 cm (4 inches) long. Control includes the use of a natural enemy, the braconid wasp (Apanteles…

  • Tobacco Indians (people)

    Tionontati, Iroquoian-speaking Indians formerly living in the mountains south of Nottawasaga Bay, in what are now Grey and Simcoe counties, Ontario. In 1616 they were visited by the French, who called them the Tobacco Nation because of their extensive cultivation of this plant. They also grew

  • tobacco industry

    Fortune Brands, Inc.: …which grew out of the tobacco business established in North Carolina by the Duke family (see James B. Duke) and which controlled the U.S. tobacco industry until it was broken up under antitrust laws in 1911. American Tobacco continued to sell such brands as Lucky Strike and Pall Mall. It…

  • tobacco mosaic virus (plant virus)

    plant virus: …of the most well-studied viruses, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), is spread mechanically by abrasion with infected sap. Symptoms of virus infection include colour changes, dwarfing, and tissue distortion. The appearance of streaks of colour in certain tulips is caused by virus.

  • Tobacco Nation (people)

    Tionontati, Iroquoian-speaking Indians formerly living in the mountains south of Nottawasaga Bay, in what are now Grey and Simcoe counties, Ontario. In 1616 they were visited by the French, who called them the Tobacco Nation because of their extensive cultivation of this plant. They also grew

  • tobacco pipe (smoking)

    Pipe, hollow bowl used for smoking tobacco; it is equipped with a hollow stem through which smoke is drawn into the mouth. The bowl can be made of such materials as clay, corncob, meerschaum (a mineral composed of magnesia, silica, and water), and most importantly, briar-wood, the root of a species

  • tobacco product

    smoking: …is most commonly associated with tobacco as smoked in a cigarette, cigar, or pipe. Tobacco contains nicotine, an alkaloid that is addictive and can have both stimulating and tranquilizing psychoactive effects. The smoking of tobacco, long practiced by American Indians, was introduced to Europe by

  • Tobacco Riots (Iranian history)

    Shi?i: Shi?i dynasties: …the widespread, and ultimately successful, protest against the tobacco concession granted by the Qājār court to a British firm in the 1890s, and they also motivated the early 20th-century Constitutional Revolution, which established a constitution and a parliament in Iran to check the efforts of the Qājār shahs to further…

  • Tobacco Road (novel by Caldwell)

    Tobacco Road, novel by Erskine Caldwell, published in 1932. A tale of violence and sex among rural poor in the American South, the novel was highly controversial in its time. It is the story of Georgia sharecropper Jeeter Lester and his family, who are trapped by the bleak economic conditions of

  • tobacco society (North American Indian practice)

    Crow: …and societies among the Crow, Tobacco Societies involved an entrance fee and an elaborate initiation rite, and they were joined by married couples rather than individuals.

  • Tobago

    Trinidad and Tobago, island country of the southeastern West Indies. It consists of two main islands—Trinidad and Tobago—and several smaller islands. Forming the two southernmost links in the Caribbean chain, Trinidad and Tobago lie close to the continent of South America, northeast of Venezuela

  • Tobago Cays (island, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: The Tobago Cays, just to the east of Mayreau, have been designated a wildlife reserve.

  • Tobaski (Islamic festival)

    Eid al-Adha, (Arabic: “Festival of Sacrifice”) the second of two great Muslim festivals, the other being Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Adha marks the culmination of the hajj (pilgrimage) rites at Minā, Saudi Arabia, near Mecca, but is celebrated by Muslims throughout the world. As with Eid al-Fitr, it is

  • Tobata (Japan)

    Kitakyūshū: Tobata is one of the main deep-sea-fishing bases of western Japan, has a large output of cotton textiles, and contains numerous metal industries. Kokura, a former arsenal town, specializes in iron and steel and machinery. Moji contains the city’s major port facilities; it is a…

  • Tobeian (Japanese painter)

    Itō Jakuchū, Japanese painter of the mid-Tokugawa period (1603–1867) who excelled in drawing flowers, fish, and birds, especially fowl, which he used to keep at his home in order to observe them closely. The son of a greengrocer, he first studied drawing with a painter of the Kanō school (

  • Tobermory (short story by Saki)

    Tobermory, short story by Saki, published in the 1911 collection The Chronicles of Clovis. This miniature masterpiece about a cool and malicious talking cat who threatens to reveal secrets he has heard at a country party satirizes the pretensions and hypocrisies of Edwardian society. Written in

  • Tobey, Mark (American artist)

    Mark Tobey, American painter whose individual experiments with abstract, calligraphic work influenced subsequent art trends, especially Abstract Expressionism. Tobey studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and worked for a time as a fashion illustrator and portraitist in New York

  • tobiano (colour)

    Pinto: …with a darker colour) and tobiano (white spreading down from the back in smooth, clean-cut patterns).

  • Tobias (biblical figure)

    biblical literature: Tobit: …in Nineveh; his son was Tobias. Obeying the tenets of Jewish piety, Tobit buried the corpses of his fellow Israelites who had been executed. One day, when he buried a dead man, the warm dung of sparrows fell in his eyes and blinded him. His family subsequently suffered from poverty,…

  • Tobias and the Angel (work by Seghers)

    printmaking: The Netherlands: …reworked one of his plates, Tobias and the Angel (c. 1633); keeping the landscape, he changed the figures, making it The Flight into Egypt (1653).

  • Tobias, George (American actor)

    The Set-Up: Cast: Assorted Referencesdiscussed in biography

  • Tobias, Phillip Vallentine (British-South African anatomist and anthropologist)

    Phillip Vallentine Tobias, South African paleoanthropologist (born Oct. 14, 1925, Durban, Natal, S.Af.—died June 7, 2012, Johannesburg, S.Af.), was renowned for his work with fossil skull reconstructions of primitive members of genus Homo, his description and naming of H. habilis (“handy man”) with

  • Tobias, The Book of (biblical literature)

    Tobit, apocryphal work (noncanonical for Jews and Protestants) that found its way into the Roman Catholic canon via the Septuagint. A religious folktale and a Judaicized version of the story of the grateful dead, it relates how Tobit, a pious Jew exiled to Nineveh in Assyria, observed the p

  • Tobin tax (economics)

    Tobin tax, proposed tax on short-term currency transactions. A Tobin tax is designed to deter only speculative flows of hot money—money that moves regularly between financial markets in search of high short-term interest rates. It is not meant to impact long-term investments. The shorter the

  • Tobin’s q (economics)

    James Tobin: He introduced “Tobin’s q,” the ratio of the market value of an asset to its replacement cost. If an asset’s q is greater than one, then new investment in similar assets will be profitable.

  • Tobin, Daniel J. (American labour leader)

    Teamsters Union: …the union was headed by Daniel J. Tobin, who increased membership from 40,000 in 1907 to more than 1,000,000 by 1950. It had become the nation’s largest union by 1940. Presidents Dave Beck (1952–57) and James Hoffa (1957–71) shaped the Teamsters into a strongly centralized union capable of negotiating nationwide…

  • Tobin, James (American economist)

    James Tobin, American economist whose contributions to the theoretical formulation of investment behaviour offered valuable insights into financial markets. His work earned him the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1981. After taking degrees from Harvard University (B.A., 1939; Ph.D., 1947), Tobin spent

  • Tobin, Margaret (American parvenue)

    Molly Brown, American human-rights activist, philanthropist, and actress who survived the sinking of the Titanic. The real-life Margaret Tobin Brown, never known in life by the nickname Molly, bears little resemblance to the legendary Molly Brown, who was created in the 1930s and achieved

  • Tobino, Mario (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Social commitment and the new realism: …provincial life under fascism—for example, Mario Tobino’s Bandiera nera (1950; “Black Flag”) and Goffredo Parise’s Prete bello (1954; “The Handsome Priest”; Eng. trans. The Priest Among the Pigeons). In contrast to the more topical appeal of these writings, the great virtue of Pavese’s narrative was the universality of its characters…

  • tobira (plant)

    Pittosporaceae: Tobira, or house-blooming mock orange (P. tobira), is a popular aromatic hedge plant in warm climates but a handsome indoor plant elsewhere. Karo (P. crassifolium) often is planted as a windbreak on seacoasts. The genera Hymenosporum, Bursaria, and Sollya also contain ornamental species.

  • Tobis-Klangfilm (German company)

    history of the motion picture: International cinema: …war between the German cartel Tobis-Klangfilm, which controlled the European rights to sound-on-film technology, and Western Electric. The dispute was finally resolved at the 1930 German-American Film Conference in Paris, where Tobis, ERPI, and RCA agreed to pool their patents and divide the world market among themselves. The language problem…

  • Tobit (biblical literature)

    Tobit, apocryphal work (noncanonical for Jews and Protestants) that found its way into the Roman Catholic canon via the Septuagint. A religious folktale and a Judaicized version of the story of the grateful dead, it relates how Tobit, a pious Jew exiled to Nineveh in Assyria, observed the p

  • Tobit (biblical figure)

    Tobit: …grateful dead, it relates how Tobit, a pious Jew exiled to Nineveh in Assyria, observed the precepts of Hebrew Law by giving alms and by burying the dead. In spite of his good works, Tobit was struck blind.

  • Tobler, Waldo (American geographer)

    GIS: By 1959 the American geographer Waldo Tobler had developed a simple model to harness the computer for cartography. His MIMO (“map in–map out”) system made it possible to convert maps into a computer-usable form, manipulate the files, and produce a new map as the output. This innovation and its earliest…

  • toboggan (animal behaviour)

    penguin: Locomotion and orientation: … or ice, many penguins “toboggan,” sliding on the belly as they propel themselves with the feet and flippers. The flippers, along with the beak, are the prime weapons in defense and attack.

  • toboggan (type of sled)

    tobogganing: …a runnerless sled called a toboggan. In Europe, small sleds with runners are also called toboggans (see lugeing; skeleton sledding).

  • tobogganing (recreation)

    Tobogganing, the sport of sliding down snow-covered slopes and artificial-ice-covered chutes on a runnerless sled called a toboggan. In Europe, small sleds with runners are also called toboggans (see lugeing; skeleton sledding). The runnerless toboggan was originally an American Indian sled made of

  • Tobol River (river, Asia)

    Tobol River, river, left-bank tributary of the Irtysh (Ertis) River, flowing through northern Kazakhstan into southern Russia. After rising in the low mountains of the Torghay Plateau, it flows northeast across the West Siberian Plain past the cities of Qostanay (Kazakhstan) and Kurgan (Russia)

  • Tobolsk (Russia)

    Tobolsk, city, Tyumen oblast (region), west-central Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Irtysh and Tobol rivers. Founded in 1587, it was one of the chief centres of early Russian colonization in Siberia because it lay along an important river route to the east, but it declined when bypassed by

  • Tobruk (Libya)

    Tobruk, port, northeastern Libya. It was the site of Antipyrgos, an ancient Greek agricultural colony, and thereafter of a Roman fortress guarding the Cyrenaican frontier. The town later became a way station on the coastal caravan route. Because it is Libya’s only natural harbour, Tobruk was

  • toby jug

    pottery: 18th-century developments: …noted for the typical English Toby jug (first made soon after 1700), which is a beer jug in the form of a man, usually seated and holding a pipe and a mug, the hat (where present) forming a detachable lid. Very popular, it continued in production for many years. Enoch…

  • Toby Philpot (work by Wood)

    Wood Family: …model of the kind being “Toby Philpot” about 1762.

  • Tobyl River (river, Asia)

    Tobol River, river, left-bank tributary of the Irtysh (Ertis) River, flowing through northern Kazakhstan into southern Russia. After rising in the low mountains of the Torghay Plateau, it flows northeast across the West Siberian Plain past the cities of Qostanay (Kazakhstan) and Kurgan (Russia)

  • Tocantins (state, Brazil)

    Tocantins, inland estado (state) of north-central Brazil. Tocantins is bounded by the states of Maranh?o and Piauí to the northeast, Bahia to the east, Goiás to the south, Mato Grosso to the west, and Pará to the northwest. Tocantins was created from the northern two-fifths of Goiás state in 1989.

  • Tocantins River (river, Brazil)

    Tocantins River, river that rises in several headstreams on the central plateau in Goiás estado (state), Brazil. It flows northward through Goiás and then Tocantins states until it receives the Manuel Alves Grande River. Looping westward, it marks the boundary of Tocantins and Maranh?o states as

  • Tocantins-Araguaia river system (watershed, South America)

    Brazil: Drainage: The Tocantins-Araguaia river system rises in the highlands of Goiás and Mato Grosso states and discharges into the Pará River just south of the Amazon delta. The Tocantins, though popularly regarded as a tributary of the Amazon, is technically a separate system draining some 314,200 square…

  • toccata (music)

    Toccata, musical form for keyboard instruments, written in a free style that is characterized by full chords, rapid runs, high harmonies, and other virtuoso elements designed to show off the performer’s “touch.” The earliest use of the term (about 1536) was associated with solo lute music of an

  • Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 565 (work by Bach)

    Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 565, two-part musical composition for organ, probably written before 1708, by Johann Sebastian Bach, known for its majestic sound, dramatic authority, and driving rhythm. The piece is perhaps most widely known by its appearance in the opening minutes of the 1940

  • Toccata for Percussion Instruments (work by Chávez)

    Carlos Chávez: The Toccata for percussion instruments (1942) is scored for 11 types of percussion instruments, some of them indigenous, played by six performers. Chávez’s other works include the ballet Los cuatro soles (1925; “The Four Suns”), Xochipilli Macuilxochitl for orchestra with indigenous instruments (1940), the Violin Concerto…

  • Toccate d’intavolature di cimbalo e organo (work by Frescobaldi)

    Girolamo Frescobaldi: …in the title of his Toccate d’intavolature di cimbalo e organo (1637). The volume includes also partitas on various melodies and pieces on ground basses. These show Frescobaldi’s free inventiveness in genuine keyboard textures and figuration. The preface of another collection, first published in 1627, again gives information of great…

  • Toccoa (Georgia, United States)

    Toccoa, city, seat (1905) of Stephens county, northeastern Georgia, U.S. It lies on the Dahlonega Upland, northwest of Hartwell Dam and Lake near the South Carolina border, about 50 miles (80 km) north of Athens. Toccoa was laid out in 1873 and is at the edge of Chattahoochee National Forest in a

  • Toccoa Falls College (college, Toccoa, Georgia, United States)

    Toccoa: Toccoa Falls College (formerly Institute) was established in 1907 as an independent Christian school. Toccoa (probably from Cherokee toccoa, “beautiful”) Falls, a cascade 186 feet (57 metres) high on Toccoa Creek, is on the campus. In November 1977 the Kelley Barnes earthen dam on the…

  • Toccoa Falls Institute (college, Toccoa, Georgia, United States)

    Toccoa: Toccoa Falls College (formerly Institute) was established in 1907 as an independent Christian school. Toccoa (probably from Cherokee toccoa, “beautiful”) Falls, a cascade 186 feet (57 metres) high on Toccoa Creek, is on the campus. In November 1977 the Kelley Barnes earthen dam on the…

  • Toch, Ernst (Austrian composer)

    Ernst Toch, composer whose works, noted for their perfection of form, fused elements from the classical tradition with modern musical ideas. Although he rarely carried innovation to great lengths, he was considered a leader of the avant-garde composers in pre-Nazi Germany and, like many of them,

  • Tochari (people)

    Bactria: …Iranian people and included the Tocharoi, whose name was subsequently applied to the whole area (Tocharian kingdom). In the 1st century ad the new rulers of Bactria extended their rule into northwestern India; that movement is associated with a group known as the Kushāns, under whom the country became a…

  • Tocharian A (language)

    Indo-European languages: Tocharian: …are known, labeled A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) and B (West Tocharian, or Kuchean). One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries. These languages became known to scholars…

  • Tocharian B (language)

    Sylvain Lévi: …the dates of texts in Tocharian B and published Fragments de textes koutchéens . . . (1933; “Fragments of Texts from Kucha”).

  • Tocharian languages

    Tocharian languages, small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium ad. Documents from ad 500–700 attest to two: Tocharian A, from the

  • Tocharisch languages

    Tocharian languages, small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium ad. Documents from ad 500–700 attest to two: Tocharian A, from the

  • Tocharoi (people)

    Bactria: …Iranian people and included the Tocharoi, whose name was subsequently applied to the whole area (Tocharian kingdom). In the 1st century ad the new rulers of Bactria extended their rule into northwestern India; that movement is associated with a group known as the Kushāns, under whom the country became a…

  • Tochigi (prefecture, Japan)

    Tochigi, ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan, in the northern Kantō chihō (region). Utsunomiya, in south-central Tochigi, is the prefectural capital. The southeastern portion of the prefecture constitutes the northern extent of the Kantō Plain. The land rises along the eastern border with Ibaraki

  • Toci (Aztec deity)

    Coatlicue, (Nahuatl: “Serpent Skirt”) Aztec earth goddess, symbol of the earth as both creator and destroyer, mother of the gods and mortals. The dualism that she embodies is powerfully concretized in her image: her face is of two fanged serpents and her skirt is of interwoven snakes (snakes

  • Tocmectone (Native American educator, author and lecturer)

    Sarah Winnemucca, Native American educator, lecturer, tribal leader, and writer best known for her book Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims (1883). Her writings, valuable for their description of Northern Paiute life and for their insights into the impact of white settlement, are among

  • tocopherol (chemical compound)

    vitamin E: …E activity and classified as tocopherols or tocotrienols have been isolated.

  • Tocopilla (Chile)

    Tocopilla, city, northern Chile. It is situated on the Pacific coast. Founded in 1843, it developed as a shipping point for copper mined inland. Now it is a major port and rail terminus for the nitrate and iodine mined at nearby María Elena and Pedro de Valdivia and for the copper mined at

  • tocororo (bird)

    Cuba: Plant and animal life: The endemic forest-dwelling tocororo (Trogon temnurus, or Priotelus temnurus), which is similar in appearance to the Guatemalan quetzal, was designated the national bird of Cuba because its bright plumes of red, white, and blue correspond to the colours of the Cuban flag; the tocororo is reputed to survive…

  • tocotrienol (chemical compound)

    vitamin E: …E activity and classified as tocopherols or tocotrienols have been isolated.

  • Tocqueville, Alexis Charles-Henri-Maurice Clérel de (French historian and political writer)

    Alexis de Tocqueville, political scientist, historian, and politician, best known for Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a perceptive analysis of the political and social system of the United States in the early 19th century. Tocqueville was a great-grandson of the statesman Chrétien de

  • Tocqueville, Alexis de (French historian and political writer)

    Alexis de Tocqueville, political scientist, historian, and politician, best known for Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a perceptive analysis of the political and social system of the United States in the early 19th century. Tocqueville was a great-grandson of the statesman Chrétien de

  • Tod Abels, Der (poem by Gessner)

    Salomon Gessner: … (1756–72) and his epic poem Der Tod Abels (1758; “The Death of Abel”) were his most renowned works, making him the most successful and typical representative of a literary rococo movement. His pastorals were translated into 20 languages, including Welsh, Latin, and Hebrew. The English translation ran through many editions…

  • Tod des Empedokles, Der (tragedy by H?lderlin)

    Friedrich H?lderlin: …Der Tod des Empedokles (The Death of Empedocles), the first version of which he nearly completed; fragments of a second and a third version have also survived. Symptoms of great nervous irritability alarmed his family and friends. Nevertheless, the years 1798–1801 were a period of intense creativity; in addition…

  • Tod des Vergil, Der (novel by Broch)

    The Death of Virgil, novel by Hermann Broch, published simultaneously in German (as Der Tod des Vergil) and in English in 1945. The novel, the best known of the author’s works, imaginatively re-creates the last 18 hours of the Roman poet Virgil’s life as he is taken to Brundisium (now Brindisi)

  • Tod in Venedig, Der (novella by Mann)

    Death in Venice, novella by Thomas Mann, published in German as Der Tod in Venedig in 1912. A symbol-laden story of aestheticism and decadence, Mann’s best-known novella exemplifies the author’s regard for Sigmund Freud’s writings on the unconscious. Gustav von Aschenbach is a revered author whose

  • Tod Jesu, Der (oratorio by Graun)

    Carl Heinrich Graun: …especially for his Passion oratorio Der Tod Jesu.

  • Tod und Feuer (painting by Klee)

    Paul Klee: Artistic maturity: …to their former selves, and Death and Fire (1940), Klee’s evocation of the underworld, in which a rueful face of death is placed in an infernal setting of fiery red. These late images are among the most memorable of all Klee’s works and are some of the most significant depictions…

  • Tod und Verkl?rung (work by Strauss)

    Richard Strauss: Works: …poem Tod und Verkl?rung (1888–89; Death and Transfiguration), in which a dying man surveys his life and ideals. The rondo form is used in the tone poem Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (1894–95; Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks), wherein Strauss found the exact instrumental sounds and colours to depict the 14th-century rogue…

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