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  • TMS

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), technique based on electromagnetic induction that is used to stimulate neurons in the brain cortex (the outer layer of brain tissue, or gray matter). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was introduced by English medical physicist Anthony Barker in 1985

  • TMV (plant virus)

    plant virus: …of the most well-studied viruses, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), is spread mechanically by abrasion with infected sap. Symptoms of virus infection include colour changes, dwarfing, and tissue distortion. The appearance of streaks of colour in certain tulips is caused by virus.

  • TMX Group (Canadian company)

    London Stock Exchange: …that the LSE and the TMX Group, owner of the Toronto Stock Exchange, had agreed to merge.

  • Tn (chemical isotope)

    radon: Radon-220 (thoron; 51.5-second half-life) was first observed in 1899 by the British scientists Robert B. Owens and Ernest Rutherford, who noticed that some of the radioactivity of thorium compounds could be blown away by breezes in the laboratory. Radon-219 (actinon; 3.92-second half-life), which is associated…

  • TN cell (physics)

    liquid crystal display: Twisted nematic displays: A TN cell, as shown in the figure, consists of upper and lower substrate plates separated by a narrow gap (typically 5–10 micrometres; 1 micrometre = 10?6 metre) filled with a layer of liquid crystal. The substrate plates are normally transparent glass and carry patterned electrically…

  • TNC (rebel leadership council, Libya)

    Arab Spring: …recognized provisional government, known the Transitional National Council (TNC), took power. The TNC struggled to restart the Libyan economy, establish functional institutions of government, and exert control over the many autonomous regional and tribal militias that had participated in the rebellion against Qaddafi.

  • TNF (pathology)

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a naturally occurring protein that is produced in the human body by the phagocytic cells known as macrophages. (The latter can engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances.) TNF is produced by macrophages when they encounter the poisonous

  • TNFSF15 (protein)

    inflammatory bowel disease: …mutation of a gene called TNFSF15 (tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15), which is involved in suppressing inflammation, has been identified as an ethnic-specific IBD susceptibility gene. In addition, variation of a gene called IL23R (interleukin 23 receptor), particularly in persons of northern European descent, has been associated with…

  • TNG (American television program)

    Star Trek: …number of spin-off series, including Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987–94), Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993–99), Star Trek: Voyager (1995–2001), and Star Trek: Enterprise (2001–05). The franchise also yielded numerous feature films, among them Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), which was followed by five further movies featuring the…

  • TNI (Indonesian military)

    Indonesia: Security: …of their pre-Sukarno names, the National Army of Indonesia (Tentara Nasional Indonesia; TNI), and the police were split into a separate unit. The army, constituting more than three-fourths of the forces, has remained the largest segment of the TNI. Men must be at least 18 years old to join the…

  • TNM staging system (tumour classification system)

    cancer: Grading and staging: …standardized classification system is the TNM staging system, put forth by the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer and the American Joint Committee on Cancer. In this system T refers to the size of the primary tumour, N to the presence and extent of lymph node metastases, and M to the…

  • TNO (astronomy)

    Kuiper belt: …may represent the transition from Kuiper belt objects [KBOs] to short-period comets.) Although its existence had been assumed for decades, the Kuiper belt remained undetected until the 1990s, when the prerequisite large telescopes and sensitive light detectors became available.

  • TNP (French national theatre)

    Théatre National Populaire (TNP), French national theatre created in 1920 to bring theatre to the general public. Its first director, Firmin Gémier, had been the director of the Théatre Antoine and had made a number of attempts to create a people’s theatre. Initially the TNP offered productions

  • TNT (American cable network)

    Ted Turner: Media empire: …news channel, and TNT (Turner Network Television; 1988). Through the Turner Broadcasting System, he also purchased the Atlanta Braves major league baseball team in 1976 and the Atlanta Hawks professional basketball team in 1977. In 1986 he bought the MGM/UA Entertainment Company, which included Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s library of more than…

  • TNT (chemical compound)

    Trinitrotoluene (TNT), a pale yellow, solid organic nitrogen compound used chiefly as an explosive, prepared by stepwise nitration of toluene. Because TNT melts at 82° C (178° F) and does not explode below 240° C (464° F), it can be melted in steam-heated vessels and poured into casings. It is

  • TNX (explosive)

    explosive: TNT: …a mixture of 40 percent trinitroxylene (TNX) and 60 percent TNT. This mixture not only casts perfectly but can be detonated with a smaller tetryl booster. There is no indication that any TNX was used in World War II; it is believed to have been replaced by PETN and RDX.

  • Tny (Egypt)

    Jirjā: …was probably the town of This (Tny), ancestral home of the 1st dynasty (c. 2925–c. 2775 bce), which unified Egypt. Its present name derives from the ancient Coptic monastery of Mar Girgis, dedicated to St. George. In the 14th century ce it became a centre of the Hawwārah, an Arabized…

  • To a Fat Lady Seen from a Train (poem by Cornford)

    Frances Cornford: …the sadly comic poem “To a Fat Lady Seen from a Train” (“O fat white woman whom nobody loves, / Why do you walk through the fields in gloves…”).

  • To a Friend Studying German (poem by Leland)

    macaronic: …in particular his warning “To a Friend Studying German”:

  • To a Sky-Lark (poem by Shelley)

    To a Skylark, lyric poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley, published in 1820 with Prometheus Unbound. Consisting of 21 five-line stanzas, “To a Skylark” is considered a work of metric virtuosity in its ability to convey the swift movement of the bird who swoops high above the earth, beyond mortal

  • To a Waterfowl (poem by Bryant)

    To a Waterfowl, lyric poem by William Cullen Bryant, published in 1818 and collected in Poems (1821). It is written in alternately rhymed quatrains. At the end of a difficult day filled with uncertainty and self-doubt, the poet is comforted by the sight of a solitary waterfowl on the horizon and

  • To Add One Metre to an Anonymous Mountain (performance art by Zhang Huan)

    Zhang Huan: …several group performances, such as To Add One Metre to an Anonymous Mountain (1995). In this piece Zhang and nine others gathered on a mountain peak, removed their clothes, and laid atop one another until they achieved a height of one metre. Other characteristic images of art made during this…

  • To All the Girls... (album by Nelson [2013])

    Willie Nelson: … (2013), a collection of standards; To All the Girls… (2013), a series of duets with female singers; and Summertime (2016), a set of George Gershwin songs. In 2014 Nelson issued Band of Brothers, which comprised largely new material, and Willie’s Stash, Vol. 1: December Day, the first in a series…

  • To an Athlete Dying Young (poem by Housman)

    To an Athlete Dying Young, poem by A.E. Housman, published in the collection A Shropshire Lad. In seven melancholy stanzas, the poet reflects upon a young athlete brought home to be buried, musing that he was lucky to die at the peak of his glory since he will now never experience the fading of

  • To Anacreon in Heaven (English drinking song)

    The Star-Spangled Banner: Origin of the melody: …taken from the song “To Anacreon in Heaven,” which first surfaced about 1776 as a club anthem of the Anacreontic Society, an amateur mens’ music club in London. Written by British composer John Stafford Smith—whose identity was discovered only in the 1970s by a librarian in the music division…

  • To Autumn (poem by Keats)

    To Autumn, last major poem by John Keats, published in Lamia, Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems (1820). “To Autumn” (often grouped with his other odes, although Keats did not refer to it as an ode) comprises three 11-line stanzas. Written shortly before the poet died, the poem is a

  • To Axion Esti (poem by Elytis)

    Odysseus Elytis: The Axion Esti), a long poem in which the speaker explores the essence of his being as well as the identity of his country and people. This poem, set to music by Mikis Theodorakis, became immensely popular and helped Elytis earn the Nobel Prize.

  • To Be a Pilgrim (novel by Cary)

    To Be a Pilgrim, second novel in a trilogy by Joyce Cary, published in 1942. The novel is told in the voice of Tom Wilcher, an old man who is out of touch with the values of his era. Herself Surprised (1941) and The Horse’s Mouth (1944) are the first and third novels in the

  • To Be or Not to Be (film by Johnson [1983])

    Mel Brooks: Work as producer and actor: Brooks costarred with Bancroft in To Be or Not to Be (1983), a remake of the Ernst Lubitsch-directed film of the same name. His work as an actor included regular appearances on the popular TV sitcom Mad About You in the late 1990s, for which he won three Emmys, and…

  • To Be or Not to Be (film by Lubitsch [1942])

    To Be or Not to Be, American screwball comedy film, released in 1942, that was Carole Lombard’s last film. Directed by Ernst Lubitsch, it is set in German-occupied Warsaw during World War II. The film’s comedic skewering of Nazis was particularly controversial at a time when the war was ongoing.

  • To Be the Poet (work by Kingston)

    Maxine Hong Kingston: In To Be the Poet (2002), written mainly in verse, Kingston presented a rumination on elements of her own past and the acts of reading and creating poetry. The Fifth Book of Peace (2003) combines elements of fiction and memoir in the manner of a Chinese…

  • To Be Young, Gifted, and Black (work by Hansberry)

    To Be Young, Gifted, and Black, collection of writings, some previously unpublished, by playwright Lorraine Hansberry, produced in a stage adaptation Off-Broadway in 1969 and published in book form in 1970. Robert Nemiroff, Hansberry’s literary executor and ex-husband, edited and published this

  • To Bedlam and Part Way Back (poetry by Sexton)

    Anne Sexton: …periodicals, and her first book, To Bedlam and Part Way Back, was published in 1960. The book won immediate attention because of the intensely personal and relentlessly honest self-revelatory nature of the poems recording her nervous breakdown and recovery. Their imagery was frequently brilliant, and their tone was both sardonic…

  • To Begin Again (film by Garci [1982])
  • To Bring You My Love (album by Harvey)

    PJ Harvey: To Bring You My Love (1995) featured an expanded band and more-accessible arrangements. When Harvey toured with this material, she set aside her rugged guitar playing for a more theatrical presentation and was received with the kinds of cult accolades that Bruce Springsteen had generated…

  • To Build a Fire (short story by London)

    To Build a Fire, short story by Jack London, published in Century Magazine in 1908 and later reprinted in the 1910 collection Lost Face. (An earlier draft had been published in 1902 in Youth’s Companion.) London’s widely anthologized masterpiece illustrates in graphic terms the futility of human

  • To Catch a Thief (film by Hitchcock [1955])

    Alfred Hitchcock: The Paramount years: Rear Window to North by Northwest: Kelly also appeared in To Catch a Thief (1955), a romantic thriller shot on the French Riviera, in which she was paired with the debonair Cary Grant, who played a former jewel thief who may have returned to his old ways. Hitchcock came to regret this production, since it…

  • To Daffodils (work by Herrick)

    beginning rhyme: …and 4 of Robert Herrick’s “To Daffodils” demonstrate beginning rhyme:

  • To Damascus (work by Strindberg)

    August Strindberg: Late years: …a drama in three parts, To Damascus, in which he depicts himself as “the Stranger,” a wanderer seeking spiritual peace and finding it with another character, “the Lady,” who resembles both Siri and Frida.

  • To Demetrianus (work by Cyprian)

    Stoicism: Stoic elements in Pauline and patristic thought: …in his Ad Demetrianum (To Demetrius), a denunciation of an enemy to Christianity, in which Cyprian castigates the ill treatment of slaves (who, no less than their masters, are formed of the same matter and endowed with the same soul and live according to the same law). The beliefs…

  • To Demetrius (work by Cyprian)

    Stoicism: Stoic elements in Pauline and patristic thought: …in his Ad Demetrianum (To Demetrius), a denunciation of an enemy to Christianity, in which Cyprian castigates the ill treatment of slaves (who, no less than their masters, are formed of the same matter and endowed with the same soul and live according to the same law). The beliefs…

  • To Die For (film by Van Sant [1995])

    Gus Van Sant: To Die For (1995), however, was widely lauded for its incisive satire of the American fixation on celebrity. In the film, a Machiavellian news anchor played by Nicole Kidman manipulates three teenagers into murdering her unambitious husband, whom she sees as impeding her trajectory to…

  • To Each His Own (film by Leisen [1946])

    Mitchell Leisen: Films of the 1940s: To Each His Own (1946), one of Leisen’s most highly regarded films, earned the respect of critics who praised his deft, sensitive handling of a story that might have easily descended into maudlin melodrama in another director’s hands. De Havilland won an Academy Award for…

  • To Every Birth Its Blood (novel by Serote)

    African literature: English: In To Every Birth Its Blood (1981), Mongane Wally Serote tells the stories of Tsi Molope and Oupa Molope. Tsi looks to his past and wonders, “Where does a river begin to take its journey to the sea?” The world in which Oupa—the son of Mary,…

  • To God: From the Warring Nations (poetry by Maurice)

    Furnley Maurice: …best known for his book To God: From the Warring Nations (1917), a powerful indictment of the waste, cruelty, and stupidity of war. He was also the author of lyrics, satirical verses, and essays.

  • To Have and Have Not (novel by Hemingway)

    To Have and Have Not, minor novel by Ernest Hemingway, published in 1937. Set in and near Key West, Florida, the novel is about a cynical boat owner whose concern for his rum-soaked sidekick and love for a reckless woman lead him to risk everything to aid gunrunners in a noble

  • To Have and Have Not (film by Hawks [1944])

    To Have and Have Not, American romantic adventure film, released in 1944, that was loosely based on Ernest Hemingway’s 1937 novel of the same name. The film is perhaps best known for the chemistry between Lauren Bacall, in her film debut, and Humphrey Bogart. To Have and Have Not is set on the

  • To Hell and Back (film by Hibbs [1955])

    Audie Murphy: …Red Badge of Courage (1951), To Hell and Back (1955), and The Quiet American (1958). He died when his private plane crashed. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full military honours.

  • To Hell with Your Old Man (song)

    forty-nine dance: Setting and style: …the amorous message of “To Hell with Your Old Man”:

  • To His Coy Mistress (poem by Marvell)

    To His Coy Mistress, poem of 46 lines by Andrew Marvell, published in 1681. The poem treats the conventional theme of the conflict between love and time in a witty and ironic manner. The poet opens by telling his mistress that, given all the time in the world, he would spend hundreds of years

  • To His Sacred Majesty (poem by Dryden)

    John Dryden: Youth and education: …coronation in 1661, he wrote To His Sacred Majesty. These two poems were designed to dignify and strengthen the monarchy and to invest the young monarch with an aura of majesty, permanence, and even divinity. Thereafter, Dryden’s ambitions and fortunes as a writer were shaped by his relationship with the…

  • To Huu (Vietnamese poet and politician)

    To Huu, (Nguyen Kim Thanh), Vietnamese poet and politician (born 1920, Hue, Vietnam, French Indochina—died Dec. 9, 2002, Hanoi, Vietnam), was hailed as North Vietnam’s poet laureate and inspired generations of fellow Communist Party members with his popular propagandistic verse. An early convert t

  • To Kill a Cardinal (novel by Rumaker)

    Michael Rumaker: His later novels included To Kill a Cardinal (1992), which was inspired by the ACT UP protest at St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City in 1989, and Pagan Days (1999), a semiautobiographical work about a young boy discovering his homosexuality.

  • To Kill a Mockingbird (novel by Lee)

    To Kill a Mockingbird, novel by Harper Lee, published in 1960. Enormously popular, it was translated into some 40 languages and sold more than 30 million copies worldwide. In 1961 it won a Pulitzer Prize. The novel was praised for its sensitive treatment of a child’s awakening to racism and

  • To Kill a Mockingbird (film by Mulligan [1962])

    To Kill a Mockingbird, American dramatic film, released in 1962, that was adapted from Harper Lee’s coming-of-age novel that addressed racism and injustice. The movie is widely regarded as an American classic. To Kill a Mockingbird recounts the childhood experiences of six-year-old “Scout” Finch

  • To Kill a Mockingbird (play by Sorkin)

    Aaron Sorkin: In 2018 Sorkin’s adaptation of Harper Lee’s classic To Kill a Mockingbird (1960) premiered on Broadway, with Jeff Daniels portraying the lead, Atticus Finch.

  • To Know Him Is to Love Him (song by Spector)

    Phil Spector: …Angeles school friends recorded “To Know Him Is to Love Him,” a simple teenage ballad written by Spector, its title taken from his father’s gravestone. Released under the name of the Teddy Bears, it was one of the biggest hits of 1958. But the group was never to be…

  • To Let (novel by Galsworthy)

    The Forsyte Saga: …“Awakening” (1920), and the novel To Let (1921).

  • To Live (film by Zhang [1994])

    Zhang Yimou: …were examined in Huozhe (1994; To Live). Huozhe received the Grand Jury Prize at the Cannes film festival, but Chinese authorities refused to let Zhang attend the ceremony. He later directed the comedy You hua haohao shuo (1997; Keep Cool) and Yige dou bu neng shao (1999; Not One Less).…

  • To Live and Die in L.A. (film by Friedkin [1985])

    Willem Dafoe: …prominence for his role in To Live and Die in L.A. (1985), in which he played a counterfeiter attempting to elude capture by the police. Perhaps his best-known role was as Sgt. Elias Grodin in Oliver Stone’s Platoon (1986), which earned Dafoe his first Academy Award nomination. Dafoe was critically…

  • To Live in Pronouns (work by Salinas y Serrano)

    Pedro Salinas y Serrano: …love poems in English translation, To Live in Pronouns, was published in 1974. Salinas was also a respected scholar, known for studies on the 15th-century Spanish poet Jorge Manrique, the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío, and a modern verse rendition of the Poem of the Cid. The leading literary figures of…

  • To Make My Bread (work by Lumpkin)

    American literature: Critics of society: …the Heart and Grace Lumpkin’s To Make My Bread (both 1932). Other notable proletarian novels included Jack Conroy’s The Disinherited (1933), Robert Cantwell’s The Land of Plenty (1934), and Albert Halper’s Union Square (1933), The Foundry (1934), and The Chute (1937), as well as some grim evocations of the drifters…

  • To Marcia (work by Seneca)

    Seneca: Philosophical works and tragedies: …the Consolationes, Ad Marciam (To Marcia) consoles a lady on the loss of a son; Ad Helviam matrem (To Mother Helvia), Seneca’s mother on his exile; and Ad Polybium (To Polybius), a powerful freedman on the loss of a son but with a sycophantic plea for recall from Corsica.…

  • To Mother Helvia (work by Seneca)

    Seneca: Philosophical works and tragedies: …son; Ad Helviam matrem (To Mother Helvia), Seneca’s mother on his exile; and Ad Polybium (To Polybius), a powerful freedman on the loss of a son but with a sycophantic plea for recall from Corsica. The De ira (On Anger) deals at length with the passion, its consequences, and…

  • To My Dear and Loving Husband (poem by Bradstreet)
  • To My Friends (poem by Pushkin)

    Aleksandr Pushkin: Return from exile: …him of apostasy, forcing him to justify his political position in the poem “Druzyam” (1828; “To My Friends”). The anguish of his spiritual isolation at this time is reflected in a cycle of poems about the poet and the mob (1827–30) and in the unfinished Yegipetskiye nochi (1835; Egyptian Nights).

  • To Nhu (Vietnamese poet)

    Nguyen Du, best-loved poet of the Vietnamese and creator of the epic poem Kim van Kieu, written in chu-nom (southern characters). He is considered by some to be the father of Vietnamese literature. Nguyen Du passed the mandarin examinations at the age of 19 and succeeded to a modest military post

  • To Paris Never Again (work by Purdy)

    Al Purdy: His introspective and melancholic work To Paris Never Again (1997) contains poems about death and lost friends, as well as a short memoir recounting his development and experiences as a poet. Purdy was a two-time recipient (1965 and 1986) of the Governor General’s Award for Poetry, the highest poetry prize…

  • To Philip (oration by Isocrates)

    Isocrates: Isocrates as rhetorician.: This amounted to a reassertion of the political faith of the great 5th-century opponent of Persia, Cimon. More than 30 years later, in the letter “To Philip,” Isocrates appealed to the King of Macedonia to reconcile the Greeks and lead them against Persia. Since Philip was on…

  • To Pimp a Butterfly (album by Lamar)

    Kendrick Lamar: In 2015 Lamar released To Pimp a Butterfly, which was a huge success. The album broke a Spotify record—being streamed more than 9.6 million times—within a week of its release, and U.S. Pres. Barack Obama declared that the single “How Much a Dollar Cost” was his favourite song of…

  • To Polybius (work by Seneca)

    Seneca: Philosophical works and tragedies: …exile; and Ad Polybium (To Polybius), a powerful freedman on the loss of a son but with a sycophantic plea for recall from Corsica. The De ira (On Anger) deals at length with the passion, its consequences, and control. The De clementia (On Mercy), an exhortatory address to Nero,…

  • To Rome with Love (film by Allen [2012])

    Woody Allen: 2000 and beyond: …the world’s great cities was To Rome with Love (2012). With a star-studded cast that included Cruz, Roberto Benigni, Alec Baldwin, Judy Davis, and Ellen Page, as well as cinematography by Darius Khondji, it showed Rome to beautiful advantage, always recalling Fellini while presenting it through Allen’s fresh and uncynical…

  • To Secure These Rights (United States government report)

    Executive Order 9981: That group’s landmark report, To Secure These Rights, was published in October 1947. It proposed “to end immediately all discrimination and segregation based on race, color, creed, or national origin, in the organization and activities of all branches of the Armed Services.” Facing resistance from Southern senators, Truman circumvented…

  • To See, to Take (poetry by Van Duyn)

    Mona Van Duyn: …recognition following the publication of To See, to Take (1970), receiving the Bollingen Prize for achievement in American poetry (1970) and the National Book Award (1971). Her other works include A Time of Bees (1964), Merciful Disguises (1973), and Near Changes (1990), for which she was awarded the 1991 Pulitzer…

  • To Sir, with Love (film by Clavell [1967])

    To Sir, with Love, British film drama, released in 1967, that was especially noted for Sidney Poitier’s powerful performance. Poitier played Mark Thackeray, a charismatic schoolteacher in London at the height of the youthful “mod” movement of the 1960s. He is assigned to a high school where

  • To Sir, with Love (novel by Braithwaite)

    Guyana: The arts: …he wrote his best-selling novel To Sir, with Love (1959), which told of a Guyanese schoolteacher’s adventures in a tough London East End high school. (The movie version [1967] stars Sidney Poitier.) Like Braithwaite, many other 20th-century Guyanese writers emigrated, especially to the United States and England.

  • To Skin a Cat (short stories by McGuane)

    Thomas McGuane: …wrote short stories, collected in To Skin a Cat (1986), Gallatin Canyon (2006), Crow Fair (2015), and Cloudbursts (2018). In addition, he penned screenplays, several of which were adaptations of his novels. His essay collections—An Outside Chance (1980; rev. ed., 1990), Some Horses (1999), and

  • To Sleep with Anger (film by Burnett [1990])

    Charles Burnett: …the financial support to make To Sleep with Anger (1990), another portrait of an African American family coming to grips with both its past and its present. It starred Danny Glover as a mysterious visitor who insinuates himself into the family, who come to realize that he is the embodiment…

  • To Tell the Truth (American television show)

    Television in the United States: A potpourri of genres: …(What’s My Line [CBS, 1950–67]; To Tell the Truth [CBS, 1956–68]; and others), historical dramas (The Untouchables [ABC, 1959–63]; Combat! [ABC, 1962–67]; and others), an animated series (The Flintstones [ABC, 1960–66]), a forerunner of 21st-century “reality” shows (Candid Camera [ABC/NBC/CBS, 1948–67]), a cold war espionage parody (

  • Tō Temple (temple, Kyōto, Japan)

    Japanese art: Esoteric Buddhism: …take over the leadership of Tō Temple (also known as Kyōōgokoku Temple), at Heian-kyō’s southern entrance. Images developed under his instruction probably included forerunners of the particular ryōkai mandara known as the Tō Temple mandala. Stylistically, these paintings reveal a shift from Tang painting style to a flatter, more decorative…

  • To the Ends of the Earth (film by Stevenson [1948])

    Robert Stevenson: Early films: To the Ends of the Earth (1948), an especially good Dick Powell opus about the international opium trade, ranks with the best hard-boiled films of that time. Stevenson closed out the decade with the frenetic I Married a Communist (1949; also known as The Woman…

  • To the Finland Station (critical and historical study by Wilson)

    To the Finland Station, critical and historical study by Edmund Wilson of European writers and theorists of socialism who set the stage for the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was published in book form in 1940, although much of the material had previously appeared in The New Republic. The work

  • To the Friends of God (work by Marcarius the Egyptian)

    Macarius the Egyptian: …to Macarius is a letter, To the Friends of God, addressed to younger monks. His spiritual doctrine is not the cultivated speculative thought circulated by the eminent 3rd-century theologian Origen of Alexandria, but, as with the doctrine of the monk Anthony, it is a learning derived from primitive monasticism’s “book…

  • To the Islands (novel by Stow)

    Australian literature: Literature from 1940 to 1970: …had an early success with To the Islands (1958), a novel that was poetic in texture and structure and that intertwined aspects of European and Aboriginal culture and belief.

  • To the Last City (novel by Thubron)

    Colin Thubron: (1978), Distance (1996), To the Last City (2002), and Night of Fire (2016). In 2006 he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE).

  • To the Lighthouse (novel by Woolf)

    To the Lighthouse, novel by Virginia Woolf, published in 1927. The work is one of her most successful and accessible experiments in the stream-of-consciousness style. The three sections of the book take place between 1910 and 1920 and revolve around various members of the Ramsay family during

  • To the Muses (poem by Blake)

    William Blake: Blake as a poet: “To the Muses,” lamenting the death of music, concludes,

  • To the Thin and Elegant Woman Who Resides Inside of Alix Nelson (poem by Wakoski)

    utopian poetry: …from the 1970s, are “To the Thin and Elegant Woman Who Resides Inside of Alix Nelson” (1976), Diane Wakoski’s provocative imagining of renewed sexual plenitude in a New World America, and Derek Walcott’s satirical poem “New World” (1976), which offers a mordant view of utopian colonization by parodying the…

  • To the Wonder (film by Malick [2012])

    Ben Affleck: Roles of the 2010s: …downsizing; Terrence Malick’s impressionistic romance To the Wonder (2012); and the online-gambling thriller Runner Runner (2013). In 2014 Affleck starred as a man implicated in his wife’s disappearance in David Fincher’s suspenseful Gone Girl, based on the novel by Gillian Flynn. He later donned superhero gear again, this time as…

  • To Whom She Will (work by Jhabvala)

    Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: …Will (1955; also published as Amrita) and The Nature of Passion (1956), won much critical acclaim for their comic depiction of Indian society and manners. She was often compared to Jane Austen for her microscopic studies of a tightly conventional world. Her position as both insider and detached observer allowed…

  • To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything, Julie Newmar (film by Kidron [1995])

    RuPaul: … (1995), and the drag-themed comedy To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything, Julie Newmar (1995). In addition, in 1995 he appeared in the documentary Wigstock: The Movie, published an autobiography, Lettin It All Hang Out, and signed a contract with M.A.C. Cosmetics, becoming the first drag queen to become a spokesmodel…

  • To’ Kenali (Malaysian theologian)

    Tok Kenali, Malay theologian and teacher who became the archetype of the rural Malay religious teacher (alim), with a reputation that spread far beyond his native Kelantan to Sumatra, Java, and Cambodia. Muhammad Yusof, born into a poor peasant family, was taught the fundamentals of the Islamic

  • to-be-is-to-be-perceived doctrine (philosophy)

    George Berkeley: Early life and works: …of the meaning of “to be” or “to exist.” “To be,” said of the object, means to be perceived; “to be,” said of the subject, means to perceive.

  • To-lo-ma (Indonesian kingdom)

    Tarumanegara, the oldest recorded kingdom in western Java. It was established about the 5th century ad, but little is recorded about the kingdom except for a sketchy account by a Chinese traveler and several rock inscriptions discovered near Bogor and in extreme western Java. These sources agree t

  • To-lun (China)

    Duolun, town, southeast-central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China. It is situated close to the border of Hebei province. Until 1950 the town was in the former Chahar province. Historically, Duolun was an important town. It was the site of Shangdu (the Xanadu of Samuel Taylor

  • To-wang (Mongolian prince)

    To-wang, Mongolian prince who opposed Manchu rule and supported Mongolia’s independence from China. Concerned with education, he set up a primary school open to commoners, had Buddhist scriptures translated into Mongol, and codified practical advice for herdspeople in a book he circulated among

  • To-wen (Buddhist and Hindu mythology)

    Kubera, in Hindu mythology, the king of the yakshas (nature spirits) and the god of wealth. He is associated with the earth, mountains, all treasures such as minerals and jewels that lie underground, and riches in general. According to most accounts, he first lived in Lanka (Sri Lanka), but his

  • toad (amphibian)

    Toad, any squat, rough-skinned, tailless amphibian of the order Anura, and especially a member of the family Bufonidae. The true toads (Bufo), with more than 300 species, are found worldwide except in Australia, Madagascar, polar regions, and Polynesia, though Bufo marinus has been introduced into

  • toad bug (insect)

    Toad bug, (family Gelastocoridae), any of some 100 species of insects in the true bug order, Heteroptera, that resemble tiny frogs. They have short, broad bodies and protruding eyes and capture their prey by leaping upon it. Adults in this family are wingless. Toad bugs are found in all

  • toad lily (plant)

    fritillary: Snake’s head, or toad lily (F. meleagris), a species with poisonous bulbs, and crown imperial (F. imperialis), a strong-smelling plant, are commonly cultivated as garden flowers.

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