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  • Titus, Saint (bishop of Crete)

    Saint Titus, ; Western feast day January 26 [with Timothy], Eastern feast day August 25), a disciple of St. Paul the Apostle, for whom he was secretary. According to tradition he was the first bishop of Crete. Known from New Testament allusions in Acts of the Apostles and the Pauline Letters, Titus

  • Titus, The Letter of Paul to

    The Letter of Paul to Titus, a New Testament writing addressed to one of Paul’s close companions, Titus, who was the organizer of the churches in Crete. It, and the two letters of Paul to Timothy, have been called Pastoral Letters because they deal principally with heresies and church discipline.

  • Titusville (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Titusville, city, Crawford county, northwestern Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies along Oil Creek, 40 miles (64 km) southeast of Erie. Founded in 1796 by Jonathan Titus and Samuel Kerr, surveyors for the Holland Land company, it developed as a lumbering and agricultural centre. On August 27, 1859, the

  • Titusville (Florida, United States)

    Titusville, city, seat (1879) of Brevard county, east-central Florida, U.S., about 35 miles (55 km) east of Orlando. The city, on the Intracoastal Waterway, is situated on the west bank of the Indian River (a lagoon separated from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands) and is linked (via a causeway

  • tityra (bird)

    Tityra, (genus Tityra), any of three species of tropical American birds of the cotinga family (Cotingidae, order Passeriformes). The masked tityra (Tityra semifasciata) is common in woods and open country from Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil, the black-tailed tityra (T. cayana) occurs throughout

  • Tityra cayana (bird)

    tityra: …to Bolivia and Brazil, the black-tailed tityra (T. cayana) occurs throughout tropical South America, and the black-crowned tityra (T. inquisitor) ranges from Mexico to Argentina. The males of all three species are about 20 cm (8 inches) long and are pale gray with black on the head, wings, and tail;…

  • Tityra inquisitor (bird)

    tityra: …tropical South America, and the black-crowned tityra (T. inquisitor) ranges from Mexico to Argentina. The males of all three species are about 20 cm (8 inches) long and are pale gray with black on the head, wings, and tail; the females are similar but browner in hue. The bill is…

  • Tityra semifasciata (bird)

    tityra: The masked tityra (Tityra semifasciata) is common in woods and open country from Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil, the black-tailed tityra (T. cayana) occurs throughout tropical South America, and the black-crowned tityra (T. inquisitor) ranges from Mexico to Argentina. The males of all three species are…

  • Tityus (scorpion)

    scorpion: Venoms: …and the West Indies (Tityus and Rhopalurus), and South Africa (Parabuthus). All these species are members of the family Buthidae. Buthids produce a complex neurotoxin that causes both local and systemic effects. Severe convulsions, paralysis, and cardiac irregularities precede death. Death can be avoided if the antivenoms now available…

  • Tiu (Germanic deity)

    Tyr, one of the oldest gods of the Germanic peoples and a somewhat enigmatic figure. He was apparently the god concerned with the formalities of war—especially treaties—and also, appropriately, of justice. It is in his character as guarantor of contracts, guardian of oaths, that the most famous

  • Tiuman Island (island, Malaysia)

    Tioman Island, island in the South China Sea, about 40 miles (65 km) off Kuala Rompin, Peninsular (West) Malaysia. It has an area of 53 square miles (137 square km) and is 13 miles (21 km) long and 2 to 8 miles (3 to 13 km) wide. Tioman’s economy, traditionally based on fishing, is now focused on

  • Tiumen (oblast, Russia)

    Tyumen, oblast (region), central Russia, in the Ob-Irtysh Basin. In the extreme west the Ural Mountains attain 6,217 feet (1,895 m) in Mount Narodnaya, but the remainder of the oblast’s huge area is a low, exceptionally flat plain, with innumerable lakes and very extensive swamps. The oblast

  • Tiumen (Russia)

    Tyumen, city and administrative centre of Tyumen oblast (region), central Russia. The city lies in the southwestern part of the West Siberian Plain. It is situated on both banks of the Tura River at its crossing by the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Founded in 1586, it is the oldest Russian city in

  • Tiutchev, Fyodor (Russian writer)

    Fyodor Tyutchev, Russian writer who was remarkable both as a highly original philosophic poet and as a militant Slavophile, and whose whole literary output constitutes a struggle to fuse political passion with poetic imagination. The son of a wealthy landowner, educated at home and at Moscow

  • Tiv (people)

    Tiv, people living on both sides of the Benue River in Nigeria; they speak a language of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo family. The Tiv are subsistence farmers whose main crops are yams, millet, and sorghum, all of which are eaten as porridge or are made more palatable by their

  • Tiv language

    Benue-Congo languages: Bantoid: …Tivoid, with 19 languages; the Tiv language has some 2,500,000 speakers. More typical is another subgroup, the Wide Grassfields in Cameroon, with some 40 languages, only two of which have more than 250,000 speakers and most of which have fewer than 50,000.

  • Tivaouane (Senegal)

    Tivaouane, town, northwestern Senegal. It is located about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Dakar. Senegal’s principal mineral exports, phosphates, are quarried near Tivaouane. The town is linked by road and rail with the ports of Dakar and Saint-Louis. Tivaouane is the country’s centre for the

  • Tiverton (Rhode Island, United States)

    Tiverton, town (township), Newport county, eastern Rhode Island, U.S. It lies along the Sakonnet River and Mount Hope Bay, opposite Portsmouth and Bristol. Originally a part of Plymouth colony and named for Tiverton, Devon, England, it was annexed to Rhode Island in 1746 and was incorporated in

  • Tiverton (England, United Kingdom)

    Mid Devon: Tiverton, the administrative seat, is located on the River Exe.

  • TiVo (broadcast recording device)

    Television in the United States: The new technologies: …in 1999 from ReplayTV and TiVo. These digital set-top devices allowed users to record television programs without the use of videotape. More versatile than the VCR, recording set-up and playback was also significantly easier. By mid-decade, video delivered on the Internet had become commonplace. YouTube, a Web site that made…

  • Tivoid languages

    Benue-Congo languages: Bantoid: …in terms of population is Tivoid, with 19 languages; the Tiv language has some 2,500,000 speakers. More typical is another subgroup, the Wide Grassfields in Cameroon, with some 40 languages, only two of which have more than 250,000 speakers and most of which have fewer than 50,000.

  • Tivoli (garden, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Tivoli, pleasure garden in Copenhagen. Cafés, restaurants, pavilions, open-air theatres, and an amusement park are scattered among Tivoli’s extensive flower gardens. Fireworks, coloured floodlights, and illuminated fountains brighten the park at night; and symphony concerts, jazz and rock shows,

  • Tivoli (Italy)

    Tivoli, town and episcopal see, Lazio (Latium) regione, central Italy. It is picturesquely situated on the western slopes of the Sabine Hills, along the Aniene River where it enters the Campagna di Roma, just east of Rome. The site commanded the principal natural route eastward from Rome along the

  • Tiw (Germanic deity)

    Tyr, one of the oldest gods of the Germanic peoples and a somewhat enigmatic figure. He was apparently the god concerned with the formalities of war—especially treaties—and also, appropriately, of justice. It is in his character as guarantor of contracts, guardian of oaths, that the most famous

  • Tiwa (people)

    Albuquerque: The early period: …the area in 1540, the Tiwa people were living in pueblos along the Rio Grande and its tributary streams, cultivating extensive gardens in the river’s floodplain. Distance from other settlements had not kept the Tiwa from participating in a trade network that extended as far east as the Great Plains…

  • Tiwanacu (culture and archaeological site, Bolivia)

    Tiwanaku, major pre-Columbian civilization known from ruins of the same name that are situated near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. The main Tiwanaku site was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 2000. Some scholars date the earliest remains found at the site to the early part

  • Tiwanaku (culture and archaeological site, Bolivia)

    Tiwanaku, major pre-Columbian civilization known from ruins of the same name that are situated near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. The main Tiwanaku site was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 2000. Some scholars date the earliest remains found at the site to the early part

  • Tiwari, Chandrasekhar (Indian revolutionary)

    Chandrasekhar Azad, Indian revolutionary who organized and led a band of militant youth during India’s independence movement. Azad was drawn into the Indian national movement at a young age. When apprehended by the police at age 15 while participating in Mohandas K. Gandhi’s noncooperation movement

  • Tiwat (Anatolian god)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Hurrian and Mitanni kingdoms: The sun god Shimegi and the moon god Kushuh, whose consort was Nikkal, the Ningal of the Sumerians, were of lesser rank. More important was the position of the Babylonian god of war and the underworld, Nergal. In northern Syria the god of war Astapi and the goddess…

  • Tiwi (people)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The north: The Tiwi people of Melville and Bathurst islands created tall poles in abstract forms by carving, removing, or leaving in their original dimensions alternate sections of a tree trunk. Each pole was then painted in flat areas of colour interspersed with bands of cross-hatching. Such poles…

  • Tiwi (Philippines)

    Tiwi, town, southeastern Luzon, west-central Philippines. It is situated along Lagonoy Gulf of the Philippine Sea. The town lies in a bed of volcanic vents over an active geothermal area; through the vents, sulfurous live steam pours continuously. Formerly known as a resort area, Tiwi became the

  • Tiy (queen of Egypt)

    Tiy, one of the most illustrious queens of ancient Egypt. She was the daughter of Yuya, the commander of the Egyptian chariotry and overseer of the cattle of the god Min; her mother, Thuya, was also an Egyptian. Although she was not of royal blood, Tiy became the favoured wife of Amenhotep III

  • Tiye (queen of Egypt)

    Tiy, one of the most illustrious queens of ancient Egypt. She was the daughter of Yuya, the commander of the Egyptian chariotry and overseer of the cattle of the god Min; her mother, Thuya, was also an Egyptian. Although she was not of royal blood, Tiy became the favoured wife of Amenhotep III

  • tizenkilencedik század uralkodó eszméinek befolyása az álladalomra, A (work by E?tv?s)

    József, Baron E?tv?s: …began his great work, A tizenkilencedik század uralkodó eszméinek befolyása az álladalomra (1851–54; “The Influence of the Ruling Ideas of the 19th Century on the State”). This work attempted to work out the principles of the French Revolution and depicted an ideal liberal state, based on English constitutional ideas and…

  • Tizi Ouzou (Algeria)

    Tizi Ouzou, town, northern Algeria, in the Great Kabylie mountain region. It lies in a narrow valley of the Wadi Tizi Ouzou, separated from the Wadi Sébaou valley by Mount Beloua. Named for the flowering broom (ouzou) that grows in the pass (tizi) connecting the two valleys, Tizi Ouzou was built by

  • Tizi Ouzou (department, Algeria)

    Atlas Mountains: The people: In the area around Tizi Ouzou in the Great Kabylie, for example, densities reach about 700 persons per square mile (270 per square kilometre). Emigration is a necessity: the mountain regions have become a human reservoir upon which the Maghribian countries draw to obtain the labour force needed for…

  • Tiznit (Morocco)

    Tiznit, town, southern Morocco. The town lies near the Atlantic coast and the Tachilla and Ouarzemimene mountains of the Anti-Atlas range. It was founded in 1882 during the reign of Mawlāy ?asan as a military base from which he launched expeditions to subdue the peoples of the Sous River (Oued

  • Tizol, Juan (Puerto Rican musician)

    Duke Ellington: Ellington’s ensemble: …“Caravan” and “Perdido” by trombonist Juan Tizol—were cowritten or entirely composed by sidemen. Few of Ellington’s soloists, despite their importance to jazz history, played as effectively in other contexts; no one else, it seemed, could match the inspiration that Ellington provided with his sensitive, masterful settings.

  • Tizpur (India)

    Tezpur, town, north-central Assam state, northeastern India. It is situated along the right (north) bank of the Brahmaputra River (there bridged), about 20 miles (32 km) north-northeast of Nagaon. Tezpur is a trade centre for tea, rice, and other crops grown in the surrounding agricultural area.

  • Tjader, Cal (American musician)

    Chick Corea: …with Blue Mitchell, Willie Bobo, Cal Tjader, and Herbie Mann and in the late 1960s with Stan Getz and Miles Davis. Corea led his own groups called Circle and Return to Forever during the 1970s. With a piano style developed from those of Bill Evans, Horace Silver, and

  • tjandi (Indonesian temple)

    Southeast Asian arts: Hindu and Buddhist candis: In Indonesia the word candi refers to any religious structure based on an Indianized shrine with a pyramidal tower. This was the essential form on which virtually all the stone Indianizing architecture of Southeast Asia was originally based. The Javanese, like the Khmer, evolved…

  • Tjandi Kidal (temple, Indonesia)

    Southeast Asian arts: East Javanese period: 927–16th century: …mid-13th century was like is Candi Kidal. The nucleus of the building is a square cell, with slightly projecting porticoes each hooded by an enormous Kala-monster head. But the cell itself is dwarfed both by the massive molded plinth upon which it stands and by the huge tower with which…

  • Tjandi Mendut (temple, Java)

    Southeast Asian arts: Hindu and Buddhist candis: One of Java’s greatest monuments, Candi Mendut, is a shrine expressly created to illustrate the combined doctrine of garbha-dhatu and vajra-dhatu.

  • Tjandi Sari (temple, Indonesia)

    Southeast Asian arts: Post-Borobudur candis: …of the 9th century is Candi Sari. It is an outstanding architectural invention. From the outside it appears as a large rectangular three-storied block, with the main entrance piercing the centre of one of the longer sides. The third story stands above a substantial architrave with horizontal moldings and antefixes.…

  • Tjapaltjarri, Clifford Possum (Australian Aboriginal artist)

    Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Australian Aboriginal artist (born 1932?, Napperby Station, outside Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia—died June 21, 2002, Alice Springs), painted some of the earliest and most admired acrylic dot paintings in the modern Aboriginal art movement; most of his p

  • Tjekker (people)

    ancient Egypt: The early 20th dynasty: Setnakht and Ramses III: The Philistine and Tjekker peoples, who had come by land, were established in the southern Palestinian coastal district in an area where the overland trade route to Syria was threatened by attacks by nomads. Initially settled to protect Egyptian interests, these groups later became independent of Egypt. Ramses…

  • tjendol (beverage)
  • Tjerita dari Djakarta (work by Pramoedya)

    Pramoedya Ananta Toer: The sketches in Tjerita dari Djakarta (1957; “Tales of Jakarta”) examine the strains and injustices Pramoedya perceived within Indonesian society after independence had been achieved. In these early works Pramoedya evolved a rich prose style that incorporated Javanese everyday speech and images from classical Javanese culture.

  • Tjessem H?iby, Mette-Marit (Norwegian princess)

    Crown Princess Mette-Marit, Norwegian of middle-class background who, despite intense public scrutiny of what was seen by many as her checkered past, wed Crown Prince Haakon of Norway. Mette-Marit was the daughter of a journalist and a bank employee. Her parents divorced when she was young, and she

  • Tjio, Joe Hin (American geneticist)

    Joe Hin Tjio, Indonesian-born American geneticist (born Nov. 2, 1919, Java, Indon.—died Nov. 27, 2001, Gaithersburg, Md.), dispelled a 50-year-held belief that the number of chromosomes in the human cell was 48 when he established that the majority of human cells contain 46 chromosomes, arranged i

  • Tjirebon (Indonesia)

    Cirebon, kota (city), northeastern West Java (Jawa Barat) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Indonesia. It is located on the Java Sea about 65 miles (105 km) northeast of Bandung. The Cirebon area was for centuries a centre of Islam and generated much of the opposition to Dutch colonial rule. The

  • Tjokroaminoto, Omar Said (Indonesian leader)

    Omar Said Tjokroaminoto, highly influential Indonesian leader of the early Indonesian nationalist movement, closely linked with the Sarekat Islām (Islāmic Association), which he shaped as a political force. The Sarekat Dagang Islām (Association of Islāmic Traders), established in 1911 to promote

  • Tjupurrula, Johnny Warrangkula (Australian Aboriginal artist)

    Johnny Warrangkula Tjupurrula, Australian Aboriginal artist (born 1925?, Minjilpiri, N.Terr., Australia—died Feb. 12, 2001, Papunya, N.Terr.), was a pioneer of modern Aboriginal abstract art; his innovative works, which combined intricate calligraphic lines and tiny dots, drew international p

  • tjurunga (art and religion)

    Tjurunga, in Australian Aboriginal religion, a mythical being and a ritual object, usually made of wood or stone, that is a representation or manifestation of such a being. An Aranda word, tjurunga traditionally referred to sacred or secret–sacred things set apart, or taboo; for example, certain r

  • TKO (boxing)

    boxing: Ring, rules, and equipment: …can be stopped by a technical knockout (TKO) when a boxer is deemed by the referee (and sometimes the ringside physician) to be unable to defend himself properly, when a boxer is deemed to have sustained a serious injury, or when a boxer or his seconds decide he should not…

  • Tl (chemical element)

    Thallium (Tl), chemical element, metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table, poisonous and of limited commercial value. Like lead, thallium is a soft, low-melting element of low tensile strength. Freshly cut thallium has a metallic lustre that dulls to bluish gray upon

  • Tlacaxipehualiztli (Aztec religion)

    Xipe Totec: During Tlacaxipehualiztli (“Flaying of Men”), the second ritual month of the Aztec year, the priests killed human victims by removing their hearts. They flayed the bodies and put on the skins, which were dyed yellow and called teocuitlaquemitl (“golden clothes”). Other victims were fastened to a…

  • tlachtli (Mesoamerican sporting field)

    Tlachtli, the ball court, or field, used for the ritual ball game (ollama) played throughout pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Possibly originating among the Olmecs (La Venta culture, c. 800–c. 400 bce) or even earlier, the game spread to subsequent cultures, among them those of Monte Albán and El Tajín;

  • Tlacopan (ancient city, Mexico)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The rise of the Aztec: …and another small state (Tlacopan), and the power of Azcapotzalco was broken.

  • Tlaelquani (Aztec deity)

    Tlazoltéotl, (Nahuatl: “Filth Deity”) Aztec goddess who represented sexual impurity and sinful behaviour. She was probably introduced to the Aztecs from the gulf lowlands of Huaxteca. Tlazoltéotl was an important and complex earth-mother goddess. She was known in four guises, associated with

  • Tlali, Miriam (South African author)

    South Africa: Multicultural literature: …writers such as Mothobi Mutloatse, Miriam Tlali, Mbulelo Mzamane, and Njabulo Ndebele and published in such periodicals as Staffrider were derived from the literary and oral traditions of black languages in South Africa and in literature by blacks in European languages.

  • Tlalnepantla (Mexico)

    Tlalnepantla, city, northeastern México estado (state), central Mexico. At an elevation of 7,474 feet (2,278 metres) above sea level on the Río Tlalnepantla, it was founded by the Otomi Indians and conquered by the Aztecs; archaeological remains have been found on the site, and two Aztec pyramids

  • Tlalnepantla de Comonfort (Mexico)

    Tlalnepantla, city, northeastern México estado (state), central Mexico. At an elevation of 7,474 feet (2,278 metres) above sea level on the Río Tlalnepantla, it was founded by the Otomi Indians and conquered by the Aztecs; archaeological remains have been found on the site, and two Aztec pyramids

  • Tlaloc (Aztec god)

    Tlaloc, (Nahuatl: “He Who Makes Things Sprout”) Aztec rain god. Representations of a rain god wearing a peculiar mask, with large round eyes and long fangs, date at least to the Teotihuacán culture of the highlands (3rd to 8th century ad). His characteristic features were strikingly similar to

  • Tlalpan (district, Mexico)

    Tlalpan, delegación (legation), central Distrito Federal (Federal District), central Mexico. At 1,425 feet (2,294 metres) above sea level in the Valley of Mexico, it is on the northeastern slopes of the extinct Cerro Ajusco volcano. In the district are remains of a pre-Columbian town, and 1.5 miles

  • Tlapacoya (archaeological site, Mexico)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Early hunters (to 6500 bce): …working at the site of Tlapacoya, southeast of Mexico City, uncovered a well-made blade of obsidian associated with a radiocarbon date of about 21,000 bce. Near Puebla, Mexico, excavations in the Valsequillo region revealed cultural remains of human groups that were hunting mammoth and other extinct animals, along with unifacially…

  • Tlapanec languages

    Mesoamerican Indian languages: The classification and status of Mesoamerican languages: Eastern Otomanguean

  • Tlaquepaque (Mexico)

    Tlaquepaque, city, north-central Jalisco estado (state), west-central Mexico. Formerly known as San Pedro Tlaquepaque, the city lies in the temperate Guadalajara valley, approximately 5,400 feet (1,650 metres) above sea level. A suburb of Guadalajara, the state capital, 7 miles (11 km) southeast,

  • Tlatelolco (ancient site, Mexico)

    Mexico City: Ancient foundations: …the nearby twin city of Tlatelolco, which was simultaneously growing along the north shore of the lake.

  • Tlatelolco massacre (Mexican history [1968])

    Luis Echeverría álvarez: …that culminated in the “Tlatelolco massacre,” in which more than 300 demonstrators were killed or wounded and thousands arrested.

  • Tlatelolco, Treaty of (international relations)

    Alfonso García Robles: …efforts eventually led to the Treaty of Tlatelolco (1967), which committed 22 nations of Latin America to bar nuclear weapons from their territories. A year later he helped draft the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. He was appointed permanent representative to the Disarmament Conference in Geneva in 1977.…

  • Tlatilco (ancient site, Mexico)

    Middle American Indian: The prehistoric period: …Mexico at El Arbolillo, Zacatenco, Tlatilco, and, finally, Ticoman. The same developmental sequence occurred in the Formative period of highland Guatemala, as shown in the excavations at Kaminaljuyú near Guatemala City.

  • tlatoani (Aztec ruler)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Social and political organization: …was an official called the tlatoani, to whom all household heads owed allegiance, respect, and tax obligations. The tlatoani’s position was fixed within a particular lineage, the particular choice varying from state to state. In some areas, succession passed from father to son; in others, the succession went through a…

  • tlatoque (Aztec ruler)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Social and political organization: …was an official called the tlatoani, to whom all household heads owed allegiance, respect, and tax obligations. The tlatoani’s position was fixed within a particular lineage, the particular choice varying from state to state. In some areas, succession passed from father to son; in others, the succession went through a…

  • Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    Tlaxcala, city, capital of Tlaxcala estado (state), east-central Mexico, situated about 55 miles (90 km) east of Mexico City. It lies along the Zahuapan River in the southern Sierra Madre Oriental at the northwestern foot of La Malinche volcano, some 7,400 feet (2,300 metres) above sea level. The

  • Tlaxcala (state, Mexico)

    Tlaxcala, estado (state), central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Puebla to the northeast, east, and south, México to the west, and Hidalgo to the northwest. The capital is the city of Tlaxcala (Tlaxcala de Xicohténcatl). Tlaxcala is situated on the cool, semiarid Mesa Central at a mean

  • Tlaxcala de Xicohténcatl (Mexico)

    Tlaxcala, city, capital of Tlaxcala estado (state), east-central Mexico, situated about 55 miles (90 km) east of Mexico City. It lies along the Zahuapan River in the southern Sierra Madre Oriental at the northwestern foot of La Malinche volcano, some 7,400 feet (2,300 metres) above sea level. The

  • Tlaxcalan (people)

    history of Latin America: Conquest of Mexico: …power of the region, the Tlaxcalans. Tlaxcala briefly engaged the Spaniards in battle but, suffering heavy losses, soon decided to ally with them against their traditional enemy, the Aztec. As the Spaniards moved on toward Tenochtitlán, many of the local subordinate states (altepetl) also came to terms. Even in Tenochtitlán…

  • Tlazoltéotl (Aztec deity)

    Tlazoltéotl, (Nahuatl: “Filth Deity”) Aztec goddess who represented sexual impurity and sinful behaviour. She was probably introduced to the Aztecs from the gulf lowlands of Huaxteca. Tlazoltéotl was an important and complex earth-mother goddess. She was known in four guises, associated with

  • TLC (chemistry)

    Thin-layer chromatography, in analytical chemistry, technique for separating dissolved chemical substances by virtue of their differential migration over glass plates or plastic sheets coated with a thin layer of a finely ground adsorbent, such as silica gel or alumina, that is mixed with a binder

  • TLC (Canadian organization)

    organized labour: Origins of craft unionism: …parallel to the AFL, the Trades and Labor Congress (TLC) in 1886.

  • TLD (computer science and Internet)

    DNS: …a machine, followed by a top level domain (TLD), separated by dots (periods). For example, britannica.com has the domain name “britannica” and the TLD “com.” The most common type of TLD is a generic one such as “com,” “gov,” or “edu,” though there are also country code TLDs, such as…

  • TLD (measurement instrument)

    dosimeter: Thermoluminescent dosimeters are nonmetallic crystalline solids that trap electrons when exposed to ionizing radiation and can be mounted and calibrated to give a reading of radiation level. The ion-chamber dosimeter, like the thermoluminescent one, is reusable, but it is self-reading for immediate determination of exposure.

  • Tlemcen (Algeria)

    Tlemcen, town, northwestern Algeria, near the border with Morocco. Tlemcen is backed by the cliffs of the well-watered Tlemcen Mountains and overlooks the fertile Hennaya and Maghnia plains. Lying at an elevation of 2,648 feet (807 metres), Tlemcen is located sufficiently inland to avoid the

  • Tlemcen, Great Mosque of (mosque, Tlemcen, Algeria)

    Almoravids: …the Almoravid age is the Great Mosque at Tlemcen, Algeria. Built in 1082, it was restored in 1136 but not in true Almoravid style. The mi?rāb is unusually ornate, surrounded by multilobed arches decorated with arabesques. The work is indicative of trends that were to develop in Spain and North…

  • Tlhaping (people)

    South Africa: Growth of the colonial economy: …communities such as the Rolong, Tlhaping, Hurutshe, and Ngwaketse. For self-defense some of these African communities formed larger groupings who competed against each other in their quest to control trade routes going south to the Cape and east to present-day Mozambique.

  • Tlingit (people)

    Tlingit, northernmost of the Northwest Coast Indians of North America, living on the islands and coastal lands of southern Alaska from Yakutat Bay to Cape Fox. They spoke the Tlingit language, which is related to Athabaskan. According to their traditions, some of their ancestors came from the south

  • Tlingit language (language)

    Na-Dené languages: Tlingit and Haida are each single languages making up separate families; they are spoken, respectively, in southeastern Alaska and British Columbia. The major language of the Na-Dené group is Navajo, spoken by large Indian populations in Arizona and New Mexico. It is one of the…

  • Tlokwa (people)

    Qwaqwa: …people, the Kwena and the Tlokwa. The Orange Free State’s government settled these peoples at Witsieshoek and in the surrounding area in the 1870s by concluding peace with their leaders. In 1926 the Orange Free State government placed the Tlokwa under the authority of the Kwena but gave each group…

  • Tlr4 (gene)

    Bruce A. Beutler: …a mouse gene known as Tlr4 (toll-like receptor 4) that contribute to septic shock. Whereas the normal Tlr4 protein recognizes LPS and thereby mediates the immune response to bacteria carrying the toxin, the mutated version results in unchecked bacterial growth, such that when the body reacts, large quantities of bacteria-destroying…

  • TLS (British journal)

    Times Literary Supplement (TLS), weekly literary journal founded in 1902 as a supplement to The Sunday Times of London, long famous for its coverage of all aspects of literature and widely considered the finest literary review in the English language. TLS sets the tone and standards for excellence

  • tlúr, An (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Newry, town, Newry, Mourne and Down district, southeastern Northern Ireland. It lies along the River Clanrye and Newry Canal, near Carlingford Lough (inlet of the sea) and the Mourne Mountains. The town developed around a Cistercian abbey founded on the Clanrye by St. Malachy about 1144 and was

  • TM

    Transcendental Meditation, technique of meditation in which practitioners mentally repeat a special Sanskrit word or phrase (mantra) with the aim of achieving a state of inner peacefulness and bodily calm. The technique was taught by the Hindu monk Swami Brahmananda Saraswati, also known as Guru

  • Tm (chemical element)

    Thulium (Tm), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Thulium is a moderately hard, silvery white metal that is stable in air but can easily be dissolved in diluted acids—except hydrofluoric acid (HF), in which an insoluble trifluoride (TmF3) layer forms

  • TMD (military strategy)

    Theatre missile defense (TMD), deployment of nuclear and conventional missiles for the purpose of maintaining security in a specific region, or theatre. The purpose of theatre missile defense (TMD) is to protect allies from local threats in their region or to address specific security issues and

  • Tmesipteris (plant genus)

    plant: Class Psilotopsida: …two living genera (Psilotum and Tmesipteris) and several species that are restricted to the subtropics. This unusual group of small herbaceous plants is characterized by a leafless and rootless body possessing a stem that exhibits a primitive dichotomous type of branching: it forks into equal halves. The photosynthetic function is…

  • Tmetothylacus (bird genus)

    pipit: in the genera Anthus and Tmetothylacus in the family Motacillidae (order Passeriformes, suborder Passeri [songbirds]). They are found worldwide except in polar regions.

  • TMNT (media franchise)

    Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (TMNT), comic-book series about a quartet of humanlike warrior turtles, which grew into an enduring multimedia franchise. Born of a radioactive accident, raised by a talking rat, and named for Renaissance painters, the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles—cool-headed leader

  • ?Tmol shilshom (work by Agnon)

    S.Y. Agnon: …third and perhaps greatest novel, ?Tmol shilshom (1945; “The Day Before Yesterday”), examines the problems facing the westernized Jew who immigrates to Israel. This is neither a realistic story (like some of the early tales) nor a symbolic autobiography, yet it can be understood only in the light of Agnon’s…

  • TMS (chemical compound)

    chemical compound: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: …the protons in the compound tetramethylsilane, (CH3)4Si. Tetramethylsilane is an inert liquid added in small amounts to the compound being analyzed. All 12 of its hydrogen atoms absorb at the same position to give a single sharp peak, which is arbitrarily assigned a positional value of zero. This peak is…

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