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  • Tioga Pass (mountain roadway, California, United States)

    Tioga Pass, highest (9,945 feet [3,031 metres]) roadway across the Sierra Nevada, central California, U.S. Originally the pass served the nearby mining district, and it was named about 1878 for the Tioga mine; it now functions as the eastern entrance to Yosemite National Park. Inyo National Forest

  • Tioman Island (island, Malaysia)

    Tioman Island, island in the South China Sea, about 40 miles (65 km) off Kuala Rompin, Peninsular (West) Malaysia. It has an area of 53 square miles (137 square km) and is 13 miles (21 km) long and 2 to 8 miles (3 to 13 km) wide. Tioman’s economy, traditionally based on fishing, is now focused on

  • Tioman, Pulau (island, Malaysia)

    Tioman Island, island in the South China Sea, about 40 miles (65 km) off Kuala Rompin, Peninsular (West) Malaysia. It has an area of 53 square miles (137 square km) and is 13 miles (21 km) long and 2 to 8 miles (3 to 13 km) wide. Tioman’s economy, traditionally based on fishing, is now focused on

  • Tiomkin, Dimitri (Russian-British musician and composer)

    55 Days at Peking: Also of note is Dimitri Tiomkin’s score.

  • Tionontati (people)

    Tionontati, Iroquoian-speaking Indians formerly living in the mountains south of Nottawasaga Bay, in what are now Grey and Simcoe counties, Ontario. In 1616 they were visited by the French, who called them the Tobacco Nation because of their extensive cultivation of this plant. They also grew

  • tip-cat (game)

    Tip-cat, outdoor game dating back at least to the 17th century and introduced to North America and elsewhere by English colonists. The game was widely popular in 19th-century Great Britain and in early 20th-century North America. Although there are many varieties of the game, all involve a stick a

  • Tipai (people)

    Diegue?o, a group of Yuman-speaking North American Indians who originally inhabited large areas extending on both sides of what is now the U.S.–Mexican border in California and Baja California. They were named after the mission of San Diego. Traditional Diegue?o culture reflected similarities with

  • Tipasa (Algeria)

    Tipasa, village in northern Algeria noted for its Phoenician, Roman, early Christian, and Byzantine ruins. It is located on the Mediterranean coast 40 miles (65 km) west of Algiers. Tipasa, which offers a harbour and sheltered beaches, was settled by Phoenician sailors seeking anchorage as they

  • Tipaza (Algeria)

    Tipasa, village in northern Algeria noted for its Phoenician, Roman, early Christian, and Byzantine ruins. It is located on the Mediterranean coast 40 miles (65 km) west of Algiers. Tipasa, which offers a harbour and sheltered beaches, was settled by Phoenician sailors seeking anchorage as they

  • tiphiid wasp (insect)

    wasp: …the superfamily Chrysidoidea, and the tiphiid wasps (family Tiphiidae), scoliid wasps (family Scoliidae), and velvet ants (family Mutillidae) in the superfamily Vespoidea. Cuckoo wasps are mostly brilliant metallic-green or -blue in colour and have intricate sculpturing on the exoskeleton. They lay their eggs in the nests of solitary bees or…

  • Tiphiidae (insect)

    wasp: …the superfamily Chrysidoidea, and the tiphiid wasps (family Tiphiidae), scoliid wasps (family Scoliidae), and velvet ants (family Mutillidae) in the superfamily Vespoidea. Cuckoo wasps are mostly brilliant metallic-green or -blue in colour and have intricate sculpturing on the exoskeleton. They lay their eggs in the nests of solitary bees or…

  • tipi (dwelling)

    Tepee, conical tent most common to the North American Plains Indians. Although a number of Native American groups used similar structures during the hunting season, only the Plains Indians adopted tepees as year-round dwellings, and then only from the 17th century onward. At that time the Spanish

  • Tipitaka (Buddhist Theravada canon)

    Pali canon, the complete canon, first recorded in Pali, of the Theravada (“Way of the Elders”) branch of Buddhism. The schools of the Mahayana (“Greater Vehicle”) branch also revere it yet hold as scripture additional writings (in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, and other languages) that are not

  • Tipitapa River (river, Nicaragua)

    Lake Nicaragua: Geography: …which are linked by the Tipitapa River. The ocean fish thus trapped adapted themselves as the salt water gradually turned fresh. Lake Nicaragua is the only freshwater lake containing oceanic animal life, including sharks, swordfish, and tarpon.

  • tipiti (device)

    South American forest Indian: Economic systems: …stones embedded in them, the tipiti (a plaited cylinder used to squeeze the prussic acid from the grated pulp), great clay pots for preparing the flour, and earthen fryers for making flat cakes.

  • Tipler, Frank (American physicist)

    anthropic principle: Forms of the anthropic principle: John Barrow and American physicist Frank Tipler have proposed a final anthropic principle: the universe is structured so that an infinite number of bits of information can be processed by computers to the future of any time. That is, complexity at a level required to constitute life can continue to…

  • tipo (soul)

    Lango: …self, or immaterial soul (tipo), that after death eventually was merged into a vague entity called jok, a pervasive power, or supreme force. Ancestors, of whom jok was held the universal sublimation, were worshiped along with jok at shrines and sacred trees by prayer and sacrifice. Occurrences or things…

  • Tippecanoe River (river, Indiana, United States)

    Tippecanoe River, river rising in Tippecanoe Lake in Kosciusko county, northern Indiana, U.S. The river flows 166 miles (267 km) generally southwest into the Wabash River north of Lafayette. Tippecanoe is probably derived from the Miami Indian name for buffalo fish. Between the towns of Buffalo and

  • Tippecanoe Sequence (geology)

    epeirogeny: …460 million years ago), the Tippecanoe Sequence (mid-Ordovician to Early Devonian; about 460 to 400 million years ago), the Kaskaskia Sequence (Early Devonian to mid-Carboniferous; about 408 to 320 million years ago), and the Absaroka Sequence (Late Carboniferous to mid-Jurassic; about 320 to 176 million years ago).

  • Tippecanoe, Battle of (United States history)

    Battle of Tippecanoe, (November 7, 1811), victory of a seasoned U.S. expeditionary force under Major General William Henry Harrison over Shawnee Indians led by Tecumseh’s brother Laulewasikau (Tenskwatawa), known as the Prophet. The battle took place at Prophetstown, the Indian capital on the

  • Tipperary (Ireland)

    Tipperary, town and urban district, County South Tipperary, Ireland. The town grew up around a castle erected by Prince John (later King John) when he was lord of Ireland; the outline of the bailey remains. A chancel arch from a 13th-century Augustinian abbey still stands. In 1339 the town was

  • Tipperary (county, Ireland)

    Tipperary, geographic county in the province of Munster, south-central Ireland, occupying a broad strip of country between the Rivers Shannon and Suir. It is bounded by Counties Offaly and Laoighis (north), Kilkenny (east), Waterford and Cork (south), and Limerick, Clare, and Galway (west). The

  • tippet (clothing)

    Tippet, long, narrow, cloth streamer, usually white, worn around the arm above the elbow, with the long end hanging down to the knee or to the ground. These graceful tippets, worn in the late 14th century by both men and women, developed out of the long flaps created by the narrow 14th-century

  • Tippett, Michael Kemp (British composer)

    Sir Michael Tippett, one of the leading English composers of the 20th century. Tippett studied composition (1923–28) at the Royal College of Music and privately (1930–32) with R.O. Morris. After serving as music director (1940–51) at Morley College, London, he became a radio and television speaker

  • Tippett, Sir Michael (British composer)

    Sir Michael Tippett, one of the leading English composers of the 20th century. Tippett studied composition (1923–28) at the Royal College of Music and privately (1930–32) with R.O. Morris. After serving as music director (1940–51) at Morley College, London, he became a radio and television speaker

  • Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, The (work by Gladwell)

    Malcolm Gladwell: …Gladwell released his first book, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, which contends that social epidemics result from a combination of seemingly arbitrary contextual details and the actions of a few key types of people. It became a best seller, as did its successor, Blink:…

  • Tippit, J. D. (American policeman)

    Lee Harvey Oswald: …away was stopped by Patrolman J.D. Tippit, who believed that Oswald resembled the suspect already being described over the police radio. Oswald killed Tippit with his mail-order revolver (1:15 pm). At about 1:45 pm Oswald was seized in the Texas Theatre by police officers responding to reports of a suspect.…

  • Tippu Sahib (sultan of Mysore)

    Tippu Sultan, sultan of Mysore, who won fame in the wars of the late 18th century in southern India. Tippu was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employ of his father, Hyder Ali, who was the Muslim ruler of Mysore. In 1767 Tippu commanded a corps of cavalry against the

  • Tippu Sultan (sultan of Mysore)

    Tippu Sultan, sultan of Mysore, who won fame in the wars of the late 18th century in southern India. Tippu was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employ of his father, Hyder Ali, who was the Muslim ruler of Mysore. In 1767 Tippu commanded a corps of cavalry against the

  • Tippu Tib (Arab trader)

    Tippu Tib, the most famous late 19th-century Arab trader in central and eastern Africa. His ambitious plans for state building inevitably clashed with those of the sultan of Zanzibar and the Belgian king Leopold II. The ivory trade, however, apparently remained his chief interest, with his s

  • Tipra (people)

    Bangladesh: Ethnic groups: …Marma (Magh or Mogh), the Tripura (Tipra), and the Mro; the Khomoi (Kumi), the Kuki, and the Mizo (formerly called Lushai) are among the smaller groups. Since the mid-1970s ethnic tensions and periodic violence have marked the Chittagong Hill Tracts, where many peoples long resident in the area have objected…

  • Tiptoe Through the Tulips (song by Dubin and Burke)

    Roy Del Ruth: Early films: …unveiled the pop standard “Tiptoe Through the Tulips.”

  • Tiptonia (Indiana, United States)

    Columbus, city, Bartholomew county, south-central Indiana, U.S., on the East Fork White River, 43 miles (70 km) south of Indianapolis. Founded in 1821 as the county seat, it was named Tiptona for General John Tipton, who had given the land to the county, but a month later it was renamed Columbus. A

  • Tiptree, James, Jr. (American author)

    James Tiptree, Jr., American science fiction author known for her disturbing short stories about love, death, gender, and human and alien nature. When Alice Bradley was six years old, she and her parents traveled to the Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) on an expedition with

  • Tipu Sultan (sultan of Mysore)

    Tippu Sultan, sultan of Mysore, who won fame in the wars of the late 18th century in southern India. Tippu was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employ of his father, Hyder Ali, who was the Muslim ruler of Mysore. In 1767 Tippu commanded a corps of cavalry against the

  • Tipula simplex (insect)

    crane fly: The best-known species, the range crane fly (Tipula simplex), deposits its small black eggs in damp areas. Each egg hatches into a long slender larva, called a leatherjacket because of its tough brown skin. The larvae usually feed on decaying plant tissue; some species are carnivorous, and others damage…

  • Tipulidae (insect)

    Crane fly, any insect of the family Tipulidae (order Diptera). Crane flies have a slender mosquito-like body and extremely long legs. Ranging in size from tiny to almost 3 cm (1.2 inches) long, these harmless slow-flying insects are usually found around water or among abundant vegetation. The

  • tiqqun (Judaism)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: … (“breaking of the vessels”), and tiqqun (“restoration”). God as the Infinite (En Sof) withdraws into himself in order to make room for the creation, which occurs by a beam of light from the Infinite into the newly provided space. Later the divine light is enclosed in finite “vessels,” most of…

  • tiqqun lel Shavu?ot (Jewish work)

    Jewish religious year: Pilgrim festivals: Some prefer to recite the tiqqun lel Shavu?ot (“Shavuot night service”), an anthology of passages from Scripture and the Oral Law (Mishna) compiled in the late medieval period. An expanded liturgy includes Hallel, public readings from the Torah, yizkor (in many congregations), and musaf. The Book of Ruth is read…

  • Tiqqune zohar (Jewish work)

    Judaism: The making of the Zohar (c. 1260–1492): …of the Torah; and the Tiqqune zohar, consisting of elaborations in the same vein bearing upon the first word of the book of Genesis (bereshit, “in the beginning”).

  • Tiquina, Strait of (strait, South America)

    Lake Titicaca: A narrow strait, Tiquina, separates the lake into two bodies of water. The smaller, in the southeast, is called Lake Hui?aymarca in Bolivia and Lake Peque?o in Peru; the larger, in the northwest, is called Lake Chucuito in Bolivia and Lake Grande in Peru.

  • Tir na n-Og (work by Jones)

    T. Gwynn Jones: …greatest achievement in the poems Tir na n-Og, a lyrical play for performance with music; “Broseliawnd,” set in the forest of Broceliande; “Anatiomaros,” set in a district of ancient Gaul; “Argoed,” depicting an ideal community; and “Cynddilig,” a bitter protest against war written in the style of the Llywarch Hen…

  • Tiraboschi, Gerolamo (Italian author)

    Italian literature: The world of learning: Giovanni Maria Mazzuchelli and Gerolamo Tiraboschi devoted themselves to literary history. Literary criticism also attracted attention; Gian Vincenzo Gravina, Vico, Maffei, Muratori, and several others, while continuing to advocate the imitation of the classics, realized that such imitation should be cautious and thus anticipated critical standpoints that were later…

  • Tiradentes (Brazilian patriot)

    Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, Brazilian patriot and revolutionary who organized and led the first major outbreak against Portuguese rule in Brazil. Unsuccessful, he was tried and executed. The nobleness of Silva Xavier’s defense has made him a Brazilian national hero, and he is viewed as one of the

  • Tiradentes Conspiracy (Brazilian history)

    Tiradentes Conspiracy, (1789), plot organized in the captaincy of Minas Gerais, Brazil, against the Portuguese colonial regime by the Brazilian patriot Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, nicknamed Tiradentes (“Tooth Puller”), because one of his occupations was dentistry. The uprising, which was a

  • Tirah (mountainous region, Pakistan)

    Tirah, mountainous tract in west-central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. It lies on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border between the Khyber Pass and Khanki Valley, northwest of Kohat town. It is inhabited mainly by Afrīdī and ōrakzay Pashtun tribes. Tirah comprises a rugged area of 600–700 square

  • Tīrāh expedition (Afghani history)

    Khyber Pass: …but were defeated in the Tīrāh expedition of 1897. The British became responsible for the safety of the pass, which is now controlled by the Pakistani Khyber Agency.

  • Tirana (national capital, Albania)

    Tirana, city, capital of Albania. It lies 17 miles (27 km) east of the Adriatic Sea coast and along the Ishm River, at the end of a fertile plain. It was founded in the early 17th century by a Turkish general, Barkinzade Süleyman Pa?a, who is said to have built a mosque, a bathhouse, and a bakery

  • Tirana, University of (university, Tiran?, Albania)

    Albania: Education: The University of Tirana (1957) is the country’s major institution of higher education. Tirana also has an agricultural and polytechnic university, along with an impressive network of professional and vocational schools. More than nine-tenths of the population age 15 and older is literate.

  • Tiran? (national capital, Albania)

    Tirana, city, capital of Albania. It lies 17 miles (27 km) east of the Adriatic Sea coast and along the Ishm River, at the end of a fertile plain. It was founded in the early 17th century by a Turkish general, Barkinzade Süleyman Pa?a, who is said to have built a mosque, a bathhouse, and a bakery

  • Tiran? Pact (Europe [1926])

    20th-century international relations: Fascist diplomacy: The Tiran? Pact (Nov. 27, 1926) provided Italian economic aid and was followed by a military alliance in 1927 and finally a convention (July 1, 1928) declaring Albania a virtual protectorate of Italy. Ahmed Zogu then assumed the title of King Zog I.

  • Tiran?, University of (university, Tiran?, Albania)

    Albania: Education: The University of Tirana (1957) is the country’s major institution of higher education. Tirana also has an agricultural and polytechnic university, along with an impressive network of professional and vocational schools. More than nine-tenths of the population age 15 and older is literate.

  • tiranokku (curtain)

    South Asian arts: The kathakali school: …“peering over the curtain,” called tiranokku, is a close-up that offers an actor full scope to display his art. At a climactic moment the curtain is whisked away, and the character enters in full splendour. The performance lasts all night, the singers singing the text that the dancers act out…

  • Tiraspol (Moldova)

    Tiraspol, city, eastern Moldova. It lies along the Dniester River and the Odessa-Chi?in?u railway. It was founded by Russia in 1795 alongside a fortress built in 1792 to protect the lands Russia had acquired through the Treaty of Jassy (1792). From 1924 to 1940, it was the capital of the then

  • Tirath Rama (Hindu religious leader)

    Ramatirtha, Hindu religious leader known for the highly personal and poetic manner in which he taught what he styled “Practical Vedanta,” using common experiences to illustrate the divine nature of man. For Ramatirtha, any object whatever could be approached as a “mirror to God.” Educated at the

  • ?irāz (Islam)

    Islamic arts: Visual arts: …complicated institution known as the ?irāz. Major events were at times celebrated by being depicted on silks. Many texts have been identified that describe the hundreds of different kinds of textiles that existed. Because textiles could easily be moved, they became a vehicle for the transmission of artistic themes within…

  • tire

    Tire, a continuous band that encircles the rim of a wheel and forms a tread that rolls on either a road, a prepared track, or the ground. There are two main types of tires, those made of metal and those made of rubber. Railroad cars, which run on smooth steel rails, use iron or steel tires for low

  • Tired (sculpture by Catlett)

    Elizabeth Catlett: …depicted in the terra-cotta sculpture Tired (1946). Other notable works include the linocuts Sharecropper (1968) and Survivor (1983) and the lithograph Negro es bello (1968; “Black Is Beautiful”). She remained a working artist into her 90s.

  • Tired of Being Alone (song by Green)

    Al Green: But it was “Tired of Being Alone” (1971), written by Green, that suggested his extraordinary potential. It sold more than a million copies, preparing the way for “Let’s Stay Together,” the title track from Green’s first gold album.

  • Tiree (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Inner Hebrides: Tiree, 50 miles (80 km) west of Oban, the most westerly of the Inner Hebrides, has an economy based on crofting (small-scale tenant farming, largely for subsistence), bulb growing, cattle raising, fishing, tourism, and the quarrying of marble. Islay, the most southerly island of the…

  • Tirel, Guillaume (French chef)
  • Tiresias (Greek mythology)

    Tiresias, in Greek mythology, a blind Theban seer, the son of one of Athena’s favourites, the nymph Chariclo. He is a participant in several well-known legends. Among the ancient authors who mention him are Sophocles, Euripides, Pindar, and Ovid. At Thebes, Tiresias played an active part in the

  • Tirez sur le pianiste (film by Truffaut [1960])

    Fran?ois Truffaut: Early works: …followed—Tirez sur le pianiste (1960; Shoot the Piano Player), adapted from a 1956 American crime novel (Down There by David Goodis), a genre for which Truffaut displayed great admiration, and Jules et Jim (1962). During this time he also made a second short, Une Histoire d’eau (1961; A Story of…

  • T?rgovi?te (Romania)

    Targovi?te, city, capital of Dambovi?a jude? (county), south-central Romania. It lies along the Ialomi?a River, in the southeastern Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians), 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Bucharest. Targovi?te was the capital of feudal Walachia from the 14th to the 17th century.

  • T?rgu Jiu (Romania)

    Targu Jiu, city, capital of Gorj jude? (county), southwestern Romania, on the Jiu River. Formerly a Roman settlement, Targu Jiu was frequently ruled by local boyars until the 19th century. After World War II, the city developed rapidly from an agricultural market town into an industrial centre

  • T?rgu Mure? (Romania)

    Targu Mure?, city, capital of Mure? jude? (county), north-central Romania. It lies in the valley of the Mure? River, in the southeastern part of the Transylvanian Basin. First mentioned in the early 14th century, it was a cattle and crop market town called Agropolis by Greek traders. In the 15th

  • T?rgu-Neam? (Romania)

    Targu-Neam?, town, Neam? jude? (county), northeastern Romania, on the Neam? River. It has long been a local market centre and a major focus of culture in Moldavia. West of the town is Neam? Monastery, founded by Stephen (?tefan) the Great in 1497. On the north bank of the Neam? River stands the

  • Tirhaka (king of Egypt)

    Taharqa, fourth king (reigned 690–664 bce) of the 25th dynasty of ancient Egypt (see ancient Egypt: The 24th and 25th dynasties). Taharqa succeeded his cousin Shebitku on the throne. Early in his reign, he supported Palestine’s resistance against King Sennacherib of Assyria. In 671, however,

  • Tirhutiā language

    Maithili language, with Magadhi (Magahi) and Bhojpuri, one of the three main languages of Bihar state. It is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-European language family. Maithili is the language of old Mithila (the area of ancient Videha, now Tirhut), which is dominated by orthodoxy and the Maithil

  • Tiri (Iranian god)

    ancient Iranian religion: Tishtrya and Tīri: ” Astral deities seem to have figured much more prominently in ancient Iranian religion than in Vedic religion, and this may well be attributed to the influence of Babylonian science on the Iranians, particularly the western groups. In the Avesta such stars and constellations as…

  • Tirich Mir (mountain peak, Pakistan)

    Tirich Mir, highest peak (25,230 ft [7,690 m]) in the Hindu Kush mountain system, lying 155 mi (249 km) north of Peshāwar, Pak., in the North-West Frontier Province near Afghanistan. The Upper Tirich Glacier basin is formed by Tirich Mir East, Tirich Mir (the main summit), peaks to the west, and

  • Tiridates I (king of Armenia)

    Arsaces: …authorities believe that a brother, Tiridates I, succeeded Arsaces about 248 and ruled until 211; other authorities consider Arsaces I and Tiridates I to be the same person.)

  • Tiridates II (king of Armenia)

    Armenia: The Arsacids: …successor, Macrinus, recognized Vagharshak’s son Tiridates II (Khosrow the Great in Armenian sources) as king of Armenia (217).

  • Tiridates II (king of Parthia)

    Tiridates II , Arsacid prince of the Parthian Empire who revolted against King Phraates IV and drove him into exile (32 bc) among the Scythians. The next year Phraates returned, and Tiridates fled to Syria, taking Phraates’ son as hostage. The Roman emperor Augustus returned the son, but not

  • Tiridates III (king of Parthia)

    Tiridates III, grandson of the Parthian king Phraates IV and an unsuccessful contender for the Parthian throne. He was captured by the Romans, taken to Rome as a hostage, and educated there. In ad 35 the Roman emperor Tiberius sent him and an army under Lucius Vitellius, governor of Syria, against

  • Tiridates III (king of Armenia)

    Diocletian: Reorganization of the empire: Tiridates, the king of Armenia and a protégé of the Romans, was able to return to his throne; the Tigris became the eastern border of the empire; and peace reigned in that part of the world until the reign of Constantine I (306–337).

  • Tirigan (Gutian ruler)

    Guti: …when Utu-khegal of Uruk defeated Tirigan, the last king of the Gutian dynasty. Although the Guti, from their home in the Zagros, continued to menace the subsequent dynasties and kingdoms, they were never again able to take control of southern Mesopotamia.

  • Tirion Sky Atlas 2000.00 (astronomy)

    astronomical map: Atlases for stargazing: The Tirion Sky Atlas 2000.0 (1981) includes some 43,000 stars to magnitude eight and is based primarily on the SAO Star Catalog. Its 26 charts, measuring 47 by 33 cm (18.5 by 13 inches), include bright star names, boundaries of the Milky Way, and about 2,500…

  • Tirmidhī, al- (Muslim scholar)

    Al-Tirmidhī, Arab scholar and author of one of the six canonical collections of spoken traditions (Hadith) attributed to the Prophet Muhammad. The life of al-Tirmidhī is poorly documented. He journeyed to Khorāsān, to Iraq, and to the Hejaz in search of material for his collection and studied with

  • Tirnovo (Bulgaria)

    Veliko T?rnovo, majestic old town in northern Bulgaria. Veliko T?rnovo (“Great T?rnovo”) occupies near-vertical slopes above the 800-foot (240-metre) meandering gorge of the Yantra (Jantra) River. The houses, built in terraces, appear to be stacked one atop the other. The river divides the town

  • Tiro, Marcus Tullius (Roman stenographer)

    shorthand: History and development of shorthand: Marcus Tullius Tiro, a learned freedman who was a member of Cicero’s household, invented the notae Tironianae (“Tironian notes”), the first Latin shorthand system. Devised in 63 bc, it lasted over a thousand years. Tiro also compiled a shorthand dictionary. Among the early accomplished shorthand…

  • Tiro, Prosper (Christian polemicist)

    Saint Prosper of Aquitaine, ; feast day July 7), early Christian polemicist famous for his defense of Augustine of Hippo and his doctrine on grace, predestination, and free will, which became a norm for the teachings of the Roman Catholic church. Prosper’s chief opponents were the Semi-Pelagians,

  • Tirofijo (Colombian guerrilla leader)

    Manuel Marulanda Vélez, (Pedro Antonio Marín; “Tirofijo”), Colombian guerrilla leader (born May 12, 1930?, Génova, Colom.—died March 26, 2008, unknown mountain encampment, Colombia), was a founder (1964) and commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), estimated to possess some

  • Tirol (state, Austria)

    Tirol, Bundesland (federal state), western Austria, consisting of North Tirol (Nordtirol) and East Tirol (Osttirol). It is bounded by Germany on the north, by Bundesl?nder Salzburg and K?rnten (Carinthia) on the east, by Vorarlberg on the west, and by Italy on the south. Tirol (area 4,883 square

  • Tirol avalanches of 1916 (European history)

    Tirol avalanches of 1916, series of massive avalanches in December 1916 that killed as many as 10,000 troops in the mountainous Tirol region, an area now occupying the northern part of Italy and the western part of Austria. As World War I escalated, Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers positioned

  • Tirole, Jean (French economist)

    Jean Tirole, French economist who was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize for Economics in recognition of his innovative contributions to the study of monopolistic industries, or industries that consist of only a few powerful firms. Tirole’s work has had a significant impact across a wide range of fields

  • Tironian notes (shorthand)

    shorthand: History and development of shorthand: …of Cicero’s household, invented the notae Tironianae (“Tironian notes”), the first Latin shorthand system. Devised in 63 bc, it lasted over a thousand years. Tiro also compiled a shorthand dictionary. Among the early accomplished shorthand writers were the emperor Titus, Julius Caesar, and a number of bishops. With the beginning…

  • TIROS (United States weather satellite)

    TIROS, any of a series of U.S. meteorological satellites, the first of which was launched on April 1, 1960. The TIROS satellites comprised the first worldwide weather observation system. Equipped with specially designed miniature television cameras, infrared detectors, and videotape recorders, they

  • Tirpitz (German battleship)

    Sir Barnes Wallis: …that destroyed the German warship Tirpitz, the V-rocket sites, and much of Germany’s railway system. Wallis was chief of aeronautical research and development at the British Aircraft Corporation at Weybridge, Surrey, from 1945 to 1971. In 1971 he designed an aircraft that could fly five times the speed of sound…

  • Tirpitz, Alfred von (German statesman)

    Alfred von Tirpitz, German admiral, the chief builder of the German Navy in the 17 years preceding World War I and a dominant personality of the emperor William II’s reign. He was ennobled in 1900 and attained the rank of admiral in 1903 and that of grand admiral in 1911; he retired in 1916.

  • Tirra Lirra (work by Richards)

    children's literature: Peaks and plateaus (1865–1940): Richards, whose collected rhymes in Tirra Lirra (1932) will almost bear comparison with those of Edward Lear. Less memorable are the works of Lucy Fitch Perkins, Joseph Altsheler, Ralph Henry Barbour, Kate Douglas Wiggin, Eliza Orne White, and the two Burgesses—Thornton and Gelett. During these decades, de la Mare, Miss…

  • Tirreno, Mare (sea, Mediterranean Sea)

    Tyrrhenian Sea, arm of the Mediterranean Sea between the western coast of Italy and the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. It is connected with the Ligurian Sea (northwest) through the Tuscan Archipelago and with the Ionian Sea (southeast) through the Strait of Messina. Chief inlets of the

  • tirs (pedology)

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