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  • tail-to-tail coupling (chemistry)

    isoprenoid: Tail-to-tail coupling of isoprenoids: The structures of most triterpenes and tetraterpenes show that they were formed by establishment of a tail-to-tail bond (carbon 4 to carbon 4) between two smaller units: in the structural formula of the important triterpene hydrocarbon squalene, for example, the arrow…

  • tail-tube buoy (flotation device)

    lighthouse: Structure and operation: Some tail-tube buoys, which tend to oscillate vertically with the motion of the sea, generate power from the oscillating water column in the tube. The water column produces an oscillating air column, which in turn drives a small air-turbine generator. However, the vast majority of buoys…

  • Taila II (Indian king)

    India: The tripartite struggle: Taila II (reigned 973–997), who traced his ancestry to the earlier Calukyas of Vatapi, ruled a small part of Bijapur. Upon the weakening of Rashtrakuta power, he defeated the king, declared his independence, and founded what has come to be called the Later Calukya dynasty.…

  • tailbone (anatomy)

    Coccyx, curved, semiflexible lower end of the backbone (vertebral column) in apes and humans, representing a vestigial tail. It is composed of three to five successively smaller caudal (coccygeal) vertebrae. The first is a relatively well-defined vertebra and connects with the sacrum; the last is

  • tailcoat (clothing)

    dress: The 19th century: The tailcoat, waisted and padded on the chest, was de rigueur, accompanied by a waistcoat and close-fitting trousers called pantaloons, which were first buckled at the ankle and later, after 1820, strapped under the instep.

  • tailed bracken (fern)

    bracken: Tailed bracken (subspecies P. aquilinum pseudocaudatum) grows from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Missouri and Texas. The subspecies P. aquilinum caudatum, a West Indian plant, grows in southern Florida, and the subspecies P. aquilinum aquilinum is common in Great

  • tailed frog (amphibian)

    Tailed frog, (Ascaphus truei), the single species of the frog family Ascaphidae (order Anura). It is restricted to cold, clear forest streams of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada. It is one of many species that disappears when old-growth forests are cut. The “tail” found

  • tailed rhyme (poetry)

    Tail rhyme, a verse form in which rhymed lines such as couplets or triplets are followed by a tail—a line of different (usually shorter) length that does not rhyme with the couplet or triplet. In a tail-rhyme stanza (also called a tail-rhymed stanza), the tails rhyme with each

  • Tailhook scandal (United States history)

    Tailhook scandal, scandal in which U.S. Navy and Marine Corps officers and defense contractors committed sexual harassment and sexual assault at the U.S. Navy’s Tailhook Symposium in Las Vegas, Nevada, on September 5–7, 1991. The Tailhook Association is a private organization that sponsors the

  • tailiang (Chinese architecture)

    Chinese architecture: The elements of traditional Chinese architecture: …of elevated tie beams (tailiang, “terraced beams,” for which this entire system of architecture is named; also known as liangzhu, or “beams-and-columns”); the gable-end beams are sequentially shortened and alternate with vertical struts that bear the roof purlins and the main roof beam. The flexible proportions of the gable-end…

  • tailings (mining)

    mineral processing: Gravity separation: …float and are removed as tailings, whereas the particles of valuable minerals, having higher density, sink and are also removed. The magnetite or ferrosilicon can be removed from the tailings by magnetic separation and recycled.

  • taille (French history)

    Taille, the most important direct tax of the pre-Revolutionary monarchy in France. Its unequal distribution, with clergy and nobles exempt, made it one of the hated institutions of the ancien régime. The taille originated in the early Middle Ages as an arbitrary exaction from peasants. Often

  • Taille, Jean de La (French author)

    Jean de La Taille, poet and dramatist who, through his plays and his influential treatise on the art of tragedy, helped to effect the transition from native French drama to classical tragedy. While studying in Paris La Taille came under the influence, shown in his minor poems, of Pierre de Ronsard

  • Tailleferre, Germaine (French composer)

    Les Six: Germaine Tailleferre. The French critic Henri Collet originated the label Les Six in his article “The Russian Five, the French Six, and M. Erik Satie” (Comoedia, January 1920). Collet wished to draw a parallel between the well-known, highly nationalistic, late 19th-century Russian composers called The…

  • tailless tenrec (mammal)

    insectivore: Natural history: …moonrat (Echinosorex gymnura) and the tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus), attain the size of a small rabbit. Most insectivores are either ground dwellers or burrowers, but several are amphibious, and a few have adapted to life in the trees or forest understory. They prey almost entirely on invertebrates and small vertebrates.…

  • tailless whip scorpion (arachnid)

    Tailless whip scorpion, (order Amblypygi, sometimes Phrynichida), any of 70 species of the arthropod class Arachnida that are similar in appearance to whip scorpions (order Uropygi) but lack a telson, or tail. They occur in hot parts of both North and South America, Asia, and Africa, where, by day,

  • Taillevent (French chef)
  • tailor (fish)

    Bluefish, (Pomatomus saltatrix), swift-moving marine food and game fish, the only member of the family Pomatomidae (order Perciformes). The bluefish ranges through warm and tropical regions of the Atlantic and Indian oceans, living in schools and preying with voracity on other, smaller animals,

  • Tailor of Panama, The (film by Boorman [2001])

    John Boorman: He next helmed The Tailor of Panama (2001), a well-received adaptation of John le Carré’s best-selling espionage thriller. Pierce Brosnan was effective as a British operative who is sent to Panama only to become embroiled with an untrustworthy source of local intelligence (Geoffrey Rush).

  • Tailor, The (work by Moroni)

    Giovanni Battista Moroni: …of his best-known works is The Tailor (1565–70). Moroni emphasized a sitter’s dignity and nobility by means of natural, unforced poses and masterful compositions and infused his portraits with physiognomic individuality and psychological depth. Despite their impassive facial expressions, many of his portraits impart a sense of gentle melancholy that…

  • tailorbird (bird)

    Tailorbird, any of the nine species of the genus Orthotomus, of the Old World warbler family Sylviidae, that sew together the edges of one or more leaves to contain the nest. A tailorbird makes a series of holes with its long slender bill and then draws plant fibre, insect silk, or even stolen

  • tailoring (clothes design)

    dress: Medieval Europe: Clothes increasingly were tailored to fit and display the human figure. The ability to tailor garments improved. More and better fabrics were now reaching the West from Italy and farther east. But perhaps the most important reason for sartorial change was the spread of the Renaissance movement from…

  • Tailpiece (engraving by Hogarth)

    William Hogarth: Return to prints: …executed an engraving sardonically titled Tailpiece, or The Bathos, in which he sombrely depicted the demise of his own artistic world. In a sense it was prophetic, for, as the 19th-century English painter John Constable rightly remarked, “Hogarth has no school, nor has he ever been imitated with tolerable success.”…

  • tailpiece (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Morphology: …are held by the long tailpiece below the bridge, whose function is to reduce the length of unused string behind the bridge and to keep the strings pulling radially inward on its top edge. The lower end of the tailpiece is anchored by a loop of gut to an ebony…

  • tailslide (surfing maneuver)

    surfing: Equipment and techniques: …spectacular maneuvers such as “tailslides” (withdrawing the fins from the wave and allowing the board to slip down the face of the wave), “floaters” (“floating” the board along the top of a breaking wave), “reverses” (rapid changes of direction), 360s (turning the board through 360 degrees on the face…

  • tailwind

    airport: Operational requirements: …off without either crosswinds or tailwinds that would inhibit operations. At the smallest airports, light aircraft are unable to operate in crosswinds greater than 10 knots; at all airports, operation in tailwinds in excess of 10 knots is not recommended by aircraft manufacturers (10 knots, or nautical miles per hour,…

  • taima (Shintō)

    kamidana: …of the shrine stands the taima, an inscribed board from the main Shintō shrine at Ise, which represents a universal kami (deity, or sacred power). On either side are various paper amulets (o-fuda) associated with local tutelary gods (uji-gami, q.v.) and ancestral spirits. The kamidana may also include a shimenawa,…

  • Taima-dera (temple, Nara, Japan)

    tapestry: Eastern Asia: …kesi that hangs in the Taima-dera, a temple near Nara, Japan. Based on the story of the Tang dynasty priest Shandao, this 43-square-foot (4-square-metre) weaving is the oldest known complete Chinese wall tapestry.

  • Taima? (oasis, Saudi Arabia)

    history of Arabia: Central and northern Arabia: The oasis of Taymā? in the northern Hejaz emerged briefly into the limelight when the Neo-Babylonian king Nabu-na?id (Nabonidus, reigned c. 556–539 bce) took up his residence there for 10 years and extended his power as far as Yathrib. A few important monuments of this time are known.

  • Taimuri (people)

    ?azāra: …?azāra in Iran and as Taimuri, or Timuri, in Afghanistan.

  • Taimyr (former district, Russia)

    Taymyr, former autonomous okrug (district), north-central Siberian Russia. In 2007 Taymyr was subsumed under Krasnoyarsk kray (territory). It lies on the hilly Taymyr Peninsula, the most northerly part of the Eurasian continent, and extends south to the northern edge of the Central Siberian

  • Taimyr Peninsula (peninsula, Russia)

    Taymyr Peninsula, northernmost extension of the Eurasian landmass, in north-central Siberia in Krasnoyarsk kray (region), northeastern central Russia. The northernmost point of the peninsula is Cape Chelyuskin, north of which lie Vilkitsky Strait and Severnaya Zemlya. To the west of the peninsula

  • Taimyr Samoyed (people)

    nature worship: The sun as a subordinate deity: Siberian people such as the Taymyr Samoyed (whose women pray in spring to the sun goddess in order to receive fertility or a rich calving of the reindeer) or the Tungus worship sun goddesses. They make sacrifices to the sun goddess, and her symbols are embroidered on women’s clothes.

  • Táin bó Cuailnge (Gaelic literature)

    The Cattle Raid of Cooley, Old Irish epiclike tale that is the longest of the Ulster cycle of hero tales and deals with the conflict between Ulster and Connaught over possession of the brown bull of Cooley. The tale was composed in prose with verse passages in the 7th and 8th centuries. It is

  • Tain, The (album by The Decemberists)

    The Decemberists: …a single and an album) The Tain (2004) consisted of a single song broken into multiple movements and foreshadowed The Decemberists’ future direction. As the band grew more successful, its live shows developed a distinct theatrical bent, replete with elaborate stage designs and props, and The Decemberists became one of…

  • Tainan (Taiwan)

    T’ai-nan, special municipality (chih-hsia shih, or zhizia shi), southwestern Taiwan. In 2010 T’ai-nan municipality and T’ai-nan county surrounding it were combined administratively to form the special municipality, which has the status of a county. T’ai-nan is one of the oldest urban settlements on

  • Tainan (former county, Taiwan)

    T’ai-nan, former county (hsien, or xian), southwestern Taiwan. Since 2010 it has been incorporated administratively into the T’ai-nan special municipality. The former county is bordered by Chia-i (Jiayi) county to the north, Kao-hsiung (Gaoxiong) special municipality to the southeast, and the

  • Taine, Hippolyte (French critic and historian)

    Hippolyte Taine, French thinker, critic, and historian, one of the most-esteemed exponents of 19th-century French positivism. He attempted to apply the scientific method to the study of the humanities. Taine was born into a professional middle-class family; his father was a lawyer. He was educated

  • Taine, Hippolyte-Adolphe (French critic and historian)

    Hippolyte Taine, French thinker, critic, and historian, one of the most-esteemed exponents of 19th-century French positivism. He attempted to apply the scientific method to the study of the humanities. Taine was born into a professional middle-class family; his father was a lawyer. He was educated

  • Taine, John (American mathematician)

    Eric Temple Bell, Scottish American mathematician, educator, and writer who made significant contributions to analytic number theory. Bell emigrated to the United States at the age of 19 and immediately enrolled at Stanford University, where after only two years he earned his bachelor’s degree. He

  • Taino (people)

    Taino, Arawakan-speaking people who at the time of Christopher Columbus’s exploration inhabited what are now Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Once the most numerous indigenous people of the Caribbean, the Taino may have numbered one

  • Taino language

    Arawakan languages: Taino, a now-extinct Arawakan language, once predominated in the Antilles and was the first Indian language to be encountered by Europeans. Spoken languages of importance are Goajiro in Colombia, Campa and Machiguenga in Peru, and Mojo and Bauré in Bolivia.

  • tainoya (Japanese architecture)

    shinden-zukuri: The eastern and western tainoya, or subsidiary living quarters, were attached by watadono, wide covered corridors, from which narrow corridors extended south, ending in tsuridono, small pavilions, creating a U-shaped arrangement around the court. Wealthier nobles built additional buildings behind the shinden and tainoya.

  • tainter gate (engineering)

    dam: Gates: Radial, or tainter, gates are similar in principle but are curved in vertical section to better resist water pressure. Tilting gates consist of flaps held by hinges along their lower edges that permit water to flow over the top when they are lowered.

  • Tainter, Charles Sumner (American inventor)

    Charles Sumner Tainter, American inventor who, with Chichester A. Bell (a cousin of Alexander Graham Bell), greatly improved the phonograph by devising a wax-coated cardboard cylinder and a flexible recording stylus, both superior to the tinfoil surface and rigid stylus then used by Thomas A.

  • Taipa (island, Macau, China)

    Macau: …area comprising the islands of Taipa and Coloane, which are joined by an expanse of land that was reclaimed from the sea and is known as Cotai. Extending up a hillside is the city of Macau, which occupies almost the entire peninsula. The name Macau, or Macao (Pinyin: Aomen; Wade-Giles…

  • taipan (snake)

    Taipan, (genus Oxyuranus), any of three species of highly venomous snakes (family Elapidae) found from Australia to the southern edge of New Guinea. Taipans range in colour from beige to gray and pale brown to dark brown. Some taipans also experience seasonal colour changes. The coastal taipan

  • Taipei (Taiwan)

    Taipei, special (province-level) municipality (chih-hsia shih, or zhizia shi) and seat of government of Taiwan (Republic of China). It is situated on the Tan-shui (Danshui, or Tamsui) River, almost at the northern tip of the island of Taiwan, about 15 miles (25 km) southwest of Chi-lung (Jilong, or

  • Taipei 101 (building, Taipei, Taiwan)

    Taipei 101, office building in Taipei, Taiwan (Republic of China). Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners, a local architectural firm, the skyscraper has 101 stories and reaches a height, including the spire, of 1,667 feet (508 metres). At the time of its official opening in October 2004, it was the

  • Taipei Financial Center (building, Taipei, Taiwan)

    Taipei 101, office building in Taipei, Taiwan (Republic of China). Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners, a local architectural firm, the skyscraper has 101 stories and reaches a height, including the spire, of 1,667 feet (508 metres). At the time of its official opening in October 2004, it was the

  • Taiping (Chinese princess)

    Xuanzong: …Ruizong’s ambitious sister (the princess Taiping), he remained “Supreme Emperor,” a sort of regent with control over appointments to high offices, which were filled with the princess’s supporters.

  • Taiping (Malaysia)

    Taiping, town, northwestern Peninsular (West) Malaysia. The town is situated on a coastal plain just west of the Bintang Range. It originated as a Chinese mining settlement in the Larut district, where large-scale tin mining developed in the 1840s. Its importance as a mining centre ended some time

  • Taiping leibian (Chinese work)

    encyclopaedia: China: …the compilation of the vast Taiping yulan (“Imperially Inspected Anthology of the Taiping Era”; see Researcher’s Note: Taiping yulan), which included extracts from many works of literary and scientific standing that are no longer extant. In 1568–72 the Taiping yulan was revised and reprinted from movable type; a new edition…

  • Taiping Mountain (mountain, Taiwan)

    I-lan: T’ai-p’ing (Taiping) Mountain, in the south-central part of the county, is a major logging station in Taiwan and a major tourist resort. The county produces much of the pan-ya (banya; smoked and salted ducks) in Taiwan. Su-ao (Suao), an important harbour on Taiwan’s eastern coast,…

  • Taiping Rebellion (Chinese history)

    Taiping Rebellion, radical political and religious upheaval that was probably the most important event in China in the 19th century. It lasted for some 14 years (1850–64), ravaged 17 provinces, took an estimated 20 million lives, and irrevocably altered the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). The

  • Taiping Tianguo (Chinese history)

    Taiping Rebellion, radical political and religious upheaval that was probably the most important event in China in the 19th century. It lasted for some 14 years (1850–64), ravaged 17 provinces, took an estimated 20 million lives, and irrevocably altered the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). The

  • Taiping Tianguo (rebel government)
  • Taiping yulan (Chinese work)

    encyclopaedia: China: …the compilation of the vast Taiping yulan (“Imperially Inspected Anthology of the Taiping Era”; see Researcher’s Note: Taiping yulan), which included extracts from many works of literary and scientific standing that are no longer extant. In 1568–72 the Taiping yulan was revised and reprinted from movable type; a new edition…

  • Taipingjing (work by Gan Zhongke)

    Daoism: Revolutionary messianism: …of the Great Peace” (Taipingjing) that he claimed had been revealed to him by a spirit, who had come to him with the order to renew the Han dynasty. His temerity cost him his life, but the prophetic note of dynastic renewal became stronger during the interregnum of Wang…

  • Taiqing (Daoist alchemical tradition)

    Daoism: Developments in alchemical and other traditions: …designated as belonging to the Taiqing (“Great Purity”) tradition, from the name of the heaven of the Immortals to which the elixirs were said to elevate their consumer. The chapters of alchemy in the Baopuzi are among the earliest documents to describe the art in detail.

  • taira (mammal)

    Tayra, (Eira barbara), weasel-like mammal of tropical forests from southern Mexico through South America to northern Argentina. The tayra is short-legged, yet slender and agile, weighing from 2.7 to 7 kg (5.95 to 15.4 pounds). The body, measuring about 60–68 cm (24–27 inches), is covered with

  • Taira family (Japanese clan)

    Taira Family, Japanese samurai (warrior) clan of great power and influence in the 12th century. The genealogy and history of the family have been traced in detail from 825, when the name Taira was given to Prince Takamune, grandson of Kammu (the 50th emperor of Japan). From about 1156 to 1185, the

  • Taira Kiyomori (Japanese ruler)

    Taira Kiyomori, first of the Japanese soldier-dictators, whose victories in the Hōgen and Heiji disturbances marked the ascendancy of the provincial warrior class to positions of supreme power. Kiyomori succeeded his father, Tadamori (died 1153), as head of the powerful Taira, a warrior clan in the

  • Taira Masakado (Japanese rebel)

    Taira Masakado, Japanese rebel leader descended from the emperor Kammu (reigned 781–806). In 939 Masakado gained control of the Kantō region in central Japan and used the mystique of his Imperial blood to proclaim himself the New Emperor (Shinnō) and organize his own court, appointing governors for

  • Taira Masamori (Japanese warrior)

    Taira Masamori, warrior responsible for the rise to power of the Taira clan in Japan. The leader of a powerful provincial warrior family, Masamori was hired by the court in 1108 to eliminate a troublesome member of the powerful Minamoto clan, who had occupied the area of western Japan along the

  • Taira Tadamori (Japanese warrior)

    Taira Tadamori, warrior whose military and diplomatic skills made the Taira clan the most powerful family in Japan and laid the groundwork for his son Kiyomori’s assumption of virtual control over the country. After the death of his father, Masamori, who had established the family along the Inland

  • Taira Tadatsune (Japanese warrior)

    Taira Family: Origins and first period of power.: In 1028, when Taira Tadatsune attempted to reestablish Taira domination over the Kantō, the court dispatched another warrior, Minamoto Yorinobu, to quell the rebellion, and three years later, Tadatsune surrendered. As a result the Taira family began to decline, and the Minamoto family, descendants of Seiwa, the 56th…

  • Taira Takamochi (Japanese noble)

    Taira Family: Origins and first period of power.: His descendants were accordingly called Taira of Kammu. Takamochi, a nephew of Takamune, arrived in the Hitachi district (about 40 miles [60 kilometres] northwest of present-day Tokyo) as a local official and settled there. His descendants succeeded him in the post, and the family became powerful samurai in the district.

  • Taira Takamune (Japanese prince)

    Taira Family: Origins and first period of power.: …“Taira” was given to Prince Takamune, the son of Prince Kuzuhara and grandson of Kammu, the 50th emperor. His descendants were accordingly called Taira of Kammu. Takamochi, a nephew of Takamune, arrived in the Hitachi district (about 40 miles [60 kilometres] northwest of present-day Tokyo) as a local official and…

  • tairō (Japanese official)

    Tairō, in Japanese history, office of senior minister or chief councillor, the highest administrative post in the shogunate during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867). The office of tairō stood above the other senior councillors (rōjū) and so resembled the position of prime minister. Its chief function

  • Tairona (people)

    Tairona, Indians of the northern Colombian Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, known only from occasional references in Spanish colonial writings and from archaeological study. The Tairona used stone to build houses, tombs, bridges, and terraced platforms. Their crafts are represented by ceramic ware;

  • Tairov, Aleksandr Yakovlevich (Russian director)

    Aleksandr Yakovlevich Tairov, founder and producer-director (1914–49) of the Kamerny (Chamber) Theatre in Moscow, which, during the era of the Revolution, rivaled the Moscow Art Theatre in professional competence. Tairov took up law briefly before settling on a theatrical career. He worked in

  • Taisei sankei (Japanese mathematical work)

    Takebe Katahiro: The Taisei sankei (“Comprehensive Classic of Mathematics”), in 20 volumes, was finally completed by Takebe Kataaki in 1710. It gives a good picture of Seki’s skill at reformulating problems, as well as Takebe Katahiro’s ability to correct, perfect, and extend his master’s intuitions.

  • Taisei Yokusankai (Japanese history)

    Liberal-Democratic Party of Japan: History: …their members joined the government-sponsored Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai).

  • Taishan Fujun (Chinese deity)

    Mount Tai: …of organized Daoism, changed to Taiyue Dadi (“Grand Emperor of Mount Tai”). In Ming times (1368–1644) the centre of the popular cult was transferred from the spirit himself to his daughter, Taishan Niangniang (“The Lady of Mount Tai”)—also called Bixia Yunjun (“Goddess of the Colourful Clouds”)—whose cult had begun to…

  • Taishan Niangniang (Chinese deity)

    Mount Tai: …spirit himself to his daughter, Taishan Niangniang (“The Lady of Mount Tai”)—also called Bixia Yunjun (“Goddess of the Colourful Clouds”)—whose cult had begun to grow from about 1000 and who became a northern Daoist equivalent to the Buddhist Guanyin (Kuan-yin) or to Avalokitesvara (bodhisattva of mercy), whose cult was powerful…

  • Taishō (emperor of Japan)

    Taishō, the 123rd ruling descendant of the Japanese imperial family, the emperor who reigned from 1912 to 1926 during a period in which Japan continued the modernization of its economy. Yoshihito was proclaimed crown prince on November 3, 1889, after his two elder brothers died. He ascended the

  • Taishō democracy (Japanese history)

    Taishō democracy, Term for Japan’s continued moves toward broader representational government during the Taishō period. The tax qualification for voting was reduced, enfranchising more voters, and eventually eliminated in 1925. Party politics flourished and legislation favourable to labour was

  • Taishō period (Japanese history)

    Taishō period, (1912–26) period in Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Taishō emperor, Yoshihito (1879–1926). It followed the Meiji period and represented a continuation of Japan’s rise on the international scene and liberalism at home. Politically, the country moved toward broader

  • Taishō Tennō (emperor of Japan)

    Taishō, the 123rd ruling descendant of the Japanese imperial family, the emperor who reigned from 1912 to 1926 during a period in which Japan continued the modernization of its economy. Yoshihito was proclaimed crown prince on November 3, 1889, after his two elder brothers died. He ascended the

  • Taishō Yoshihito (emperor of Japan)

    Taishō, the 123rd ruling descendant of the Japanese imperial family, the emperor who reigned from 1912 to 1926 during a period in which Japan continued the modernization of its economy. Yoshihito was proclaimed crown prince on November 3, 1889, after his two elder brothers died. He ascended the

  • taishōgoto (musical instrument)

    autoharp: …two-stringed koto, and is named taishōgoto after the Taishō period (1912–26), when it was invented. This instrument continues to appeal to amateurs in Japan, as well as in Hawaii, Argentina, and India.

  • Taiso (Buddhist priest)

    Keizan Jōkin, priest of the Sōtō sect of Zen Buddhism, who founded the Sōji Temple (now in Yokohama), one of the two head temples of the sect. At the age of 12 Keizan entered the priesthood under Koun Ejō, the second head priest of the Eihei Temple (in modern Fukui prefecture), the headquarters of

  • Tait, Archibald Campbell (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Archibald Campbell Tait, archbishop of Canterbury, remembered primarily for his efforts to moderate tension in the Church of England at the height of the Oxford Movement. The son of Presbyterian parents, Tait became an Anglican while a student at the University of Oxford, where in 1835 he became a

  • Tait, Peter Guthrie (Scottish mathematician and physicist)

    Peter Guthrie Tait, Scottish physicist and mathematician who helped develop quaternions, an advanced algebra that gave rise to vector analysis and was instrumental in the development of modern mathematical physics. After serving from 1852 to 1854 as a fellow and lecturer at Peterhouse College,

  • Taito (Japanese artist)

    Hokusai, Japanese master artist and printmaker of the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) school. His early works represent the full spectrum of ukiyo-e art, including single-sheet prints of landscapes and actors, hand paintings, and surimono (“printed things”), such as greetings and

  • Taittinger, Pierre (French political leader)

    fascism: National fascisms: …Patriots (Jeunesses Patriotes), led by Pierre Taittinger; French Solidarity (Solidarité Fran?aise), founded and financed by Fran?ois Coty and led by Jean Renaud; the Franks (Francistes), led by Marcel Bucard; the French Popular Party (Parti Populaire Fran?ais), led by Jacques Doriot; and French Action (Action Fran?aise), led by Charles Maurras. After…

  • Taitu (emperor of Ethiopia)

    Addis Ababa: The empress Taitu, wife of Emperor Menilek II (reigned 1889–1913), persuaded the emperor to build a house near the hot springs at the foot of the tableland and to grant land in the area to members of the nobility. The city was thus founded in 1887 and…

  • Taiwan (self-governing island, Asia)

    Taiwan, island in the western Pacific Ocean that lies roughly 100 miles (160 km) off the coast of southeastern China. It is approximately 245 miles (395 km) long (north-south) and 90 miles (145 km) across at its widest point. Taipei, in the north, is the seat of government of the Republic of China

  • Taiwan earthquake of 1999 (Taiwan)

    Taiwan earthquake of 1999, earthquake that began at 1:47 am local time on Sept. 21, 1999, below an epicentre 93 miles (150 km) south of Taipei, Taiwan. The death toll was 2,400, and some 10,000 people were injured. Thousands of houses collapsed, making more than 100,000 people homeless. The

  • Taiwan Haixia (strait, China Sea)

    Taiwan Strait, arm of the Pacific Ocean, 100 miles (160 km) wide at its narrowest point, lying between the coast of China’s Fukien province and the island of Taiwan (Formosa). The strait extends from southwest to northeast between the South and East China seas. It reaches a depth of about 230 feet

  • Taiwan Major League (Taiwanese sports organization)

    baseball: Baseball in Asia and the Pacific: …started in 1990, and the Taiwan Major League, a four-team league that began operations in 1997. Australia has an eight-team professional league, the International Baseball Association Australia, which started in 1989.

  • Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (Taiwanese company)

    Morris Chang: …and philanthropist who founded (1987) Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), a leading maker of computer chips.

  • Taiwan Stock Exchange (Taiwanese company)

    Taiwan: Finance: The Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) opened in 1962 and has flourished since then as a place for private savings and investments. Originally the TWSE traded almost exclusively in stocks, but it subsequently began to also offer bonds and other forms of investments. The TWSE is among…

  • Taiwan Strait (strait, China Sea)

    Taiwan Strait, arm of the Pacific Ocean, 100 miles (160 km) wide at its narrowest point, lying between the coast of China’s Fukien province and the island of Taiwan (Formosa). The strait extends from southwest to northeast between the South and East China seas. It reaches a depth of about 230 feet

  • Taiwan, flag of

    national flag consisting of a red field (background) with a blue canton incorporating a white sun. The width-to-length ratio of the flag is 2 to 3.The first Chinese republic lasted from 1911 until 1928. Its national flag consisted of five equal horizontal stripes of red, yellow, blue, white, and

  • Taiwan, history of

    Taiwan: History: There are references to Taiwan in Chinese court records dating to the 3rd century bce. The first recorded contact between China and Taiwan occurred in 239 ce, when the Chinese emperor sent a 10,000-man mission to Taiwan to explore the island. In…

  • Taiwudi (emperor of Northern Wei dynasty)

    Daoism: State Daoism in the North: …his message at court; Emperor Taiwudi (5th century) of the Northern Wei dynasty put Kou in charge of religious affairs within his dominions and proclaimed Daoism the official religion of the empire. The emperor considered himself to reign as the terrestrial deputy of the deified Laozi, as is indicated by…

  • Taixu (Chinese Buddhist philosopher)

    Taixu, Chinese Buddhist monk and philosopher who sought to revitalize modern Buddhism throughout the world. Taixu received his early training in Buddhism in the Tiandong Monastery near Ningbo. In 1912 he helped organize the Association for the Advancement of Buddhism with headquarters in Nanjing.

  • Taixuanjing (work by Yang Xiong)

    Yang Xiong: …Fayan (“Model Sayings”) and the Taixuanjing (“Classic of the Supremely Profound Principle”), 15 essays that imitate the form of the Confucian classic Yijing (I-Ching; “Classic of Changes”).

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