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  • Thing, The (film by Nyby [1951])

    The Thing from Another World, American science-fiction film, released in 1951, that was produced by film director Howard Hawks and was noted for its intelligent script. A group of U.S. Air Force investigators uncovers the remains of a spaceship in the Arctic and in the process discover a frozen

  • thing-in-itself (philosophy)

    rationalism: Epistemological rationalism in modern philosophies: …causality—represents an order holding among things-in-themselves (German Dinge-an-sich) cannot be known. Kant’s rationalism was thus the counterpart of a profound skepticism.

  • Things Fall Apart (album by the Roots [1999])

    the Roots: The 1999 offering, Things Fall Apart, was regarded as the band’s breakthrough album and won both critical praise and commercial success. A single from the album, “You Got Me,” a collaboration with vocalist Erykah Badu, won the Grammy Award in 2000 for best rap performance by a duo…

  • Things Fall Apart (novel by Achebe)

    Things Fall Apart, first novel by Chinua Achebe, written in English and published in 1958. Things Fall Apart helped create the Nigerian literary renaissance of the 1960s. The novel chronicles the life of Okonkwo, the leader of an Igbo community, from the events leading up to his banishment from the

  • Things Have Changed (song by Dylan)

    Bob Dylan: …best original song for “Things Have Changed,” from the film Wonder Boys. Another Grammy (for best contemporary folk album) came Dylan’s way in 2002, for Love and Theft (2001).

  • Things I Remember (work by D’Azeglio)

    Italian literature: The Risorgimento and after: …D’Azeglio (I miei ricordi [1868; Things I Remember]). D’Azeglio’s historical novels and those of Francesco Guerrazzi now have a rather limited interest; and Mazzini’s didactic writings—of great merit in their good intentions—are generally regarded as unduly oratorical. Giovanni Prati and Aleardo Aleardi, protagonists of the “Second Romanticism,” wrote poetry of…

  • Things of This World: Poems (work by Wilbur)

    Richard Wilbur: …Pulitzer Prize for poetry for Things of This World: Poems (1956), which was enthusiastically hailed as less perfect but more personal than his previous poetry. Wilbur wrote within the poetic tradition launched by T.S. Eliot, using irony and intellect to create tension in his poems. Some critics demanded more energy…

  • Things They Carried, The (novel by O’Brien)

    Tim O'Brien: In The Things They Carried (1990), a fictional narrator named Tim O’Brien begins his memoir with a description of the items that the members of his platoon took to war, which range from physical objects, such as weapons and love letters, to emotions of terror and…

  • Things to Come (film by Menzies [1936])

    William Cameron Menzies: Films of the 1930s and ’40s: …on the British production of Things to Come (1936), which was inspired by the novel The Shape of Things to Come by H.G. Wells, who wrote the script. The science-fiction epic starred Raymond Massey in a dual role as the visionary Cabal, who survives the fall of one futuristic society…

  • Things You Should Know (short stories by Homes)

    A.M. Homes: Things You Should Know (2002), a second collection of short fiction, further mined middle-class America for black humour and insight.

  • things-in-themselves (philosophy)

    rationalism: Epistemological rationalism in modern philosophies: …causality—represents an order holding among things-in-themselves (German Dinge-an-sich) cannot be known. Kant’s rationalism was thus the counterpart of a profound skepticism.

  • Things: A Story of the Sixties (work by Perec)

    Georges Perec: …histoire des années soixante (1965; Things: A Story of the Sixties) concerns a young Parisian couple whose personalities are consumed by their material goods. In 1967 he joined the Ouvroir de Littérature Potentielle (Workshop of Potential Literature). Known in short as Oulipo, the group dedicated itself to the pursuit of…

  • Thingvalla, Lake (lake, Iceland)

    Lake Thingvalla, lake, southwestern Iceland, 20 miles (32 km) east of Reykjavík. The lake is about 9 miles (14 km) long and up to 6 miles (10 km) wide and reaches a depth of 374 feet (114 m). It is among the largest lakes in Iceland, with an area of 32 square miles (82 square km), and is a popular

  • Thingvallavatn (lake, Iceland)

    Lake Thingvalla, lake, southwestern Iceland, 20 miles (32 km) east of Reykjavík. The lake is about 9 miles (14 km) long and up to 6 miles (10 km) wide and reaches a depth of 374 feet (114 m). It is among the largest lakes in Iceland, with an area of 32 square miles (82 square km), and is a popular

  • Thingvellir (historical site, Iceland)

    Thingvellir, historical site, southwestern Iceland, on the northern shore of Lake Thingvalla. From 930 to 1798 it was the annual meeting place of the Althing (Parliament). Though little remains of any of the early buildings, the spectacular setting in which much of Iceland’s early history unfolded

  • thinhorn (mammal)

    Dall sheep, (Ovis dalli), species of bighorn

  • think tank (organization)

    Think tank, institute, corporation, or group organized for interdisciplinary research with the objective of providing advice on a diverse range of policy issues and products through the use of specialized knowledge and the activation of networks. Think tanks are distinct from government, and many

  • Thinker, The (sculpture by Rodin)

    The Thinker, sculpture of a pensive nude male by French artist Auguste Rodin, one of his most well-known works. Many marble and bronze editions in several sizes were executed in Rodin’s lifetime and after, but the most famous version is the 6-foot (1.8-metre) bronze statue (commonly called a

  • thinking

    Thought, covert symbolic responses to stimuli that are either intrinsic (arising from within) or extrinsic (arising from the environment). Thought, or thinking, is considered to mediate between inner activity and external stimuli. In everyday language, the word thinking covers several distinct

  • Thinking and Experience (work by Price)

    H.H. Price: …perception, while a later publication, Thinking and Experience (1953), revealed the importance of conceptual awareness beyond mere symbolic interpretation. Also writing on religion, parapsychology, and psychic phenomena, he viewed telepathy and clairvoyance as influences on the unconscious mind. Additional works include Hume’s Theory of the External World (1940), Belief (1969),…

  • Thinking Machines Corporation (American company)

    supercomputer: Historical development: In 1983 Hillis cofounded the Thinking Machines Corporation to design, build, and market such multiprocessor computers. In 1985 the first of his Connection Machines, the CM-1 (quickly replaced by its more commercial successor, the CM-2), was introduced. The CM-1 utilized an astonishing 65,536 inexpensive one-bit processors, grouped 16 to a…

  • Thinking Reed, The (novel by West)

    Rebecca West: …Judge (1922), Harriet Hume (1929), The Thinking Reed (1936), The Fountain Overflows (1957), and The Birds Fall Down (1966). In 1937 West visited Yugoslavia and later wrote Black Lamb and Grey Falcon, 2 vol. (1942), an examination of Balkan politics, culture, and history. In 1946 she reported on the trial…

  • Thinking: An Experimental and Social Study (work by Bartlett)

    Frederic Bartlett: A later work, Thinking: An Experimental and Social Study (1958), broke no new theoretical ground but added observations on the social character of human thinking.

  • thinleaf alder (plant)

    alder: sinuata); and the mountain, or thinleaf, alder (A. tenuifolia), a shrubby tree with yellow or orange-brown midribs on its leaves and a domelike crown of pendulous branches.

  • thinning (horticulture)

    fruit farming: Thinning: Removal of flowers or young fruit (thinning) is done to permit the remaining fruits to grow more rapidly and to prevent development of such a large crop that the plant is unable to flower and set a commercial crop the following year. Thinning is…

  • thinning (physics)

    ice in lakes and rivers: Thinning and rotting: In the spring, when average daily air temperatures rise above the freezing point, ice begins to decay. Two processes are active during this period: a dimensional thinning and a deterioration of the ice crystal grains at their boundaries. Thinning of the ice…

  • thinning out (horticulture)

    fruit farming: Thinning: Removal of flowers or young fruit (thinning) is done to permit the remaining fruits to grow more rapidly and to prevent development of such a large crop that the plant is unable to flower and set a commercial crop the following year. Thinning is…

  • Thinocoridae (bird)

    Seedsnipe, any of four species of South American birds comprising the family Thinocoridae (order Charadriiformes). The seedsnipe, related to such shorebirds as the gulls and terns, is adapted to a diet of seeds and greens. Seedsnipes are streaked birds with short, rounded tail and long wings. They

  • Thinocorus rumicivorus (bird)

    seedsnipe: …is the least, pygmy, or Patagonian seedsnipe (Thinocorus rumicivorus). It covers its eggs with sand when it leaves the nest. The largest (about 30 cm, or 12 in.) is Gay’s seedsnipe (Attagis gayi), which nests high in the Andes.

  • thioacetal (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Reactions: …aldehydes and ketones to form thioacetals and thioketals, respectively. Thioacetals and thioketals are more stable than the corresponding oxygen compounds and so are especially useful as protecting groups (temporarily suppressing the reactivity of the carbonyl group) as well as reagents in organic synthesis. Thiols are efficient radical scavengers (a radical…

  • thioaldehyde (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Thiocarbonyl compounds: …carbonyl group, is found in thioaldehydes and thioketones, as well as in a variety of compounds with nitrogen or oxygen (or both) attached to the thiocarbonyl carbon (e.g., ―XC(=S)Y―, where X and Y = N or O). These compounds are named by analogy with the corresponding oxygen compounds—e.g., thioacetone, CH3C(=S)CH3,…

  • Thiobacillus (bacteria genus)

    bacteria: Autotrophic metabolism: Thiobacillus oxidizes thiosulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfate, and A. ferrooxidans oxidizes ferrous ions to the ferric form. This diverse oxidizing ability allows A. ferrooxidans to tolerate high concentrations of many different ions, including iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, and zinc. All of these types of…

  • thiocarbamide (chemical compound)

    Thiourea, an organic compound that resembles urea (q.v.) but contains sulfur instead of oxygen; i.e., the molecular formula is CS(NH2)2, while that of urea is CO(NH2)2. Like urea, it can be prepared by causing a compound with the same chemical composition to undergo rearrangement, as by heating

  • thiocarbanilide (chemical compound)

    accelerator: Thiocarbanilide, less poisonous than aniline, succeeded it as the most important accelerator until it was displaced by mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) about 1925. Compounds related to MBT have proved especially useful in vulcanizing synthetic rubbers.

  • thiocarbonyl compound (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Thiocarbonyl compounds: The thiocarbonyl functional group (―C(=S)―), analogous to the carbonyl group, is found in thioaldehydes and thioketones, as well as in a variety of compounds with nitrogen or oxygen (or both) attached to the thiocarbonyl carbon (e.g., ―XC(=S)Y―, where X and Y = N…

  • thiodiacetic acid (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfides: …designated by thio- (as in thiodiacetic acid, HO2CCH2SCH2CO2H) or by methylthio- (as in methylthioacetic acid, CH3SCH2CO2H). In saturated cyclic sulfides, the prefix thi- precedes the root associated with ring size; for example, thiirane, thietane, thiolane, and thiane for three-, four-, five-, and six-membered rings, respectively. Unsaturated cyclic sulfides, such as…

  • thioenolization (chemical reaction)

    organosulfur compound: Reactions: …can also undergo enolization (thioenolization), giving isomeric enethiols, which in some cases can be isolated. Thioenolization of thioacetone would give 2-propenethiol, CH3C(SH)=CH2. Thioketones reversibly add hydrogen sulfide to yield gem-dithiols (i.e., having both ―SH groups on the same carbon)—for example, propane-2,2-dithiol, CH3C(SH)2CH3, in the case of thioacetone. It is

  • thioester (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Reactions: Thiols form sulfides and thioesters in reactions analogous to those of alcohols. They react readily with aldehydes and ketones to form thioacetals and thioketals, respectively. Thioacetals and thioketals are more stable than the corresponding oxygen compounds and so are especially useful as protecting groups (temporarily suppressing the reactivity of…

  • thioether (organic)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfides: Sulfides, in which two organic groups are bonded to a sulfur atom (as in RSR′) are the sulfur analogs of ethers (ROR′). The organic groups, R and R′, may be both alkyl, both aryl, or one of each. If sulfur is simultaneously connected to…

  • thioformaldehyde (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Thiocarbonyl compounds: The parent thiocarbonyl compound, thioformaldehyde (CH2=S), is extremely reactive and cannot be isolated. However, it is very stable in the gas phase in low concentrations and is formed when various small organosulfur compounds are heated to extremely high temperatures. Thioformaldehyde has been detected in interstellar space by radio astronomers.…

  • thioketal (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Reactions: …ketones to form thioacetals and thioketals, respectively. Thioacetals and thioketals are more stable than the corresponding oxygen compounds and so are especially useful as protecting groups (temporarily suppressing the reactivity of the carbonyl group) as well as reagents in organic synthesis. Thiols are efficient radical scavengers (a radical X? abstracts…

  • thioketone (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Thiocarbonyl compounds: …is found in thioaldehydes and thioketones, as well as in a variety of compounds with nitrogen or oxygen (or both) attached to the thiocarbonyl carbon (e.g., ―XC(=S)Y―, where X and Y = N or O). These compounds are named by analogy with the corresponding oxygen compounds—e.g., thioacetone, CH3C(=S)CH3, or 2-propanethione.…

  • Thiokol (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Polysulfide rubber: Polysulfide rubber was discovered in 1926 by an American chemist, Joseph Cecil Patrick, while he was attempting to obtain ethylene glycol for use as an antifreeze. The elastomer was commercialized under the trade name Thiokol (after the Greek theion, “brimstone” [sulfur] and kommi,…

  • thiol (chemical compound)

    Thiol, any of a class of organic chemical compounds similar to the alcohols and phenols but containing a sulfur atom in place of the oxygen atom. Thiols are among the odorous principles in the scent of skunks and of freshly chopped onions; their presence in petroleum and natural gas is

  • thiolane S,S-dioxide (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Occurrence and preparation: The solvent sulfolane (thiolane S,S-dioxide) is prepared by first reacting sulfur dioxide with butadiene to give sulfolene (a cyclic, unsaturated, five-membered ring sulfone), followed by hydrogenation to yield sulfolane.

  • thiolate (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Thiols: As thiolate, RS?, they can function as bases, as ligands (e.g., in the binding of metals, as in hemoglobin), and as agents for the transfer of acetyl groups (e.g., in acetyl CoA) in lipid biosynthesis. In acetyl CoA, sulfur exists in the form of a derivative…

  • thiolysis (chemistry)

    metabolism: Fragmentation of fatty acyl coenzyme A molecules: The process, called thiolysis (as distinct from hydrolysis), yields the two-carbon fragment acetyl coenzyme A and a fatty acyl coenzyme A having two fewer carbon atoms than the molecule that underwent reaction [22]; otherwise the two are similar.

  • thiomersal (medicine)

    Thimerosal, mercury-containing organic compound with antimicrobial and preservative properties. Thimerosal was developed in the 1920s and became widely used as a preservative in antiseptic ointments, eye drops, and nasal sprays as well as in vaccines, particularly those that were stored in

  • Thiong’o Ngugi, James (Kenyan writer)

    Ngugi wa Thiong’o, Kenyan writer who was considered East Africa’s leading novelist. His popular Weep Not, Child (1964) was the first major novel in English by an East African. As he became sensitized to the effects of colonialism in Africa, Ngugi adopted his traditional name and wrote in the Bantu

  • Thionville (France)

    Thionville, town, Moselle département, Grand Est région, northeastern France. It is on the canalized Moselle River, near the Luxembourg border. It has remains of a 13th-century castle, built by the counts of Luxembourg. Formerly a part of the Holy Roman Empire, Thionville was taken from the

  • Thionville, Merlin de (French revolutionary)

    Antoine-Christophe Merlin, democratic radical during the early years of the French Revolution who became one of the leading organizers of the conservative Thermidorian reaction that followed the collapse of the radical democratic Jacobin regime of 1793–94. Merlin was the son of an attorney and

  • thionyl chloride (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Conversion to acid derivatives: …of a carboxylic acid with thionyl chloride, SOCl2 (often in the presence of an amine such as pyridine, C5H5N), converts the carboxyl group to the corresponding acyl chloride (RCOOH → RCOCl).

  • thiopental sodium (drug)

    anesthetic: General anesthetics: , thiopental), the benzodiazepines (e.g., midazolam), or other drugs such as propofol, ketamine, and etomidate. These systemic anesthetics result in a rapid onset of anesthesia after a single dose, because of their high solubility in lipids and their relatively high

  • thiophene (chemical compound)

    Thiophene, the simplest sulfur-containing aromatic compound, with molecular formula C4H4S, which closely resembles benzene in its chemical and physical properties. It occurs with benzene in coal tar, from which source it was first isolated in 1883. Today, thiophene is prepared commercially from

  • thiophenol (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Thiols: …oxygen compound, as, for example, thiophenol (C6H5SH), also called benzenethiol. A number of thiols are found in nature, such as cysteine and glutathione. In addition, 2-butenethiol is found in the defensive spray of the skunk, 2-propanethiol (allyl mercaptan) is found in the breath of people who have eaten garlic, and…

  • thiopyrylium (chemical compound)

    heterocyclic compound: Six-membered rings with one heteroatom: …ions (cations) of pyrylium and thiopyrylium are the parent six-membered, aromatic, monocyclic oxygen and sulfur compounds of their respective groups.

  • Thiothrix (bacteria)

    sulfur bacterium: Thiothrix, common in sulfur springs and in sewage, and Sulfolobus, confined to sulfur-rich hot springs, transform hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur.

  • thiourea (chemical compound)

    Thiourea, an organic compound that resembles urea (q.v.) but contains sulfur instead of oxygen; i.e., the molecular formula is CS(NH2)2, while that of urea is CO(NH2)2. Like urea, it can be prepared by causing a compound with the same chemical composition to undergo rearrangement, as by heating

  • Thíra (island, Greece)

    Thera, island, southernmost island of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group, southeastern Greece, in the Aegean Sea, sometimes included in the Southern Sporades group. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) within the South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region). Geologically, Thera is the

  • Thíra (Greece)

    Thera: The chief town, Thíra (locally called Firá), was badly damaged by an earthquake in 1956. Other settlements include Emboríon and Pírgos to the south and the port of Oía at the north entrance to the lagoon, which was destroyed by the 1956 earthquake.

  • Third (album by Big Star)

    Alex Chilton: Big Star’s final album, Third (also released as Sister Lovers; 1978), was a dark, meandering affair that lacked the focus of its predecessors. In spite of this, songs such as “Kangaroo” offered a glimpse of the noise-pop sound that would emerge in the 1980s with groups such as the…

  • third (music)

    African music: Equi-tonal systems: …on singing in intervals of thirds plus fifths, or thirds plus fourths, is the eastern Angolan culture area. This music is heptatonic and non-modal; i.e., there is no concept of major or minor thirds as distinctive intervals. In principle all the thirds are neutral, but in practice the thirds rendered…

  • Third Amendment (United States Constitution)

    Third Amendment, amendment (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, part of the Bill of Rights, that prohibits the involuntary quartering of soldiers in private homes. Although the Third Amendment has never been the direct subject of Supreme Court scrutiny, its core principles were among

  • Third Angel, The (novel by Hoffman)

    Alice Hoffman: The Third Angel, which weaves together the stories of three women all hopelessly in love with the wrong men, was published in 2008. In The Dovekeepers (2011; TV miniseries 2015), Hoffman imagined the 1st-century Roman siege of the mountaintop fortress of Masada—where some 1,000 Jews…

  • Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919)

    Anglo-Afghan Wars: Third Anglo-Afghan War: With the outbreak of World War I (1914–18), there was in Afghanistan widespread support of Ottoman Turkey against the British. However, the ruler of Afghanistan at the time, ?abībullāh Khan, was able to maintain a policy of noninvolvement throughout the war. When…

  • Third Arab-Israeli War (Middle East [1967])

    Six-Day War, brief war that took place June 5–10, 1967, and was the third of the Arab-Israeli wars. Israel’s decisive victory included the capture of the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, Old City of Jerusalem, and Golan Heights; the status of these territories subsequently became a major

  • Third Barrier Treaty (European history [1715])

    Barrier Treaties: …were further modified by the Third Barrier Treaty (Nov. 15, 1715), signed by Great Britain, the United Provinces, and the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, then ruler of the Austrian Netherlands. The seven fortresses on the French frontier of the Austrian Netherlands that were given to the United Provinces by…

  • third baseman (baseball position)

    baseball: Infielders: The third baseman, playing to the right of third base and nearer the batter than the shortstop or second baseman, is not called on to cover as much ground, but his reflexes must be exceptional. The long throw across the infield requires a strong and accurate…

  • Third Cinema (cinema movement)

    Third Cinema, aesthetic and political cinematic movement in Third World countries (mainly in Latin America and Africa) meant as an alternative to Hollywood (First Cinema) and aesthetically oriented European films (Second Cinema). Third Cinema films aspire to be socially realistic portrayals of life

  • Third Coalition (European history)

    Battle of Austerlitz: …(December 2, 1805), the first engagement of the War of the Third Coalition and one of Napoleon’s greatest victories. His 68,000 troops defeated almost 90,000 Russians and Austrians nominally under General M.I. Kutuzov, forcing Austria to make peace with France (Treaty of Pressburg) and keeping Prussia temporarily out of the…

  • Third Coalition, War of the (European history)

    Battle of Austerlitz: …the first engagement of the War of the Third Coalition and one of Napoleon’s greatest victories. His 68,000 troops defeated almost 90,000 Russians and Austrians nominally under General M.I. Kutuzov, forcing Austria to make peace with France (Treaty of Pressburg) and keeping Prussia temporarily out of the anti-French alliance.

  • third contact (astronomy)

    eclipse: Solar eclipse phenomena: The moment of third contact occurs when the Moon’s west edge first reveals the Sun’s disk. Many of the phenomena of second contact appear again, in reverse order. Suddenly the first Baily’s bead appears. More beads of light follow, the Sun’s crescent grows again, the corona disappears, daylight…

  • third cranial nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Oculomotor nerve (CN III or 3): The oculomotor nerve arises from two nuclei in the rostral midbrain. These are (1) the oculomotor nucleus, the source of general somatic efferent fibres to superior, medial, and inferior recti muscles, to the inferior oblique muscle, and to the…

  • Third Crusade (European history)

    Crusades: The Third Crusade: The news of the fall of Jerusalem reached Europe even before the arrival there of Archbishop Josius of Tyre, whom the Crusaders had sent with urgent appeals for aid. Pope Urban III soon died, shocked, it was said, by the sad news. His…

  • third degree (law)

    criminal law: Degrees of participation: …fact; in continental law this third degree of participation is covered partly by the concept of instigation and partly by the above-mentioned aide et assistance. The fourth and last degree of participation is that of accessory after the fact, who is punishable for receiving, concealing, or comforting one whom that…

  • Third Department (Russian political office)

    Third Department, office created by Emperor Nicholas I (July 15 [July 3, old style], 1826) to conduct secret police operations. Designed by Count A.Kh. Benckendorff, who was also its first chief administrator (1826–44), the department was responsible for political security. It conducted s

  • Third Duma (Russian assembly)

    Duma: The Third Duma, elected on that basis, was conservative. It generally supported the government’s agrarian reforms and military reorganization; and, although it criticized bureaucratic abuses and government advisers, it survived its full five-year term.

  • Third Estate (French history)

    Third Estate, in French history, with the nobility and the clergy, one of the three orders into which members were divided in the pre-Revolutionary Estates-General. It represented the great majority of the people, and its deputies’ transformation of themselves into a National Assembly in June 1789

  • third eye (anatomy)

    tuatara: Form and function: …also have a third, or parietal, eye on the top of the head. Although this eye has a rudimentary lens, it is not an organ of vision. It is thought to serve an endocrine function by registering the dark-light cycle for hormone regulation. Tuatara display no ear openings. However, they…

  • third figure (syllogistic)

    history of logic: Syllogisms: …are predicated of β (third figure). All syllogisms must fall into one or another of these figures.

  • third generation language (computing)

    computer: Machine language: …mathematics or some other “high-level language” to machine language was therefore necessary before computers would be useful to a broader class of users. As early as the 1830s, Charles Babbage and Lady Lovelace had recognized that such translation could be done by machine (see the earlier section Lady Lovelace,…

  • Third Group (political party, Georgia)

    Georgia: National revival: …but it paled before the Mesame Dasi, or Third Group, an illegal Social Democratic party founded in 1893. The Third Group professed Marxist doctrines, and from 1898 it included among its members Joseph Dzhugashvili, who later took the byname Joseph Stalin. When the Mensheviks—a branch of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers…

  • third harmonic mode (physics)

    sound: Fundamentals and harmonics: Similarly, the frequency of the third harmonic (labeled n = 3) is three times that of the fundamental.

  • Third Idea (physics)

    Andrey Sakharov: The “Third Idea,” of which Sakharov said he was one of the originators, was a modern two-stage configuration using radiation compression, analogous to the successful design of the American physicists Teller and Stanislaw Ulam. On November 22, 1955, the Soviet Union successfully tested the design in…

  • Third Imperial Egg (decorative egg)

    Fabergé egg: …the existence of the long-lost Third Imperial Egg was publicly announced. According to reports, the ridged gold egg, which contained a lady’s watch, had been bought for scrap metal at an American flea market in the 1990s. However, it was not until 2012 that the buyer—who had been told that…

  • Third Industrial Revolution

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution: …of the Third Industrial, or Digital, Revolution, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be driven largely by the convergence of digital, biological, and physical innovations.

  • third intention (surgery)

    surgery: Present-day surgery: …open and closes naturally; and third intention, in which the wound is left open for a number of days and then closed if it is found to be clean. The third technique is used in badly contaminated wounds to allow drainage and thus avoid the entrapment of microorganisms. Military surgeons…

  • Third Intermediate period (Egyptian history)

    ancient Egypt: The Third Intermediate period (1075–656 bce): At the end of the New Kingdom, Egypt was divided. The north was inherited by the Tanite 21st dynasty (1075–c. 950 bce), and although much of the southern Nile River valley came under the control of the…

  • third law of thermodynamics

    Walther Nernst: Third law of thermodynamics: In 1905 Nernst was appointed professor and director of the Second Chemical Institute at the University of Berlin and a permanent member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. The next year he announced his heat theorem, or third law of thermodynamics.…

  • Third Life of Grange Copeland, The (novel by Walker)

    African American literature: Alice Walker: …a series of controversial books: The Third Life of Grange Copeland (1970), an epic novel that tracks three generations of a black Southern family through internal strife and a struggle to rise from sharecropping; Revolutionary Petunias and Other Poems (1973), a collection of poems that urges its reader to “[b]e…

  • Third Man Records (American company)

    the White Stripes: In March 2009 Jack founded Third Man Records, a Nashville record store, performance space, and label. As the rest of the music industry was trying to adjust its business model to accommodate digital downloads, White’s label embraced the physical artifacts of the album era: the turntable, the gatefold cover, and,…

  • Third Man, The (film by Reed [1949])

    Carol Reed: …is arguably Reed’s greatest film, The Third Man (1949), a Cold War thriller starring Joseph Cotten and Orson Welles. The film won first prize at the Cannes Film Festival, and Reed was nominated for best director at the Academy Awards. Because of the strength and reputation of Reed’s films of…

  • Third New International (dictionary)

    Merriam-Webster dictionary: Among the dictionaries are Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language (1961), which contains more than 476,000 entries and provides the most extensive record of American English now available, and the 11th edition of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2003).

  • Third Order (branch of Franciscan order)

    St. Francis of Assisi: The Franciscan rule: 1221) formed the Third Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance, a lay fraternity that, without withdrawing from the world or taking religious vows, would carry out the principles of Franciscan life. As the friars became more numerous, the order extended outside Italy.

  • Third Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance (branch of Franciscan order)

    St. Francis of Assisi: The Franciscan rule: 1221) formed the Third Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance, a lay fraternity that, without withdrawing from the world or taking religious vows, would carry out the principles of Franciscan life. As the friars became more numerous, the order extended outside Italy.

  • Third Partition of Poland (Polish history)

    Partitions of Poland, (1772, 1793, 1795), three territorial divisions of Poland, perpetrated by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, by which Poland’s size was progressively reduced until, after the final partition, the state of Poland ceased to exist. The First Partition occurred after Russia became

  • third party (law)

    contract: Other problems of contract law: …out the relationship between the third party and the underlying contract. English law took the view that, as a rule, persons cannot acquire a right on a contract to which they are not a party. Some of the problems posed are difficult to resolve: under what circumstances and to what…

  • third party (politics)

    electoral college: Arguments for and against the electoral college: Third-party candidates with broad national support are generally penalized in the electoral college—as was Ross Perot, who won 19 percent of the popular vote in 1992 and no electoral votes—though candidates with geographically concentrated support—such as Dixiecrat candidate Strom Thurmond, who won 39 electoral votes…

  • Third Philippic (oration by Demosthenes)

    Demosthenes: Leader of the democratic faction: …afterward, Demosthenes delivered his “Third Philippic,” perhaps the most successful single speech in his long campaign against Philip. As a result, Demosthenes became controller of the navy and could thus carry out the naval reforms he had proposed in 354. In addition, a grand alliance was formed against Philip,…

  • Third Pluvial Stage (geology)

    Africa: Pleistocene and Holocene developments: The Kanjeran, or Third, Pluvial occurred during the middle Pleistocene and corresponds to the Riss Pluvial in Europe.

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