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  • Theodosius, Saint (Ukrainian priest)

    Nestor: …1015, and the life of St. Theodosius, abbot of the Monastery of the Caves (d. 1074). A tradition that was first recorded in the 13th century ascribes to him the authorship of the Povest vremennykh let (“Tale of Bygone Years”; The Russian Primary Chronicle), the most important historical work of…

  • Theodossia (fossil brachiopod genus)

    Theodossia, genus of extinct brachiopods (lamp shells) the fossils of which are restricted to Early Devonian marine rocks (the Devonian period occurred from 408 million to 360 million years ago). The genus is characterized by a moderate-sized, rounded shell, the surface of which is covered with

  • Theodotion (Jewish scholar)

    Theodotion, Hellenistic Jewish scholar and linguist and author of a Greek translation of the Old Testament. According to two early Christian writers of the 2nd and 4th centuries, Theodotion probably came from Ephesus in Asia Minor. He is reported to have adopted the Jewish faith after having been a

  • Theodotus (Jewish author)

    Judaism: Egyptian Jewish literature: Theodotus (c. 100 bce) also wrote an epic, On Shechem; it was quite clearly apologetic, to judge from the fragment connecting the name of Shechem with Sikimios, the son of the Greek god Hermes. At about the same time, a Jewish poet wrote a didactic…

  • Theodotus of Ancyra (theologian)

    St. Theodotus, ; feast day November 2), theologian, bishop of Ancyra, and a leading advocate of orthodoxy in the discussion of the nature and Person of Christ at the Council of Ephesus in 431. Theodotus was a determined opponent of Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople, whose views had led to the

  • Theodotus of Laodicea (Christian philosopher)

    Eusebius of Caesarea: …and two of his allies, Theodotus of Laodicea and Narcissus of Neronias in Cilicia, were provisionally excommunicated for Arian views. When the Council of Nicaea, called by the Roman emperor Constantine I, met later in the year, Eusebius had to explain himself and was exonerated with the explicit approval of…

  • Theodotus the Gnostic (Gnostic philosopher)

    Theodotus The Gnostic, a principal formulator of Eastern Gnosticism, a system of religious dualism (belief in rival deities of good and evil) with a doctrine of salvation by gnōsis, or esoteric knowledge. From the scant data available, Theodotus is known to have taught Gnosticism in Asia Minor c.

  • Theodotus the Tanner (Byzantine philosopher)

    Theodotus The Tanner, principal exponent at Rome of the heresy of Adoptionism (see Monarchianism). A wealthy and cultured tanner of Byzantium, Theodotus went to Rome c. 189 during the reign of Pope Victor I. He soon developed a following with his Dynamic Monarchianism. Condemned and excommunicated

  • Theodotus, St. (theologian)

    St. Theodotus, ; feast day November 2), theologian, bishop of Ancyra, and a leading advocate of orthodoxy in the discussion of the nature and Person of Christ at the Council of Ephesus in 431. Theodotus was a determined opponent of Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople, whose views had led to the

  • Théoduin, Charte de (Holy Roman imperial charter)
  • Theodulf of Orléans (bishop and poet)

    Theodulf of Orléans, prelate, poet, and one of the leading theologians of the Frankish empire. A member of Charlemagne’s court, Theodulf became bishop of Orléans in 775 and abbot of Saint-Beno?t-sur-Loire in 781. He worked for reform of the clergy within his diocese and established a hospice. In

  • Theōdūrus Abū Qurrah (Syrian bishop)

    Theōdūrus Abū Qurrah, Syrian Melchite bishop, theologian, and linguist, an early exponent of cultural exchange with Islamic and other non-Christian peoples, and the first known Christian writer in Arabic. Although Theōdūrus had long been reputed by historians as a principal advocate of orthodox

  • Theognis (Greek poet)

    Theognis, ancient Greek elegiac poet whose work preserved a glimpse into Greek society in a time of turmoil. More than half of all surviving elegiac poetry in ancient Greek was transmitted under his name, preserved in a collection of elegiac couplets in two books, or papyrus rolls, consisting of

  • Theognostos (Byzantine monk)

    Theognostos, Byzantine monk, theologian, and chronicler, coauthor of a report on the situation of the Eastern Church during the turbulent reign of Photius (858–867 and 878–886), the controversial patriarch of Constantinople. This theological chronicle, or “Letter of Appeal,” constituted one of the

  • Theognostus of Alexandria (Greek theologian)

    Theognostus Of Alexandria, Greek theologian, writer, and prominent head of Alexandria’s Catechetical school, at that time the intellectual centre for Hellenistic Christianity. Reputed to be one of the Greek Church’s distinguished teachers, Theognostus assumed the leadership of the school c. 265,

  • Theogony (work by Hesiod)

    Hesiod: …complete epics have survived, the Theogony, relating the myths of the gods, and the Works and Days, describing peasant life.

  • theogony (literature)

    Anatolian religion: Mythology: …struggle against Ullikummi, and the Theogony, though written in Hittite, are Hurrian in origin and refer to Hurrian and even Mesopotamian deities. The Theogony tells of the struggle for kingship among the gods. Alalu, after holding the kingship for nine years, was defeated by Anu (the Babylonian sky god) and…

  • Theoleptus of Philadelphia (Greek Orthodox bishop)

    Theoleptus Of Philadelphia, Greek Orthodox metropolitan of Philadelphia and theological polemicist and writer on Christian asceticism, who emerged as a central figure in the political and theological turmoil of his age. A married deacon of the Eastern Church, in Bithynia, northwest Asia Minor,

  • Theologia (work by Abelard)

    Peter Abelard: Career as a monk: …version of his book called Theologia, which was formally condemned as heretical and burned by a council held at Soissons in 1121. Abelard’s dialectical analysis of the mystery of God and the Trinity was held to be erroneous, and he himself was placed for a while in the abbey of…

  • Theologia Germanica (anonymous religious work)

    Christianity: Western Catholic Christianity: Texts such as the anonymous Theologia Germanica of the late 14th century, which reflects the ideas of the loose groups of mystics who called themselves the Friends of God, conveyed this German mysticism to the Reformers. The rich mystical literature that developed in the Low Countries reached its culmination in…

  • Theologia moralis (work by Liguori)

    St. Alphonsus Liguori: …best represented by his celebrated Theologia moralis (1748); ascetical and devotional writings, including Visits to the Blessed Sacrament, The True Spouse of Jesus Christ (for nuns), Selva (for priests), and The Glories of Mary, the latter of which became one of the most widely used manuals of devotion to the…

  • Theological Declaration of Barmen (German religious history)

    Synod of Barmen: …Declaration of Barmen, or the Barmen Declaration, that defined the Christian opposition to any interpretation of Christianity based on racial theories. The major theological influence was that of Karl Barth. The declaration was cast in the classical form of the great confessions of faith, affirming major biblical teachings and condemning…

  • theological existentialism

    existentialism: Emergence as a movement: Against that risk, for the theological forms of existentialism (e.g., Marcel, the Swiss theologian Karl Barth, and the German biblical scholar Rudolf Bultmann), there is the guarantee of transcendent help from God, which in its turn is guaranteed by faith.

  • theological liberalism (religion)

    Theological liberalism, a form of religious thought that establishes religious inquiry on the basis of a norm other than the authority of tradition. It was an important influence in Protestantism from about the mid-17th century through the 1920s. The defining trait of this liberalism is a will to

  • Theologie des Alten Testaments (work by Eichrodt)

    Walther Eichrodt: 1957; Theology of the Old Testament), marked the beginning of a new epoch in Old Testament studies. Without reducing the theology of the Old Testament to the history of Israelite religion, Eichrodt made extensive use of the results of literary and comparative analysis to envisage the…

  • Théologie morale des Jésuites (work by Arnauld)

    Antoine Arnauld: With his Théologie morale des Jésuites (1643; “Moral Theology of the Jesuits”), Arnauld launched his long polemical campaign against the Jesuits, in which Pierre Nicole, a young theologian from Chartres, was to be his collaborator. In 1655 Arnauld wrote two pamphlets in which he affirmed the substantial…

  • theology

    Theology, philosophically oriented discipline of religious speculation and apologetics that is traditionally restricted, because of its origins and format, to Christianity but that may also encompass, because of its themes, other religions, including especially Islam and Judaism. The themes of

  • Theology of Liberation, A (work by Gutiérrez)

    liberation theology: …Teología de la liberación (1971; A Theology of Liberation), was written by Gustavo Gutiérrez, a Peruvian priest and theologian. Other leaders of the movement included the Belgian-born Brazilian priest José Comblin, Archbishop óscar Romero of El Salvador, Brazilian theologian Leonardo Boff, Jesuit

  • Theology of the Old Testament (work by Eichrodt)

    Walther Eichrodt: 1957; Theology of the Old Testament), marked the beginning of a new epoch in Old Testament studies. Without reducing the theology of the Old Testament to the history of Israelite religion, Eichrodt made extensive use of the results of literary and comparative analysis to envisage the…

  • Theon (Greek mathematician)

    mathematics: Survival and influence of Greek mathematics: Theon (late 4th century), and Theon’s daughter Hypatia. All were active in Alexandria as professors of mathematics and astronomy, and they produced extensive commentaries on the major authorities—Pappus and Theon on Ptolemy, Hypatia on Diophantus and Apollonius. Later, Eutocius of Ascalon (early 6th century) produced…

  • theonomy (theology)

    Paul Tillich: Early life and education: Theonomy (divine rule) envisions a situation in which norms and values express the convictions and commitments of free individuals in a free society. These three conditions Tillich saw as the basic dynamisms of both personal and social life.

  • theopaschitism (theology)

    Eastern Orthodoxy: Christ: The theopaschite formula (“God suffered in the flesh”) became, together with the Theotokos formula, a standard of orthodoxy in the Eastern church, especially after the second Council of Constantinople (553). It implies that Christ’s humanity is indeed real not only in itself but also for God,…

  • Theophanes Continuatus (Byzantine chronicle)

    Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus: …an anonymous chronicle known as Theophanes Continuatus, stressed the glory of the founder of his dynasty. De administrando imperio, a handbook of foreign politics, is perhaps his most valuable work, a storehouse of information on Slavic and Turkic peoples about whom little else is known except through archaeology.

  • Theophanes the Confessor, Saint (Byzantine monk)

    Saint Theophanes the Confessor, ; feast day March 12), Byzantine monk, theologian, and chronicler, a principal adversary of the heterodox in the Iconoclastic Controversy (concerning the destruction of sacred images). The annals he wrote are the leading source for 7th- and 8th-century Byzantine

  • Theophanes the Greek (Byzantine painter)

    Theophanes The Greek, one of the leading late Byzantine painters of murals, icons, and miniatures who influenced the 15th-century painting style of the Novgorod school and the Moscow school. His early career was spent in Constantinople and Crimea, but after about 1370 he worked in Russia. Although

  • Theophano (Byzantine emperor)

    Nicephorus II Phocas: Early life.: …state and the 20-year-old empress, Theophano, as acting regent for the legitimate emperors, Basil and Constantine, aged six and three, respectively. These circumstances do not seem to have tempted Nicephorus.

  • Theophany (Christian holiday)

    Epiphany, (from Greek epiphaneia, “manifestation”), Christian holiday commemorating the first manifestation of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, represented by the Magi, and the manifestation of his divinity, as it occurred at his baptism in the Jordan River and at his first miracle, at Cana in

  • theophany (theology)

    Theophany, (from Greek theophaneia, “appearance of God”), manifestation of deity in sensible form. The term has been applied generally to the appearance of the gods in the ancient Greek and Near Eastern religions but has in addition acquired a special technical usage in regard to biblical

  • Theophila, or Loves Sacrifice (work by Benlowes)

    Edward Benlowes: During the 1640s he composed Theophila, or Loves Sacrifice (printed 1652), a long poem describing, in some fine rhapsodic passages but with extravagant conceits, the progress of the soul toward mystic communion with God. Financially crippled by the English Civil Wars and litigation, he spent his declining years at Oxford,…

  • Théophile (French author)

    Théophile de Viau, French poet and dramatist of the pre-Neoclassical period. Born into a Huguenot family of the minor nobility, Viau went to Paris, where he soon won a reputation as the leader of the freethinkers (libertins). He was briefly house dramatist to the H?tel de Bourgogne in Paris,

  • Theophilus (German writer and artist)

    Theophilus, German monk who wrote De diversis artibus (c. 1110–40; also called Schedula diversarum artium), an exhaustive account of the techniques of almost all the known crafts of the first half of the 12th century. From his writings it can be deduced that Theophilus was of the Benedictine o

  • Theophilus (Byzantine emperor)

    Theophilus, Eastern Roman emperor (829–842), principal promoter of the 9th-century Byzantine renascence of learning and the last advocate of the Eastern heresy of Iconoclasm (the destruction of religious images) in a reign beset by Arab invasions. The son of the emperor Michael II, of the Phrygian

  • Theophilus (biblical figure)

    biblical literature: The Gospel According to Luke: …the same patron, “most excellent” Theophilus. Theophilus may have been a Roman called by a title of high degree because he is an official or out of respect; or he may have been an exemplification of the Gentile Christian addressees of the Lucan Gospel. The account in Luke–Acts is for…

  • Theophilus North (novel by Wilder)

    Theophilus North, novel by Thornton Wilder, published in 1973. The last work published during Wilder’s lifetime, it has striking parallels to his own life experiences and may be considered a fictionalized memoir of his artistic and philosophical life. A first-person reminiscence of life among the

  • Theophilus of Alexandria, Saint (Egyptian theologian)

    Saint Theophilus of Alexandria, ; feast day, Egyptian Coptic Church, October 15; in the Syrian Church, October 17), theologian and patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt, violent opponent of non-Christian religions, severe critic of heterodox influence among Christian writers and monks, and a major figure

  • Theophilus of Antioch (Syrian saint)

    Theophilus Of Antioch, Syrian saint, sixth bishop of Antioch, and Christian apologist. Educated in the Greek tradition, Theophilus became a Christian as an adult, after extended deliberation, and by 170 was elected bishop of Antioch. His sole surviving work consists of three apologetic tracts To

  • Theophilus Presbyter (German writer and artist)

    Theophilus, German monk who wrote De diversis artibus (c. 1110–40; also called Schedula diversarum artium), an exhaustive account of the techniques of almost all the known crafts of the first half of the 12th century. From his writings it can be deduced that Theophilus was of the Benedictine o

  • theophoric (compound name)

    name: European patterns of naming: …a god (they are called theophoric names) or attested to his virtues, abilities, skills, possessions, and so forth. The association of the meanings of the parts of the compound was sometimes only loose, as is particularly observable in German anthroponymy (see below). Examples of compound names include the Sanskrit Vi??uputra…

  • Theophrastaceae (plant family)

    Ericales: Theophrastaceae: Theophrastaceae includes 6 to 9 genera and 105 species of mostly shrubs and small trees that are largely restricted to the New World. Samolus (15 species) is the only herbaceous genus, and it also grows in Europe and the Antipodes. Jacquinia (35 species) is…

  • Theophrastus (Greek philosopher)

    Theophrastus, Greek Peripatetic philosopher and pupil of Aristotle. He studied at Athens under Aristotle, and when Aristotle was forced to retire in 323 he became the head of the Lyceum, the academy in Athens founded by Aristotle. Under Theophrastus the enrollment of pupils and auditors rose to its

  • Theophrastus of Eresus (Greek philosopher)

    Theophrastus, Greek Peripatetic philosopher and pupil of Aristotle. He studied at Athens under Aristotle, and when Aristotle was forced to retire in 323 he became the head of the Lyceum, the academy in Athens founded by Aristotle. Under Theophrastus the enrollment of pupils and auditors rose to its

  • Theophylact of Ohrid (Greek archbishop)

    Theophylactus Of Ochrida, Greek Orthodox archbishop of Ochrida (modern Ohrid, Macedonia), theologian and linguistic scholar, who helped disseminate Byzantine culture among the Balkan Slavs during the early Middle Ages. Having studied in Constantinople under the Neoplatonist philosopher Michael P

  • Theophylact Simocatta (Byzantine historian)

    Theophylactus Simocattes, Byzantine historian whose chronicles of the Eastern Roman Empire provide a unique source for the Greek relations with the Slavs and Persians during the 6th and 7th centuries. Descended from a family of high-ranking civil servants in Egypt, Simocattes held the position of

  • Theophylactus (pope)

    Benedict VIII, pope from 1012 to 1024, the first of several pontiffs from the powerful Tusculani family. The ascendancy of the Tusculani marked the fall of the rival Crescentii family of Rome, which had come to dominate the papacy in the latter half of the 10th century. Benedict’s predecessor,

  • Theophylactus (Italian count and papal official)

    Sergius III: …involved the influential Tusculani count Theophylactus. Later, Sergius became a supporter of Pope Stephen VI (VII), who exhumed Formosus’ corpse, subjected it to a posthumous trial (the “Cadaver Synod”), and nullified Formosus’ pontificate and acts. The ensuing intrigue became complex and malicious, casting a shadow over the papacy: from 896…

  • Theophylactus of Ochrida (Greek archbishop)

    Theophylactus Of Ochrida, Greek Orthodox archbishop of Ochrida (modern Ohrid, Macedonia), theologian and linguistic scholar, who helped disseminate Byzantine culture among the Balkan Slavs during the early Middle Ages. Having studied in Constantinople under the Neoplatonist philosopher Michael P

  • Theophylactus Simocattes (Byzantine historian)

    Theophylactus Simocattes, Byzantine historian whose chronicles of the Eastern Roman Empire provide a unique source for the Greek relations with the Slavs and Persians during the 6th and 7th centuries. Descended from a family of high-ranking civil servants in Egypt, Simocattes held the position of

  • theophylline (drug)

    Theophylline, alkaloidal drug used in medicine as an antiasthmatic, coronary vasodilator, and diuretic. Theophylline is a xanthine alkaloid, a methylxanthine chemically related to caffeine and theobromine. Along with caffeine, it is an active constituent of tea (Camellia sinensis), but it is

  • Theopompus of Chios (Greek historian)

    Theopompus of Chios, Greek historian and rhetorician whose Philippica, though lost in its original form, has survived through the work of later writers to form one element in the tradition concerning the reign of Philip II of Macedon. Theopompus was twice exiled from his native town, first as a

  • Théorade (daughter of Charlemagne)

    Argenteuil: …and of which Charlemagne’s daughter Théorade may have been an early abbess. Hélo?se, of the tragic Hélo?se-Abelard romance, became prioress of the convent about 1118, but she was expelled in 1129, and the convent was made into a monastery. Enshrined in the monastery’s Church of Saint-Denis is the putative seamless…

  • theorbo (musical instrument)

    Theorbo, large bass lute, or archlute, used from the 16th to the 18th century for song accompaniments and for basso continuo parts. It had six to eight single strings running along the fingerboard and, alongside them, eight off-the-fingerboard bass strings, or diapasons. Both sets of strings had

  • theorbo-lute (musical instrument)

    theorbo: A similar, smaller instrument, the theorbo-lute, or French lute, was a modification of the regular double-strung lute, to which were added one to three off-the-fingerboard courses of bass strings. There were two pegboxes, one angled backward. Smaller and more agile than the theorbo, the theorbo-lute was the favourite of the…

  • Theorell, Axel Hugo Teodor (Swedish biochemist)

    Axel Hugo Teodor Theorell, Swedish biochemist whose study of enzymes that facilitate oxidation reactions in living cells contributed to the understanding of enzyme action and led to the discovery of the ways in which nutrients are used by organisms in the presence of oxygen to produce usable

  • theorem (logic and mathematics)

    Theorem, in mathematics and logic, a proposition or statement that is demonstrated. In geometry, a proposition is commonly considered as a problem (a construction to be effected) or a theorem (a statement to be proved). The statement “If two lines intersect, each pair of vertical angles is equal,”

  • theorem of logic

    formal logic: Natural deduction method in PC: Such a wff is a theorem of logic. It can be shown that those theorems derivable by the rules stated above—together with the definition of α ≡ β as (α ? β) · (β ? α)—are precisely the valid wffs of PC. A set of natural deduction rules yielding as…

  • Theoremata de esse et essentia (work by Giles)

    Giles of Rome: …doctrine of substance in his Theoremata de esse et essentia (“Essays on Being and Essence”). A storm of opposition from other theologians forced Giles to take refuge in Bayeux, Fr. (1278–80).

  • Théoret, France (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: The Quiet Revolution: …Madeleine Gagnon (Lueur [1979; "Glimmer"]), France Théoret (Une Voix pour Odile [1978; "A Voice for Odile"]), and Yolande Villemaire (La Vie en prose [1980; “Life in Prose”]). In her utopian novel L’Euguélionne (1976; The Euguelion), Louky Bersianik (pseudonym of Lucile Durand) used the conventions of the fantastic to conjure up…

  • Theoretical Astrophysics (work by Ambartsumian)

    Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian: His textbook Theoretical Astrophysics (1958) went through many editions and translations. It contains examples of his unique and fruitful approaches to stubborn astronomical problems. In addition, he studied radio signals coming from outside the Milky Way Galaxy. He was led to conclude that these radio signals represent…

  • theoretical biology

    computational biology: Distinctions among related fields: …can also be distinguished from theoretical biology (which itself is sometimes grouped with mathematical biology), though again there are significant relationships. Theoretical biology often focuses on mathematical abstractions and speculative interpretations of biological systems that may or may not be of practical use in analysis or amenable to computational implementation.…

  • theoretical chemistry (science)

    chemistry: Physical chemistry: …devoted to this subject is theoretical chemistry. Theoretical chemists make extensive use of computers to help them solve complicated mathematical equations. Other branches of physical chemistry include chemical thermodynamics, which deals with the relationship between heat and other forms of chemical energy, and chemical kinetics, which seeks to measure and…

  • theoretical neuroscience

    cognitive science: Approaches: …on neural networks, and (3) theoretical neuroscience, which is in part an attempt to integrate aspects of the other two approaches in a neurologically realistic account of brain activity.

  • Theoretical Physics, Institute for (institution, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Niels Bohr: Bohr’s Institute for Theoretical Physics: In the spring of 1916, Bohr was offered a new professorship at the University of Copenhagen; dedicated to theoretical physics, it was the second professorship in physics there. As physics was still pursued in the cramped quarters of the Polytechnic Institute,…

  • Theoretical Pieces I: Experimental Music (work by Pousseur)

    Henri Pousseur: …la musique expérimentale (1970; “Theoretical Pieces I: Experimental Music”), he argued that older methods of discussing and appraising music are in some instances not valid for music that makes use of new musical aims, resources, and techniques.

  • theoretical plate number (chemistry)

    chromatography: Column efficiency: …column is reported as the number of theoretical plates (plate number), N, a concept Martin borrowed from his experience with fractional distillation:

  • theoretical reductionism (philosophy)

    biology, philosophy of: Molecular biology: Finally, theoretical reductionism is the view in the philosophy of science that the entities and laws posited in older scientific theories can be logically derived from newer scientific theories, which are therefore in some sense more basic.

  • Theoretical Structural Metallurgy (work by Cottrell)

    Sir Alan Cottrell: …work culminated in the book Theoretical Structural Metallurgy (1948), which used concepts from solid-state physics and thermodynamics and became a classic in the field.

  • Theoretische Chemie vom Standpunkte der Avogadroschen Regel und der Thermodynamik (work by Nernst)

    Walther Nernst: Early research: …Regel und der Thermodynamik (1893; Experimental and Theoretical Applications of Thermodynamics to Chemistry), in which he stressed the central importance of Avogadro’s law, thermodynamics, and both physics and chemistry in the treatment of chemical processes.

  • theōria (philosophy)

    Christianity: Eastern Christianity: …the vision or contemplation (theōria) of God as the goal of human blessedness found a scriptural warrant in the sixth Beatitude: “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God” (Matthew 5:8). The notion of deification (theiosis) fit with the New Testament emphasis on becoming sons of…

  • Theoric Fund (ancient Greece)

    Eubulus: …as chief commissioner of the Theoric Fund, which provided free seats at public spectacles, to exercise control over Athenian finances, since commissioners of the fund were granted power in other departments of finance. His astute supervision of state expenditure restored the economic position of Athens without increasing the burden of…

  • Theoricae novae planetarum (work by Peuerbach)

    Georg von Peuerbach: Peuerbach’s best-known work, the Theoricae novae planetarum (1454; “New Theories of the Planets”), began as lectures to the Viennese “Citizens’ School” (Bürgerschule), which Regiomontanus copied in his notebook. An influential university textbook, the Theoricae novae planetarum eventually replaced the widely used, anonymous 13th-century Theorica planetarum communis (the common “Theory…

  • Théorie analytique de la chaleur (work by Fourier)

    Joseph Fourier: …analytique de la chaleur (1822; The Analytical Theory of Heat). He showed how the conduction of heat in solid bodies may be analyzed in terms of infinite mathematical series now called by his name, the Fourier series. Far transcending the particular subject of heat conduction, his work stimulated research in…

  • Théorie analytique des probabilités (work by Laplace)

    Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace: …Théorie analytique des probabilités (Analytic Theory of Probability), first published in 1812, in which he described many of the tools he invented for mathematically predicting the probabilities that particular events will occur in nature. He applied his theory not only to the ordinary problems of chance but also to…

  • Théorie de l’imp?t (work by Mirabeau)

    Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau: In his Théorie de l’imp?t (1760; “Theory of Taxation”) he attacked the tax farmers (financiers who purchased from the crown the right to collect indirect taxes) and proposed that they be replaced with a system of direct taxes on land and on personal income. Although the tax…

  • Theorie der algebraischen Curven (work by Plücker)

    Julius Plücker: In Theorie der algebraischen Curven (1839; “Theory of Algebraic Curves”), he presented the famous “Plücker formulas” relating the number of singularities (points at which a function is not defined or is infinite) on algebraic curves to those of their dual curves. His System der analytischen Geometrie…

  • Theorie der Parallellinien, Die (work by Lambert)

    Johann Heinrich Lambert: … (1760; “The Measurement of Light”); Die Theorie der Parallellinien (1766; “The Theory of Parallel Lines”), which contains results later included in non-Euclidean geometry; and Pyrometrie (1779; “The Measurement of Heat”). The Neues Organon (1764; “New Organon”), his principal philosophical work, contains an analysis of a great variety of questions, among…

  • Theorie der Transformationsgruppen (work by Lie)

    Sophus Lie: …collaboration with Engel, Lie published Theorie der Transformationsgruppen, 3 vol. (1888–93; “Theory of Transformation Groups”), which contains his investigations of the general theory of continuous groups. In 1886 Lie succeeded Klein as professor of geometry at Leipzig, where Engel had moved in 1885. Over the next 12 years Lie attracted…

  • Théorie des corps, La (work by Boullée)

    étienne-Louis Boullée: In his famous essay La Théorie des corps, Boullée investigated the properties of geometric forms and their effect on the senses, attributing “innate” symbolic qualities to the cube, pyramid, cylinder, and sphere, the last regarded as an ideal form. In a series of projects for public monuments, culminating in…

  • Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns (work by Habermas)

    Jürgen Habermas: Philosophy and social theory: …Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns (1981; The Theory of Communicative Action). Drawing on the work of analytic (Anglo-American) philosophers (e.g., Ludwig Wittgenstein and J.L. Austin), Continental philosophers (Horkheimer, Adorno, Edmund Husserl, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Alfred Schutz, and Gy?rgy

  • Théorie des nombres (work by Legendre)

    Adrien-Marie Legendre: …systematic form under the title Théorie des nombres, 2 vol. (1830). This work included his flawed proof of the law of quadratic reciprocity. The law was regarded by Gauss, the greatest mathematician of the day, as the most important general result in number theory since the work of Pierre de…

  • Théorie des opérations linéaires (work by Banach)

    Stefan Banach: Of his published works, his Théorie des opérations linéaires (1932; “Theory of Linear Operations”) is the most important. Banach and his coworkers summarized the previously developed concepts and theorems of functional analysis and integrated them into a comprehensive system. Banach himself introduced the concept of normed linear spaces, which are…

  • Theorie des Romans, Die (work by Lukacs)

    aesthetics: Marxist aesthetics: …Die Theorie des Romans (1920; The Theory of the Novel). Neither Lukács nor Benjamin produced a coherent aesthetics as defined in this article, although each was immensely influential on the practice of modern literary criticism whether Marxist or not in its ultimate inspiration.

  • Théorie élémentaire de la botanique (work by Candolle)

    Augustin Pyrame de Candolle: …published his most important work, Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, in which he contended that plant anatomy, not physiology, must be the sole basis of classification, for which he coined the term taxonomy. After introducing the concept of homologous parts (of common ancestry, although different in structure) for plants as…

  • Theories of Primitive Religion (work by Evans-Pritchard)

    anthropology: The anthropological study of religion: anthropologist Edward Evans-Pritchard (Theories of Primitive Religion [1965]), “how religious beliefs and practices affect in any society the minds, the feelings, the lives, and the interrelations of its members…religion is what religion does.” Although Edward Burnett Tylor’s classic Primitive Culture (1871) documented the wide-ranging doings of his fellow…

  • theory

    lü pipes: …first to develop a comprehensive music theory, and the lü pipes embody their ideas. According to legend, Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, sent the minister Ling Lun to find bamboo tubes to use for tuning pipes. Ling Lun cut one to an auspicious length and called it the huangzhong (“yellow bell”),…

  • Theory and Application of Harmonic Integrals (work by Hodge)

    Sir William Hodge: …Hodge formulated in his book Theory and Application of Harmonic Integrals what became known as the Hodge conjecture: that for certain “nice” spaces (projective algebraic varieties), their complicated shapes can be covered (approximated) by a collection of simpler geometric pieces called algebraic cycles. The conjecture received little attention before he…

  • Theory and Measurement of Demand, The (work by Schultz)

    Henry Schultz: His The Theory and Measurement of Demand (1938), a survey of statistical methods and their applications, combined economic theory, particularly the mathematical work of Léon Walras and Vilfredo Pareto, with econometrics.

  • Theory and Practice of Horticulture (book by Lindley)

    John Lindley: His Theory and Practice of Horticulture (1842) is considered to be one of the best books ever written on the physiological principles of horticulture. He developed his own natural system of plant classification for his best-known book, The Vegetable Kingdom (1846). Although his system was never…

  • Theory and Practice of Taxation (work by Wells)

    David Ames Wells: …Changes (1889), and the posthumous Theory and Practice of Taxation (1900). The last two demonstrate his ability as an empirical investigator. Wells was also one of the highest-paid economists of his era. He earned $10,000 annually (20 times the average annual family income of the time) as a member of…

  • Theory of Analytic Functions (work by Lagrange)

    Joseph-Louis Lagrange, comte de l'Empire: …des fonctions analytiques (1797; “Theory of Analytic Functions”) and Le?ons sur le calcul des fonctions (1804; “Lessons on the Calculus of Functions”) and were the first textbooks on real analytic functions. In them Lagrange tried to substitute an algebraic foundation for the existing and problematic analytic foundation of calculus—although…

  • Theory of Business Enterprise, The (work by Veblen)

    Thorstein Veblen: Early life: In 1904 he published The Theory of Business Enterprise, in which he expanded on his evolutionary theme of the incompatibility between the modern industrial process and the irrational means of business and finance (i.e., on the difference between making goods and making money).

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