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  • The Cavern

    In the early 1960s Liverpool, England, was unique among British cities in having more than 200 active pop groups. Many played youth clubs in the suburbs, but some made the big time in cellar clubs such as the Cavern (on Mathew Street) and the Jacaranda and the Blue Angel (on opposite sides of Steel

  • Thé chez Miranda, Le (novel by Adam)

    Paul Adam: …his being prosecuted; his second, Le Thé chez Miranda (1886), written with Jean Moréas, is an early example of Symbolism. Adam also founded two literary reviews in 1886: Led Carcan, with Jean Ajalbert, and the short-lived Le Symboliste, with Moréas and Gustave Kahn. In 1899, with La Force, Adam began…

  • The Clone Giants

    Explore other Botanize! episodes and learn about plant reproductive systems, aspens, and Armillaria fungi. Hello and welcome to Botanize! I’m your host, Melissa Petruzzello, Encyclop?dia Britannica’s plant and environmental science editor. For today’s episode, we’re going to be talking about some

  • The Flower Children

    The following “special report” appeared in the Britannica Book of the Year published in 1968. Sometimes you see them standing beside the highway, their long hair blowing in the wind, army surplus jackets hanging sloppily from their shoulders, rumpled sleeping bags at their feet, hitchhiking to New

  • The Founding Fathers and Slavery

    Although many of the Founding Fathers acknowledged that slavery violated the core American Revolutionary ideal of liberty, their simultaneous commitment to private property rights, principles of limited government, and intersectional harmony prevented them from making a bold move against slavery.

  • The Founding Fathers, Deism, and Christianity

    For some time the question of the religious faith of the Founding Fathers has generated a culture war in the United States. Scholars trained in research universities have generally argued that the majority of the Founders were religious rationalists or Unitarians. Pastors and other writers who

  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution heralds a series of social, political, cultural, and economic upheavals that will unfold over the 21st century. Building on the widespread availability of digital technologies that were the result of the Third Industrial, or Digital, Revolution, the Fourth

  • The Full Dress (poetry by Murray)

    Les Murray: In 2002 he published The Full Dress, which pairs poems with selections of art from the National Gallery of Australia, and Poems the Size of Photographs, a collection of short-form verse. His 2010 collection, Taller When Prone, celebrates ordinary Australians, often with a healthy dose of humour. The poems…

  • The Henrietta (play by Howard)

    Bronson Howard: The Henrietta (1887), a satire on business, and Shenandoah (1889), which established Charles Frohman as a producer and made a fortune for both producer and author, were also great successes. Howard’s other plays include The Banker’s Daughter (1878), first produced in 1873 as Lillian’s Last…

  • The Isle of Wight Pop Festival

    More than a year after Woodstock, the third Isle of Wight Pop Festival was held August 26–31, 1970, on the island of the same name off the coast of southern England. The previous year’s festival had attracted about 200,000 people, most of them drawn by the opportunity to see and hear Bob Dylan,

  • The Legend of Zelda

    When Nintendo released The Legend of Zelda for the Japanese market in 1986, it marked a new era in the culture, technology, and business of video games. The game’s designer, Miyamoto Shigeru, was already a star, having produced Donkey Kong and the Mario Brothers series. Now he wanted to push

  • The Love Parade

    Germany’s annual Love Parade was the temporary centre of the world of electronic dance music during its two-decade run. First organized in 1989 in West Berlin by planetcom, a company affiliated with the defunct E-Werk club, the parade was registered with the city as a political demonstration for

  • The Monterey Pop Festival

    Held in Monterey, California, on June 16–18, 1967, the Monterey Pop Festival was the first commercial American rock festival. Dunhill Records executive Lou Adler and John Phillips of the Mamas and the Papas organized the festival around the concept of the successful Monterey Jazz Festival and

  • The Need for a Futurist Mind-Set

    As massive social, technological, and economic changes continue to unfold over the coming decades, our single greatest challenge will be to compose a new civilizational story line that will guide the evolution of our species. Just as religious narratives led humanity through the agrarian era, and

  • The New World Disorder

    My friend Flora Lewis summed up the year 1991 in these pages, with appropriate tentativeness, as "a time of transition." She noted the fears and uncertainties that had started cropping up in the wake of the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War. My friend Hedrick Smith saw, in 1992, the

  • The O2 (building, Greenwich, London, United Kingdom)

    Millennium Dome, massive construction project and tourist attraction in Greenwich, London, England. It was initiated to house an exhibition for the approach of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium ce (the official start of which was January 1, 2001). The central structure is the largest dome in

  • The Olympic Truce

    The creation of the Ekecheiria, the Olympic truce, lies within the traditional story of the founding of the ancient Olympic Games. Two warring kings of the area around Olympia, Iphitos and Cleomenes, joined with the Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus in an agreement to hold the Games and to enact and

  • The Peoples Known as Mimi

    The Mimi of Nachtigal and the Mimi of Gaudefroy-Demombynes, both of whom speak a Maban language of the Nilo-Saharan language family, are identified by the names of their first investigators: Gustav Nachtigal and Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes, respectively. The name Mimi sometimes is applied to a

  • the personal is political (society)

    The personal is political, political slogan expressing a common belief among feminists that the personal experiences of women are rooted in their political situation and gender inequality. Although the origin of the phrase “the personal is political” is uncertain, it became popular following the

  • The Philosophy of the Yoruba

    From the oral culture of its distant past to its vibrant present and buoyed by its scholarly discourses, Yoruba philosophy is best understood as a folk philosophy, a set of narratives and cultural practices that attempt to explain the causes and the nature of things affecting the corporeal and the

  • The Pianist: The Extraordinary Story of One Man’s Survival in Warsaw, 1939–45 (autobiography by Szpilman)

    Holocaust: Artistic responses to the Holocaust: …adaptation of W?adys?aw Szpilman’s autobiography, The Pianist: The Extraordinary Story of One Man’s Survival in Warsaw, 1939–45 (1999); The Lady in Number 6: Music Saved My Life (2013), a short documentary focusing on the world’s oldest living Holocaust survivor at the time of the film’s release; and Saul fia (2015;…

  • The Protestant Heritage

    The Protestant Heritage, Protestantism originated in the 16th-century Reformation, and its basic doctrines, in addition to those of the ancient Christian creeds, are justification by grace alone through faith, the priesthood of all believers, and the supremacy of Holy Scripture in matters of faith

  • The Quality of Life

    In the United States and other parts of the Western world, we have broken through what I call the “feminine mystique.” And now, in both developed and developing nations, women are moving toward full participation in political leadership and advancement in business and the professions. They are

  • The quality of life for Indigenous Australians in the 21st century

    In the 2010s Australia’s Indigenous population constituted approximately 3 percent of the country’s total population, with some 745,000 people identifying themselves as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. This total represented a considerable increase over the comparable

  • The Reeperbahn

    As rock and roll made its way to continental Europe in the late 1950s, several nightclub owners in the red-light district of Hamburg, West Germany—the Reeperbahn, named for the street that was its main artery—decided that the new music should supplant the jazz they had been featuring. British

  • The Rise of Andrew Jackson

    The Rise of Andrew Jackson, This detailed original account of the life of Andrew Jackson written for Encyclop?dia Britannica by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, authors of The Rise of Andrew Jackson: Myth, Manipulation, and the Making of Modern Politics (2018), describes how the seventh

  • The Robotic Moment

    In the early 1980s I interviewed one of Marvin Minsky’s young students, who told me that, as he saw it, his hero, Minsky, one of the founders of artificial intelligence (AI), was “trying to create a computer beautiful enough that a soul would want to live in it.” In the AI world, things have gone

  • The Rodent That Acts Like a Hippo

    Although the animals that live in rainforests on different continents can differ significantly, the environments they live in are very similar. These environments, therefore, exert similar pressures on the evolution of the animals living in each. As a result, unrelated species may be similar in

  • The Tehelka Tapes

    In 2001 a stunning exposé by a New Delhi news portal claimed the jobs of India’s defense minister, senior party functionaries of the ruling coalition, and at least five high-ranking members of the armed forces. The exposé, which appeared in March on Tehelka.com, included videotapes showing senior

  • The The (British musical group)

    the Smiths: …Marr joined Matt Johnson in The The, where his signature sound drove two of that band’s most successful albums—Mind Bomb (1989) and Dusk (1991). Marr teamed with Bernard Sumner of New Order in the supergroup Electronic. Although Marr and Sumner had initially conceived their partnership to be temporary, the success…

  • The U.S. Gun-Control Debate: A Critical Look

    In 2000—a year that witnessed the antigun Million Mom March in Washington, D.C., as well as surging membership in the pro-gun National Rifle Association (NRA)—the issue of Gun control was at the forefront of American political debate. Two facts define the poles of the controversy. On the one hand

  • The Vietnam War and the media

    Vietnam became a subject of large-scale news coverage in the United States only after substantial numbers of U.S. combat troops had been committed to the war in the spring of 1965. Prior to that time, the number of American newsmen in Indochina had been small—fewer than two dozen even as late as

  • The War on Democracy

    The most important development of the 20th century was the spread of democracy. The most important lesson was that the tides of freedom will always be opposed. Now and in the future, this warning should be on our minds because democracy is undergoing a new and rigorous round of tests. The honor

  • The Warehouse

    While go-go was the rage in Washington, D.C., and hip-hop was ascendant in New York City, gay Chicago was laying the foundation for the most lastingly influential of early 1980s African-American dance musics, house. The name came from a club, the Warehouse, where deejay Frankie Knuckles eschewed

  • The Woodstock Music and Art Fair

    The most famous of the 1960s rock festivals, the Woodstock Music and Art Fair was held on a farm property in Bethel, New York, August 15–17, 1969. It was organized by four inexperienced promoters who nonetheless signed a who’s who of current rock acts, including Jimi Hendrix, Sly and the Family

  • Thea sinensis (plant)

    Tea production, cultivation of the tea plant, usually done in large commercial operations. The plant, a species of evergeen (Camellia sinensis), is valued for its young leaves and leaf buds, from which the tea beverage is produced. This article treats the cultivation of the tea plant. For

  • Theaceae (plant family)

    Theaceae, the tea family of plants in the order Theales. The Theaceae comprises about 40 genera of trees or shrubs native to temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres, including several ornamental plants, one that is the source of tea. Members of the family have evergreen leaves and

  • Theaetetōs (work by Plato)

    Plato: Late dialogues: The Theaetetus considers the question “What is knowledge?” Is it perception, true belief, or true belief with an “account”? The dialogue contains a famous “digression” on the difference between the philosophical and worldly mentalities. The work ends inconclusively and may indeed be intended to show the…

  • Theaetetus (Greek mathematician)

    Theaetetus, Athenian mathematician who had a significant influence on the development of Greek geometry. Theaetetus was a disciple of Socrates and studied with Theodorus of Cyrene. He taught at some time in Heraclea (located in present-day southern Italy). Plato made Theaetetus the chief subject of

  • Theaetetus (work by Plato)

    Plato: Late dialogues: The Theaetetus considers the question “What is knowledge?” Is it perception, true belief, or true belief with an “account”? The dialogue contains a famous “digression” on the difference between the philosophical and worldly mentalities. The work ends inconclusively and may indeed be intended to show the…

  • theaflavin (chemical compound)

    tea: Fermentation: …to form orange-red compounds called theaflavins. The theaflavins react with more units to form the thearubigins, which are responsible for the transformation of the leaf to a dark brown or coppery colour. The thearubigins also react with amino acids and sugars to form flavour compounds that may be partly lost…

  • Theagenes of Megara (ancient Greek tyrant)

    ancient Greek civilization: The early tyrannies: Theagenes of Megara makes an appearance in history for three reasons: he slaughtered the flocks of the rich (an action incomprehensible without more background information than is available); he tried about 630 to help his son-in-law Cylon to power at Athens; and he built a…

  • Theagenes of Rhegium (Greek poet)

    Homer: Early references: …kind of Homeric scholarship began: Theagenes of Rhegium in southern Italy toward the end of the same century wrote the first of many allegorizing interpretations. By the 5th century biographical fictions were well under way; the Pre-Socratic philosopher Heracleitus of Ephesus made use of a trivial legend of Homer’s death—that…

  • Thealma and Clearchus (work by Chalkhill)

    John Chalkhill: …1642, Westminster), English poet whose Thealma and Clearchus was published posthumously in 1683 by Izaak Walton, and who was identified in the third edition of Walton’s Compleat Angler as the author of two songs which appeared there from the first edition (1653).

  • thearubigin (chemical compound)

    tea: Fermentation: …more units to form the thearubigins, which are responsible for the transformation of the leaf to a dark brown or coppery colour. The thearubigins also react with amino acids and sugars to form flavour compounds that may be partly lost if fermentation is prolonged. In general, theaflavin is associated with…

  • Theater am Schiffbauerdamm (theatre, Germany)

    theatre: The influence of Brecht: The auditorium of the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm is lavish to the point of fantasy, decorated with ornate plaster figures. The stage, by complete contrast, is a vast mechanized scenic space in which everything is clearly exposed to view as theatrical and man-made. In the contrast between the comfort of…

  • Theater an der Wien (theatre, Vienna, Austria)

    Emanuel Schikaneder: …the time he opened the Theater an der Wien (1801), built especially for him, the costs were becoming ruinous. Schikaneder retained management of the theatre for less than four years, a period marked by an abortive attempt at collaboration on an opera with Ludwig van Beethoven. Schikaneder left Vienna to…

  • Theater der Freien Volksbühne (German theatrical organization)

    Germany: Government and audience support: …the People’s Independent Theatre (Theater der Freien Volksbühne), dating from 1890 in Berlin. Going to the theatre or opera in Germany is nearly as affordable and as unremarkable as attending the cinema is elsewhere. The same is also true of concert music. Every major city has at least one…

  • Theater High Altitude Area Defense Ground Based Radar (radar technology)

    radar: Ballistic missile defense and satellite-surveillance radars: Army’s Theater High Altitude Area Defense Ground Based Radar (THAAD GBR). This is a mobile solid-state active-aperture phased-array radar that operates within the X-band of the spectrum. A different approach to ballistic missile defense is the Israeli tactical system known as Arrow, which employs an L-band…

  • theater-in-the-round

    Theatre-in-the-round, form of theatrical staging in which the acting area, which may be raised or at floor level, is completely surrounded by the audience. It has been theorized that the informality thus established leads to increased rapport between the audience and the actors.

  • Theaters (work by Sugimoto)

    Hiroshi Sugimoto: In his next series, Theaters, begun in 1978, he photographed movie theatres and drive-ins with an exposure the length of the film’s duration. All that appeared visible in the photographs was the luminescent rectangular screen in the centre of the theatre and the surrounding architectural details.

  • Theatertreffen Berlin (festival, Berlin, Germany)

    Germany: Arts festivals: …Film Festival in February; the Theatertreffen Berlin (“Berlin Theatre Meeting”), featuring productions from throughout the German-speaking world; and the Karneval der Kulturen (“Carnival of Cultures”), a festival of world cultures. Munich has an opera festival in July and August, with emphasis on Richard Strauss. Festivals in Würzburg and Augsburg are…

  • Theatines (religious order)

    St. Cajetan of Thiene: …Congregation of Clerics Regular (Theatines) to further the ideals of the Oratory of Divine Love among diocesan priests and to promote clerical reform through asceticism and apostolic work. After Emperor Charles V sacked Rome, Carafa and Cajetan escaped to Venice in 1527. Following his dispatch as Theatine superior to…

  • Theatralische Bibliothek (German periodical)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Rising reputation as dramatist and critic.: …where he started another periodical, Theatralische Bibliothek (“Theatrical Library”), but this too had to be closed down after only four volumes. The most significant event during this time was the publication in 1753–55 of a six-volume edition of his works. Apart from some witty epigrams, the edition contained the most…

  • theatre (art)

    Theatre, in dramatic arts, an art concerned almost exclusively with live performances in which the action is precisely planned to create a coherent and significant sense of drama. Though the word theatre is derived from the Greek theaomai, “to see,” the performance itself may appeal either to the

  • theatre

    By the 1990s Toronto had quietly become the third-largest theatre centre in the English-speaking world, after New York City and London. With a population approaching four million in the metropolitan area, Toronto had come to serve as host to a wide range of theatrical activity, from fringe

  • theatre (building)

    Theatre, in architecture, a building or space in which a performance may be given before an audience. The word is from the Greek theatron, “a place of seeing.” A theatre usually has a stage area where the performance itself takes place. Since ancient times the evolving design of theatres has been

  • Theatre and Its Double, The (work by Artaud)

    Antonin Artaud: …Théatre et son double (1938; The Theatre and Its Double) call for a communion between actor and audience in a magic exorcism; gestures, sounds, unusual scenery, and lighting combine to form a language, superior to words, that can be used to subvert thought and logic and to shock the spectator…

  • theatre ballistic missile defense (military strategy)

    Theatre missile defense (TMD), deployment of nuclear and conventional missiles for the purpose of maintaining security in a specific region, or theatre. The purpose of theatre missile defense (TMD) is to protect allies from local threats in their region or to address specific security issues and

  • theatre company (theatrical group)

    theatrical production: The permanent company: The development of a production system depending on a permanent company introduced a new element into theatre—professional virtuosity. The emergence of professional theatre companies was a feature of Renaissance urbanization. Various courts had maintained performers throughout the medieval period, but these were usually musicians…

  • theatre design (architecture)

    Theatre design, the art and technique of designing and building a space—a theatre—intended primarily for the performance of drama and its allied arts by live performers who are physically present in front of a live audience. This article describes the different forms a theatre can take and the

  • Théatre du Marais (French theatrical company)

    Marais Theatre, one of the major theatrical companies in 17th-century France. With the actor Montdory as its head, the company performed at various temporary theatres in Paris from 1629 before finding a permanent home in a converted tennis court in the Marais district in 1634. The Marais Theatre

  • Théatre du Palais Royale (theatre, Paris, France)

    Palais-Royal Theatre, Paris playhouse most noted for 17th-century productions by Molière. The Palais-Royal traces its history to a small private theatre in the residence of Cardinal Richelieu. Designed by architect Jacques Lemercier, this theatre became known by the name of the residence, the P

  • Théatre du peuple, Le (work by Rolland)

    theatre: The new Naturalism: …book The People’s Theatre (Le Théatre du peuple, 1903), inspired similar movements in other countries.

  • Théatre et son double, Le (work by Artaud)

    Antonin Artaud: …Théatre et son double (1938; The Theatre and Its Double) call for a communion between actor and audience in a magic exorcism; gestures, sounds, unusual scenery, and lighting combine to form a language, superior to words, that can be used to subvert thought and logic and to shock the spectator…

  • Théatre Expérimental des Femmes (French-Canadian theatrical group)

    Canadian literature: The Quiet Revolution: …by groups such as the Théatre Expérimental des Femmes and featuring controversial plays such as Denise Boucher’s Les Fées ont soif (1978; The Fairies Are Thirsty) and Marchessault’s La Saga des poules mouillées (1981; Saga of Wet Hens). Dramatist and novelist Marie Laberge continued the tradition of feminist theatre with,…

  • theatre for development (theatre)

    theatrical production: Educational and developmental: …an entirely new area called theatre for development. Theatre has been used, primarily in the developing world, to foster literacy programs, population planning campaigns, and agricultural development programs. In Indonesia, for example, wayang shadow puppets have been used, with the content of traditional plays altered to include family planning messages.…

  • Theatre Guild (American theatrical organization)

    Theatre Guild, a theatrical society founded in New York City in 1918 for the production of high-quality, noncommercial American and foreign plays. The guild, founded by Lawrence Langner (1890–1962), departed from the usual theatre practice in that its board of directors shared the responsibility

  • theatre in the hall (theatre design)

    theatre design: Renaissance: …“theatre in the hall” (teatro della sala), an arrangement that became a dominant form of theatre design in the Renaissance, when formal experimentation was being undertaken by academic institutions (academies, grammar schools, Jesuit colleges, universities, etc.), by members of the nobility who competed with one another to put on…

  • theatre missile defense (military strategy)

    Theatre missile defense (TMD), deployment of nuclear and conventional missiles for the purpose of maintaining security in a specific region, or theatre. The purpose of theatre missile defense (TMD) is to protect allies from local threats in their region or to address specific security issues and

  • theatre music (musical genre)

    Theatre music, any music designed to form part of a dramatic performance, as, for example, a ballet, stage play, motion picture, or television program. Included are the European operetta and its American form, the musical. Music as an art of the theatre has its roots in primitive ritual and

  • Théatre National Populaire (French national theatre)

    Théatre National Populaire (TNP), French national theatre created in 1920 to bring theatre to the general public. Its first director, Firmin Gémier, had been the director of the Théatre Antoine and had made a number of attempts to create a people’s theatre. Initially the TNP offered productions

  • Théatre Nationale de l’Opéra (opera house, Paris, France)

    Opéra, Parisian opera house designed by Charles Garnier. The building, considered one of the masterpieces of the Second Empire style, was begun in 1861 and opened with an orchestral concert on Jan. 5, 1875. The first opera performed there was Fromental Halévy’s work La Juive on Jan. 8, 1875. A

  • Theatre of 13 Rows (theatrical group, Poland)

    directing: Directorial styles: …intense physicality to Jerzy Grotowski’s Polish Laboratory Theatre from Wroc?aw in Poland, though the two companies had been founded independently in the early 1960s.

  • Theatre of the World (atlas by Ortelius)

    Abraham Ortelius: … (1570; “Theatre of the World”).

  • theatre oft toon-neel, Het (work by Noot)

    Jan Baptista van der Noot: …his main works had appeared, Het theatre oft toon-neel (“Theatre for Voluptuous Worldlings”), a prose defense of the virtues of Calvinism and a condemnation of the worldliness of Dutch society. It is prefaced by sonnets and epigrams that were translated by Edmund Spenser for an English version.

  • Théatre Optique (film)

    Cinématographe: …and in part on the Théatre Optique of émile Reynaud in Paris. From Edison’s invention the Lumières took the idea of a sprocket-wound film and from Reynaud that of projecting the successive frames on a screen. The Cinématographe also functioned as a camera and could be used to make extra…

  • Theatre Regulations Act (United Kingdom [1843])

    music hall and variety: By the Theatre Regulations Act of 1843, drinking and smoking, although prohibited in legitimate theatres, were permitted in the music halls. Tavern owners, therefore, often annexed buildings adjoining their premises as music halls. The low comedy of the halls, designed to appeal to the working class and…

  • Théatre Repère (Canadian theatre company)

    Robert Lepage: Early life and career: …Knapp, Lepage in 1982 joined Théatre Repère in Quebec. This theatre company, founded by Jacques Lessard, relied on the active involvement of actors to discover the key object or pattern necessary to develop the production. In 1985 Lepage became artistic director of the company. That same year he staged a…

  • Theatre Royal Drury Lane (theatre, London, United Kingdom)

    Drury Lane Theatre, oldest London theatre still in use. It stands in the eastern part of the City of Westminster. The first theatre was built by the dramatist Thomas Killigrew for his company of actors as the Theatre Royal under a charter from Charles II. It opened May 7, 1663, in the propitious

  • Théatre Sarah Bernhardt (theatre, Paris, France)

    Sarah Bernhardt: International success: …is now known as the Théatre de la Ville.

  • theatre, African (art)

    African theatre, effectively, the theatre of Africa south of the Sahara that emerged in the postcolonial era—that is to say, from the mid-20th century onward. It is not possible to talk of much African theatre as if it fell into discrete historical or national patterns. Colonial boundaries ignored

  • Theatre, The (historical building, London, United Kingdom)

    The Theatre, first public playhouse of London, located in the parish of St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. Designed and built by James Burbage (the father of actor Richard Burbage), The Theatre was a roofless, circular building with three galleries surrounding a yard. It opened in 1576, and several

  • theatre, Western (art)

    Western theatre, history of the Western theatre from its origins in pre-Classical antiquity to the present. For a discussion of drama as a literary form, see dramatic literature and the articles on individual national literatures. For detailed information on the arts of theatrical performance and

  • Théatre-Fran?ais, Le (French national theatre)

    Comédie-Fran?aise, national theatre of France and the world’s longest established national theatre. After the death of the playwright Molière (1673), his company of actors joined forces with a company playing at the Théatre du Marais, the resulting company being known as the Théatre Guénégaud. In

  • theatre-in-the-round

    Theatre-in-the-round, form of theatrical staging in which the acting area, which may be raised or at floor level, is completely surrounded by the audience. It has been theorized that the informality thus established leads to increased rapport between the audience and the actors.

  • Théatre-Libre (theatre, Paris, France)

    Théatre-Libre, (French: Free Theatre), independent, private theatre founded in Paris in 1887 by André Antoine, which became the proving ground for the new naturalistic drama. Antoine, an amateur actor, was influenced by the naturalistic novels of émile Zola and by the theatrical realism of the

  • Theatres Act (United Kingdom [1843])

    theatre: The evolution of modern theatrical production: …political power, led to the Theatres Act of 1843, which gave London a “free theatre.” The expected flood of new theatre buildings did not occur, and no major building took place for 16 years. This is probably because there were already sufficient illegal theatres in operation when the act was…

  • theatres, war of the (English literature)

    War of the theatres, in English literary history, conflict involving the Elizabethan playwrights Ben Jonson, John Marston, and Thomas Dekker. It covered a period when Jonson was writing for one children’s company of players and Marston for another, rival group. In 1599 Marston presented a mildly

  • theatrical costume (theatre)

    stagecraft: Costume design: Theatrical costumes were an innovation of the Greek poet Thespis in the 6th century bce, and theatrical costumes were long called “the robes of Thespis.” Athenians spent lavishly on the production and costumes at annual drama contests. Each poet was…

  • Theatrical Mission of Wilhelm Meister, The (novel by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: First Weimar period (1776–86): …Wilhelm Meisters theatralische Sendung (The Theatrical Mission of Wilhelm Meister), each year until 1785. In a rough-and-tumble, ironic way, reminiscent of the English novelist Henry Fielding, it tells the story of a gifted young man who aims for stardom in a reformed German national theatrical culture. At first the…

  • theatrical music

    Music, art concerned with combining vocal or instrumental sounds for beauty of form or emotional expression, usually according to cultural standards of rhythm, melody, and, in most Western music, harmony. Both the simple folk song and the complex electronic composition belong to the same activity,

  • theatrical production

    Theatrical production, the planning, rehearsal, and presentation of a work. Such a work is presented to an audience at a particular time and place by live performers, who use either themselves or inanimate figures, such as puppets, as the medium of presentation. A theatrical production can be

  • theatrical stage (theatre)

    Central Asian arts: Shamanic ritual: …Central Asia, there were no centres for the performing arts in the usual sense of the word. Each shaman performed his dramatic arts at his own residence or environs as the occasion demanded. He had his own ritual costumes and paraphernalia, which displayed regional variations, particularly in ornamentation. The representation…

  • Theatrical Syndicate (American theatrical company)

    Charles Frohman: …laid the foundation of the Theatrical Syndicate, which for several years controlled U.S. theatres. Frohman’s initial success was Bronson Howard’s Shenandoah in 1889. In 1892 he engaged John Drew as his star and established the Empire Stock Company. Frohman’s encouragement of such playwrights as Clyde Fitch, David Belasco, and Augustus…

  • theatricalism (drama)

    Theatricalism, in 20th-century Western theatre, the general movement away from the dominant turn-of-the-century techniques of naturalism in acting, staging, and playwriting; it was especially directed against the illusion of reality that was the highest achievement of the naturalist theatre. In the

  • Theatricality Overtakes the Fashion Runway

    On March 31, 2015, fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld restaged the debut of the Chanel Métiers d’Art Paris-Salzburg 2014–15 collection, one of the more-elaborate and lavish events in a growing trend of fashion-show extravaganzas. To house that repeat performance of Chanel’s Dec. 2, 2014, tribute to

  • Theatro crítico universal (work by Feijóo y Montenegro)

    Spanish literature: New critical approaches: Feijóo’s monumental Theatro crítico universal (1726–39; “Universal Critical Theatre”), a compendium of knowledge, exemplifies the interests and achievements of the encyclopaedists. Another major encyclopaedic talent, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, produced streams of reports, essays, memoirs, and studies on agriculture, the economy, political organization, law, industry, natural science,…

  • theatrograph (movie technology)

    history of the motion picture: Edison and the Lumière brothers: …projector, the theatrograph (later the animatograph), had been demonstrated in 1896 by the scientific-instrument maker Robert W. Paul. In 1899 Paul formed his own production company for the manufacture of actualities and trick films, and until 1905 Paul’s Animatograph Works, Ltd., was England’s largest producer, turning out an average of…

  • theatron (building)

    Theatre, in architecture, a building or space in which a performance may be given before an audience. The word is from the Greek theatron, “a place of seeing.” A theatre usually has a stage area where the performance itself takes place. Since ancient times the evolving design of theatres has been

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