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  • Tyrone, Hugh O’Neill, 2nd earl of (Irish rebel)

    Hugh O’Neill, 2nd earl of Tyrone, Irish rebel who, from 1595 to 1603, led an unsuccessful Roman Catholic uprising against English rule in Ireland. The defeat of O’Neill and the conquest of his province of Ulster was the final step in the subjugation of Ireland by the English. Although born into the

  • tyrosinase (enzyme)

    transition metal: Biological functions of transition metals: …in a 1:1 ratio; (3) tyrosinases, which catalyze the formation of melanin (brownish-black pigments occurring in hair, skin, and retina of higher animals) and were the first enzymes in which copper was shown to be essential to function.

  • tyrosine (chemical compound)

    Tyrosine, an amino acid comprising about 1 to 6 percent by weight of the mixture obtained by hydrolysis of most proteins. First isolated from casein in 1846 by German chemist Justus, baron von Liebig, tyrosine is particularly abundant in insulin (a hormone) and papain (an enzyme found in fruit of

  • tyrosine kinase domain (biology)

    multiple endocrine neoplasia: MEN2: …signaling region called a tyrosine kinase domain. The kinase domain is fundamental in activating cell signaling cascades. Kinase activity causes the transfer of high-energy phosphate molecules to tyrosine residues on nearby proteins, resulting in protein activation and initiation of downstream signaling events. These signaling events culminate in specific cellular functions,…

  • tyrosinemia (pathology)

    Tyrosinemia, inherited inability of the body to metabolize normally the amino acid tyrosine. In the normal metabolic pathway of tyrosine, para-(p-)hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid is converted to homogentisic acid (in the liver) by a specific organic catalyst or enzyme, called p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic a

  • tyrosinosis (pathology)

    Tyrosinemia, inherited inability of the body to metabolize normally the amino acid tyrosine. In the normal metabolic pathway of tyrosine, para-(p-)hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid is converted to homogentisic acid (in the liver) by a specific organic catalyst or enzyme, called p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic a

  • tyrothricin (antibiotic)

    René Dubos: …antibacterial substance and named it tyrothricin. This substance, which he was able to chemically analyze, became the first antibiotic to be commercially manufactured, though it soon proved too toxic for large-scale use. Dubos’s researches and techniques stimulated interest in penicillin and led Selman Waksman, Albert Schatz, and Elizabeth Bugie to…

  • Tyrrell Downs (Victoria, Australia)

    Sea Lake, town, Mallee district, northwest Victoria, Australia, located about 6 miles (10 km) south of Lake Tyrrell (a salt-encrusted depression). The first person of European descent to encounter the area around present-day Sea Lake is believed to have been William Edward Stanbridge, who arrived

  • Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology (museum, Drumheller, Alberta, Canada)

    Alberta: Cultural institutions: …history and art, and the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller is one of the world’s largest fossil museums, with particularly fine displays of dinosaurs. The latter institution operates in association with Dinosaur Provincial Park near Brooks, the first place to be designated a World Heritage site for its…

  • Tyrrell, Alan Henry Robert Kenneth (British automobile racing executive)

    Ken Tyrrell, (Alan Henry Robert Kenneth Tyrrell), British automobile racing team owner (born May 3, 1924, Surrey, Eng.—died Aug. 25, 2001, Surrey), provided the cars, financial backing, and emotional support—both personal and professional—that made Jackie Stewart one of Britain’s most successful F

  • Tyrrell, George (Irish theologian)

    George Tyrrell, Irish-born British Jesuit priest and philosopher, a prominent member of the Modernist movement, which sought to reinterpret traditional Roman Catholic teaching in the light of contemporary knowledge. Tyrrell was raised in the Anglican church but converted to Roman Catholicism in

  • Tyrrell, James (Canadian geologist)

    Thelon River: Tyrrell and his brother James explored the river and its main tributaries, the Dubawnt and Kazan rivers, in 1893–98. The vast tundra region, inhabited by a dispersed Inuit population and drained by the Thelon, is served by the trading posts of Baker Lake (Qamanittuaq; known for its Inuit tapestry)…

  • Tyrrell, Joseph B. (Canadian geologist)

    Thelon River: The Canadian geologist Joseph B. Tyrrell and his brother James explored the river and its main tributaries, the Dubawnt and Kazan rivers, in 1893–98. The vast tundra region, inhabited by a dispersed Inuit population and drained by the Thelon, is served by the trading posts of Baker Lake…

  • Tyrrell, Ken (British automobile racing executive)

    Ken Tyrrell, (Alan Henry Robert Kenneth Tyrrell), British automobile racing team owner (born May 3, 1924, Surrey, Eng.—died Aug. 25, 2001, Surrey), provided the cars, financial backing, and emotional support—both personal and professional—that made Jackie Stewart one of Britain’s most successful F

  • Tyrrell, Lake (lake, Victoria, Australia)

    Lake Tyrrell, shallow salt-crusted depression of 70 square miles (180 square km) in the Mallee district, northwestern Victoria, Austl. It lies 195 miles (314 km) northwest of Melbourne. It is the largest inland saltwater lake in Victoria and the most inland breeding ground for Australia’s seagulls.

  • Tyrrell, Sir James (English soldier)

    Sir James Tyrrell, English soldier and royal official alleged by the 16th-century Humanist Sir Thomas More to have murdered the 12-year-old king Edward V and his younger brother Richard in the Tower of London in August 1483. Modern research has shown that there is little evidence for More’s

  • Tyrrhenia (ancient landmass)

    Alps: Geology: …crystalline rocks and known as Tyrrhenia, occupied what is today the western Mediterranean basin, whereas much of the rest of Europe was inundated by a vast sea. During the Mesozoic (about 250 million to 65 million years ago) Tyrrhenia was slowly leveled by the forces of erosion. The eroded materials…

  • Tyrrhenian Basin (basin, Mediterranean Sea)

    Mediterranean Sea: Natural divisions: The Tyrrhenian Basin, that part of the Mediterranean known as the Tyrrhenian Sea, lies between Italy and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.

  • Tyrrhenian Sea (sea, Mediterranean Sea)

    Tyrrhenian Sea, arm of the Mediterranean Sea between the western coast of Italy and the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. It is connected with the Ligurian Sea (northwest) through the Tuscan Archipelago and with the Ionian Sea (southeast) through the Strait of Messina. Chief inlets of the

  • Tyrrhenoi (people)

    Etruscan, member of an ancient people of Etruria, Italy, between the Tiber and Arno rivers west and south of the Apennines, whose urban civilization reached its height in the 6th century bce. Many features of Etruscan culture were adopted by the Romans, their successors to power in the peninsula. A

  • Tyrrhenum, Mare (sea, Mediterranean Sea)

    Tyrrhenian Sea, arm of the Mediterranean Sea between the western coast of Italy and the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. It is connected with the Ligurian Sea (northwest) through the Tuscan Archipelago and with the Ionian Sea (southeast) through the Strait of Messina. Chief inlets of the

  • Tyrsenoi (people)

    Etruscan, member of an ancient people of Etruria, Italy, between the Tiber and Arno rivers west and south of the Apennines, whose urban civilization reached its height in the 6th century bce. Many features of Etruscan culture were adopted by the Romans, their successors to power in the peninsula. A

  • Tyrtaeus (Greek poet)

    Tyrtaeus, Greek elegiac poet, author of stirring poetry on military themes supposedly composed to help Sparta win the Second Messenian War. Greek tradition after the 6th century claimed that Tyrtaeus was a schoolmaster from Athens or Miletus, sent to Sparta in reluctant compliance with an oracle to

  • Tyrus (town and historical site, Lebanon)

    Tyre, town on the Mediterranean coast of southern Lebanon, located 12 miles (19 km) north of the modern border with Israel and 25 miles (40 km) south of Sidon (modern ?aydā). It was a major Phoenician seaport from about 2000 bce through the Roman period. Tyre, built on an island and on the

  • Tyrwhitt, Reginald (British admiral)

    Battle of Dogger Bank: Dogger Bank and the pursuit of the German fleet: … under the command of Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt from Harwich. At 9:00 pm that night, the 3rd Battle Squadron of seven King Edwards-class pre-dreadnought battleships sortied from Rosyth, and Adm. Sir John Jellicoe put to sea with the main battle fleet from Scapa Flow.

  • Tyrwhitt, Thomas (English scholar)

    Thomas Tyrwhitt, English scholar especially notable for his work on the medieval English poet Geoffrey Chaucer. In classical and English scholarship alike, Tyrwhitt showed the same qualities of balance, wide knowledge, and critical acumen. (He was the one man able, on linguistic grounds alone, to

  • Tysa River (river, Europe)

    Tisza River, a major tributary of the middle Danube River, rising in the Bukovina segment of the Carpathian Mountains. Its two headstreams, the Black and White Tisza, unite east of Sighet on the Ukraine-Romania border. From Sighet, Romania, the Tisza flows northwest through a small portion of

  • Tysabri (drug)

    multiple sclerosis: Treatment of multiple sclerosis: Natalizumab (Tysabri), a monoclonal antibody (an antibody clone derived from a single immune cell), is also effective for controlling the severity and frequency of relapses. Natalizumab attaches to molecules on the cell membrane of lymphocytes, preventing them from entering the central nervous system and attacking…

  • Tyson Foods, Inc. (American company)

    Arkansas: Manufacturing: …the early 21st century was Tyson Foods, Inc., with its corporate headquarters in Springdale. Tyson started in northwest Arkansas as one of the many poultry companies that established themselves in the region in the early 20th century. Through expansions and acquisitions, Tyson Foods became one of the largest poultry and…

  • Tyson, Cicely (American actress)

    Cicely Tyson, American model and actress noted for her vivid portrayals of strong African American women. Tyson’s birth year is generally believed to be 1924, though some sources give 1933. She was the daughter of immigrants from the Caribbean island of Nevis, and she grew up in a devoutly

  • Tyson, Edward (English physician)

    Edward Tyson, English physician and pioneer of comparative anatomy whose delineation of the similarities and differences between men and chimpanzees (he called them “orang-outangs”) provided an empirical basis for the study of man. His work suggested a continuity of traits between humans and other

  • Tyson, Frank (British cricketer)

    Frank Holmes Tyson, British cricketer (born June 6, 1930, Farnworth, Lancashire, Eng.—died Sept. 27, 2015, Gold Coast, Queens., Australia), earned the nickname “Typhoon” for the incredibly fast pace of his bowling during his injury-shorted first-class career (1952–60). Tyson obtained a degree in

  • Tyson, Michael Gerald (American boxer)

    Mike Tyson, American boxer who, at age 20, became the youngest heavyweight champion in history. A member of various street gangs at an early age, Tyson was sent to reform school in upstate New York in 1978. At the reform school, social worker and boxing aficionado Bobby Stewart recognized his

  • Tyson, Mike (American boxer)

    Mike Tyson, American boxer who, at age 20, became the youngest heavyweight champion in history. A member of various street gangs at an early age, Tyson was sent to reform school in upstate New York in 1978. At the reform school, social worker and boxing aficionado Bobby Stewart recognized his

  • Tyson, Neil deGrasse (American astronomer)

    Neil deGrasse Tyson, American astronomer who popularized science with his books and frequent appearances on radio and television. When Tyson was nine years old, his interest in astronomy was sparked by a trip to the Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

  • tystie (seabird)

    guillemot: …the three species is the black guillemot, or tystie (C. grylle). It is about 35 cm (14 inches) long and is coloured black with white wing patches in the breeding season. In winter it is fully white below and speckled brown and white above. The black guillemot breeds around the…

  • Tysyacha dush (novel by Pisemsky)

    Aleksey Feofilaktovich Pisemsky: …best achievements are the novel Tysyacha dush (1858; “A Thousand Souls”), a memorable portrait of a “new man,” Kalinovich, who marries, in spite of his love for another girl, the crippled heiress of “a thousand souls” (serfs) and climbs to the rank of provincial governor, a post he fills with…

  • Tytler, James (Scottish editor)

    James Tytler, Scottish editor of the Encyclop?dia Britannica’s second edition, who was sometimes called “Balloon Tytler” because of his experiments in aeronautics. Known in Edinburgh as a debt-ridden eccentric, between 1776 and 1784 Tytler almost single-handedly revised the original edition of the

  • Tyto (bird)

    Barn owl, any of several species of nocturnal birds of prey of the genus Tyto (family Tytonidae). Barn owls are sometimes called monkey-faced owls because of their heart-shaped facial disks and absence of ear tufts. They are about 30 to 40 cm (12 to 16 inches) long, white to gray or yellowish to

  • Tyto alba (bird)

    barn owl: The common barn owl (T. alba) occurs worldwide except in Antarctica and Micronesia. Other species occur only in the Old World. Many inhabit open grasslands. Some are called grass owls (such as the common grass owl, T. capensis, of India, the South Pacific, Australia, and South…

  • Tytonidae (bird family)

    owl: Annotated classification: Family Tytonidae (barn owls, grass owls, and bay owls) 21 species in 2 genera found from tropical to temperate regions; body length 30–54 cm (12–21 inches); heart-shaped facial disk completely encircling face, bill comparatively long and slender; legs rather long; middle claw with comb. Family Strigidae

  • Tyuleny (island, Russia)

    Caspian Sea: Physical features: The largest are Chechen, Tyuleny, Morskoy, Kulaly, Zhiloy, and Ogurchin.

  • Tyumen (oblast, Russia)

    Tyumen, oblast (region), central Russia, in the Ob-Irtysh Basin. In the extreme west the Ural Mountains attain 6,217 feet (1,895 m) in Mount Narodnaya, but the remainder of the oblast’s huge area is a low, exceptionally flat plain, with innumerable lakes and very extensive swamps. The oblast

  • Tyumen (Russia)

    Tyumen, city and administrative centre of Tyumen oblast (region), central Russia. The city lies in the southwestern part of the West Siberian Plain. It is situated on both banks of the Tura River at its crossing by the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Founded in 1586, it is the oldest Russian city in

  • Tyuonyi (pueblo, New Mexico, United States)

    Bandelier National Monument: …the large, circular pueblo of Tyuonyi, which lies in Frijoles Canyon, and Tsankawi, an unexcavated ruin located on a mesa about 11 miles (18 km) northeast of the main portion of the monument. Kivas (ceremonial chambers) and man-made caves also have been unearthed. Pi?on pine, yucca, sagebrush, and juniper grow…

  • Tyuratam (space centre, Kazakhstan)

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, former Soviet and current Russian space centre in south-central Kazakhstan. Baikonur was a Soviet code name for the centre, but American analysts often called it Tyuratam, after the railroad station at Tyuratam (Leninsk), the nearest large city. The Baikonur Cosmodrome lies on

  • Tyus, Wyomia (American athlete)

    Wyomia Tyus, American sprinter who held the world record for the 100-metre race (1964–65, 1968–72) and was the first person to win the Olympic gold medal twice (1964, 1968) in that event. Tyus attracted national attention as a high-school runner and as an athlete at Tennessee State University (B.A,

  • Tyutchev, Fyodor (Russian writer)

    Fyodor Tyutchev, Russian writer who was remarkable both as a highly original philosophic poet and as a militant Slavophile, and whose whole literary output constitutes a struggle to fuse political passion with poetic imagination. The son of a wealthy landowner, educated at home and at Moscow

  • Tyutchev, Fyodor Ivanovich (Russian writer)

    Fyodor Tyutchev, Russian writer who was remarkable both as a highly original philosophic poet and as a militant Slavophile, and whose whole literary output constitutes a struggle to fuse political passion with poetic imagination. The son of a wealthy landowner, educated at home and at Moscow

  • tyuyamunite (mineral)

    Tyuyamunite, radioactive, yellow, soft, and waxy uranium and vanadium oxide mineral, Ca(UO2)2(VO4)2·5–8H2O. It is considered to be the calcium analogue of carnotite, from which it can be made artificially and reversibly by cation exchange (calcium exchanges places with potassium in carnotite’s

  • Tyva (republic, Russia)

    Tyva, republic in south-central Siberia, Russia. Tyva borders northwestern Mongolia and occupies the basin of the upper Yenisey River. Its relief consists of two broad basins, the Tyva and Todzha, drained by two main tributaries of the Yenisey River. High mountain ranges, including the Eastern

  • Tyva Basin (basin, Russia)

    Russia: The mountains of the south and east: …and which enclose the high Tyva Basin. Subsidiary ranges extend northward, enclosing the Kuznetsk and Minusinsk basins.

  • Tyvan (people)

    Tyvan, any member of an ethnolinguistic group inhabiting the autonomous republic of Tyva (Tuva) in south-central Russia; the group also constitutes a small minority in the northwestern part of Mongolia. The Tyvans are a Turkic-speaking people with Mongol influences. They live among the headwaters

  • Tywi River (river, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Towy River, river, southwest Wales, approximately 65 mi (105 km) long. Rising on the slopes of Esgair Garthen in the district of northwest Brecknockshire (Breconshire) in the county of Powys, it flows southward to Llandovery in a deeply incised valley. Below Llandovery it trends southwest in a

  • Tyzack, Margaret (British actress)

    Margaret Maud Tyzack , British actress (born Sept. 9, 1931, London, Eng.—died June 25, 2011, London), was a versatile character actress perhaps best known for her roles in several television miniseries in the 1960s and ’70s, notably as the naive Winifred Forsyte Dartie in The Forsyte Saga (1967);

  • tz’u (Chinese poetic form)

    Ci, in Chinese poetry, song form characterized by lines of unequal length with prescribed rhyme schemes and tonal patterns, each bearing the name of a musical air. The varying line lengths are comparable to the natural rhythm of speech and therefore are easily understood when sung. First sung by

  • Tz’u-an (empress dowager of China)

    Cixi: …and Xianfeng’s former senior consort, Ci’an, orchestrated a coup with Gong Qinwang (Prince Gong), the former emperor’s brother, the regency was transferred to Cixi and Ci’an. Gong became the prince counsellor.

  • Tz’u-chou yao (pottery)

    Cizhou kiln, kiln known for stoneware produced in Handan (formerly Cizhou), Hebei province, in northern China, primarily during the Song (960–1279) dynasty. The kiln produced hard pillows, vases, bottles, and other vessels decorated with simple but marvelously assured brushwork in brown, black, or

  • Tz’u-hsi (empress dowager of China)

    Cixi, consort of the Xianfeng emperor (reigned 1850–61), mother of the Tongzhi emperor (reigned 1861–75), adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor (reigned 1875–1908), and a towering presence over the Chinese empire for almost half a century. By maintaining authority over the Manchu imperial house

  • Tz’utujil (people)

    Tz’utujil, Mayan Indians of the midwestern highlands of Guatemala. The Tz’utujil language is closely related to those of the neighbouring Kaqchikel and K’iche’. The Tz’utujil, like neighbouring Mayan peoples, are agricultural, growing the Indian staple crops—corn (maize), beans, and squash. They

  • Tz’utujil language

    Kaqchikel language: Its closest relative is Tz’utujil. K’iche’ is also closely related. The Annals of the Cakchiquels (also called Anales de los Cakchiqueles, Memorial de Tecpán-Atitlán, or Memorial de Sololá), written in Kaqchikel between 1571 and 1604, is considered an important example of Native American literature. It contains both mythology and…

  • tzaddiq (Judaism)

    Tzaddiq, one who embodies the religious ideals of Judaism. In the Bible, a tzaddiq is a just or righteous man (Genesis 6:9), who, if a ruler, rules justly or righteously (II Samuel 23:3) and who takes joy in justice (Proverbs 21:15). The Talmud (compendium of Jewish law, lore, and commentary)

  • tzaddiqim (Judaism)

    Tzaddiq, one who embodies the religious ideals of Judaism. In the Bible, a tzaddiq is a just or righteous man (Genesis 6:9), who, if a ruler, rules justly or righteously (II Samuel 23:3) and who takes joy in justice (Proverbs 21:15). The Talmud (compendium of Jewish law, lore, and commentary)

  • Tzahut bedihuta de-qiddushin (work by Sommo)

    Judah Leone ben Isaac Sommo: …the first known Hebrew drama, Tza?ut bedi?uta de-qiddushin (1550; “An Eloquent Comedy of a Marriage”), in which characters such as the pining lover, the comic servant, and the crafty lawyer reflect the influence of the Italian commedia dell’arte. Sommo’s experience as a playwright and producer of dramas for various noble…

  • Tzakol culture (Mesoamerican culture)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Classic civilization in the Maya lowlands: Tzakol phase: …two chronological phases or cultures: Tzakol culture, which is Early Classic and began shortly before 250 ce, and the Late Classic Tepeu culture, which saw the full florescence of Maya achievements. Tepeu culture began about 600 and ended with the final downfall and abandonment of the Central Subregion about 900.…

  • tzar (title)

    Tsar, title associated primarily with rulers of Russia. The term tsar, a form of the ancient Roman imperial title caesar, generated a series of derivatives in Russian: tsaritsa, a tsar’s wife, or tsarina; tsarevich, his son; tsarevna, his daughter; and tsesarevich, his eldest son and heir apparent

  • Tzara, Tristan (French author)

    Tristan Tzara, Romanian-born French poet and essayist known mainly as the founder of Dada, a nihilistic revolutionary movement in the arts, the purpose of which was the demolition of all the values of modern civilization. The Dadaist movement originated in Zürich during World War I, with the

  • tzarina (title)

    Tsar, title associated primarily with rulers of Russia. The term tsar, a form of the ancient Roman imperial title caesar, generated a series of derivatives in Russian: tsaritsa, a tsar’s wife, or tsarina; tsarevich, his son; tsarevna, his daughter; and tsesarevich, his eldest son and heir apparent

  • Tzedoq (Jewish sect)

    Sadducee, member of a Jewish priestly sect that flourished for about two centuries before the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem in ad 70. Not much is known with certainty of the Sadducees’ origin and early history, but their name may be derived from that of Zadok, who was high priest i

  • Tzedoqim (Jewish sect)

    Sadducee, member of a Jewish priestly sect that flourished for about two centuries before the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem in ad 70. Not much is known with certainty of the Sadducees’ origin and early history, but their name may be derived from that of Zadok, who was high priest i

  • Tzeltal (people)

    Tzeltal, Mayan Indians of central Chiapas, in southeastern Mexico, most closely related culturally and linguistically to their neighbours to the west, the Tzotzil. The Tzeltal speak various dialects within the Maya language family. They live in an area that includes plains, gentle hills, and high

  • tzeltzelim (musical instrument)

    ceremonial object: Sound devices: …where they were known as metziltayim or tzeltzelim. The sistrum, used in pre-Hellenistic Egypt in the worship of the goddesses Isis and Hathor and in Rome and Phoenicia, as well as among the Hebrews, is composed of a handle and frame with transverse metal rods and mobile disks. Producing a…

  • Tzetzes, John (Byzantine scholar)

    John Tzetzes, Byzantine didactic poet and scholar who preserved much valuable information from ancient Greek literature and scholarship, in which he was widely read. Tzetzes was for a time secretary to a provincial governor, then earned a meagre living by teaching and writing. He has been described

  • Tziá (island, Greece)

    Kéa, westernmost of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) in the South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region). Kéa lies about 13 miles (21 km) east of the southern tip of Attica (Attikí). With an area of 50.4 square

  • tzimtzum (Judaism)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: …is based on three concepts: tzimtzum (“contraction,” or “withdrawal”), shevirat ha-kelim (“breaking of the vessels”), and tiqqun (“restoration”). God as the Infinite (En Sof) withdraws into himself in order to make room for the creation, which occurs by a beam of light from the Infinite into the newly provided space.…

  • tzitzit (Judaism)

    religious dress: Later religious dress: …tefillin (phylacteries) and tzitzit (fringes), which have certain features in common. The name phylacteries is sometimes thought to point to a prophylactic origin, but the term is actually a translation of the Hebrew word for “frontlets” (?o?afot). Phylacteries are worn in obedience to the commandment found in Deuteronomy (11:18)…

  • Tzolkin (Mayan chronology)

    Mayan calendar: …variously referred to as the Tzolkin (“Count of Days”), divinatory calendar, ritual calendar, or simply the day calendar. Within the Tzolkin are two smaller cycles of days numbered from 1 to 13 and an ordered series of 20 named days. Although the names for the ritual days differed throughout Mesoamerica,…

  • Tzom Gedaliahu (Judaism)

    Fast of Gedaliah, a minor Jewish observance (on Tishri 3) that mournfully recalls the assassination of Gedaliah, Jewish governor of Judah and appointee of Nebuchadrezzar, the Babylonian king. Gedaliah, a supporter of Jeremiah, was slain by Ishmael, a member of the former royal family of Judah. When

  • Tzotzil (people)

    Tzotzil, Mayan Indians of central Chiapas in southeastern Mexico. Linguistically and culturally, the Tzotzil are most closely related to the neighbouring Tzeltal. The habitat of the Tzotzil is highland, with mountains, volcanic outcroppings, and valley lowlands. The climate at high altitudes is

  • Tzu Ssu (Chinese philosopher)

    Zisi, Chinese philosopher and grandson of Confucius (551–479 bce). Varying traditional accounts state that Zisi, who studied under Confucius’s pupil Zengzi, taught either Mencius (Mengzi)—the “second sage” of Confucianism—or Mencius’s teacher. Texts dating to about the 2nd and the 4th centuries

  • Tzu-chih t’ung-chien (work by Sima Guang)

    Sima Guang: …poet who compiled the monumental Zizhi tongjian (“Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government”), a general chronicle of Chinese history from 403 bce to 959 ce, considered one of the finest single historical works in Chinese. Known for his moral uprightness, he was learned in several disciplines and prominent in government.

  • Tzu-chin ch’eng (palace complex, Beijing, China)

    Forbidden City, imperial palace complex at the heart of Beijing (Peking), China. Commissioned in 1406 by the Yongle emperor of the Ming dynasty, it was first officially occupied by the court in 1420. It was so named because access to the area was barred to most of the subjects of the realm.

  • tzu-jan (Chinese philosophy)

    Ziran, (Chinese: “spontaneity,” or “naturalness”; literally, “self-so-ing,” or “so of itself”) in Chinese philosophy, and particularly among the 4th- and 3rd-century bce philosophers of early Daoism (daojia), the natural state of the constantly unfolding universe and of all things within it when

  • Tzu-kung (China)

    Zigong, city, southeastern Sichuan sheng (province), southwestern China. It is situated on the Fuxi River, a tributary of the Tuo River, about 40 miles (65 km) north of Yibin. Zigong’s prosperity long depended on its salt industry, and deep drilling for brine has been practiced in the area for

  • Tzu-po (China)

    Zibo, industrial city and municipality (shi), central Shandong sheng (province), eastern China. The municipality is a regional city complex made up of five major towns: Zhangdian (Zibo), Linzi, Zhoucun, Zichuan, and Boshan. Each is now a district of the municipality. Zhangdian, in the north-central

  • Tzultacaj (Mayan deity)

    Kekchí: …most important of these is Tzultacaj (Tzuultaq’ah), god of the mountains and valleys.

  • Tzutujil (people)

    Tz’utujil, Mayan Indians of the midwestern highlands of Guatemala. The Tz’utujil language is closely related to those of the neighbouring Kaqchikel and K’iche’. The Tz’utujil, like neighbouring Mayan peoples, are agricultural, growing the Indian staple crops—corn (maize), beans, and squash. They

  • Tzuultaq’ah (Mayan deity)

    Kekchí: …most important of these is Tzultacaj (Tzuultaq’ah), god of the mountains and valleys.

  • Tz?enah u-Re?na (Bible translation by Ashkenazi)

    biblical literature: German versions: … of Janów, known as the Tz?enah u-Re?na (Lublin, 1616), became one of the most popular and widely diffused works of its kind.

  • T?bilisi (national capital, Georgia)

    Tbilisi, capital of the republic of Georgia, on the Mtkvari (Kura) River at its dissection of the Trialeti (Trialetsky) and Kartli (Kartliysky, or Kartalinian) ranges. Founded in 458 (in some sources, 455), when the capital of the Georgian kingdom was transferred there from Mtskheta, the city had a

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