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  • Tynwald Court (government body, Isle of Man)

    Douglas: The Tynwald Court is composed of the two legislative branches—the House of Keys and the Legislative Council—sitting in joint session, but voting separately. The town’s primary occupations are tourism, light precision engineering, brewing, and mineral water works. At the mouth of the rivers is the harbour,…

  • Tynyanov, Yury (Soviet author)

    Russian literature: Experiments in the 1920s: …of them, Viktor Shklovsky and Yury Tynyanov, wrote significant fiction illustrating their theories: Shklovsky’s Zoo; ili, pisma ne o lyubvi (1923; Zoo; or, Letters Not About Love) and Tynyanov’s “Podporuchik kizhe” (1927; “Second Lieutenant Likewise”). Their respectful opponent, Mikhail Bakhtin, whom some consider the most original, far-ranging, and subtle theorist…

  • Tyo (people)

    African art: Lower Congo (Kongo) cultural area: The Teke live on the banks of the Congo River. They are best known for their fetishes, called butti, which serve in the cult of a wide range of supernatural forces sent by the ancestors, who are not worshiped directly. Each figure has its own specific…

  • Tyo, Kingdom of (historical kingdom, Africa)

    Kingdom of Anziku, historic African state on and north of the Congo River in the vicinity of Malebo Pool. The Teke people lived on the plateaus of the region from early times. It is not known when they organized as a kingdom, but by 1600 their state was a rival of the Kongo kingdom south of the

  • type (philosophy)

    aesthetics: The ontology of art: Peirce therefore calls a a type (i.e., a formula for producing tokens).

  • Type 091 (Chinese submarine class)

    submarine: Attack submarines: The first keel of the Type 091 vessel (known as the Han class to NATO), based partly on Soviet designs, was laid down in 1967, and the completed boat was commissioned in 1974. Four more Type 091 boats were commissioned over the next two decades. They were followed by the…

  • Type 093 (Chinese submarine class)

    submarine: Attack submarines: They were followed by the Type 093 class (NATO designation Shang), the first of which was commissioned in 2006. The Type 093 boats displace some 6,000 tons submerged and are about 110 metres (360 feet) long. Reflecting China’s strategic goal of asserting its presence against other navies in waters adjacent…

  • type 1 diabetes (medical disorder)

    immune system disorder: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes mellitus is the autoimmune form of diabetes and often arises in childhood. It is caused by the destruction of cells of the pancreatic tissue called the islets of Langerhans. Those cells normally produce insulin, the hormone that…

  • type 1 diabetes mellitus (medical disorder)

    immune system disorder: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes mellitus is the autoimmune form of diabetes and often arises in childhood. It is caused by the destruction of cells of the pancreatic tissue called the islets of Langerhans. Those cells normally produce insulin, the hormone that…

  • type 1 FGC (ritual surgical procedure)

    female genital cutting: The procedure: …defined four categories of FGC:

  • type 1 hemochromatosis (pathology)

    hemochromatosis: Type 1 is characterized by the appearance of symptoms in men between the ages of 40 and 60 and in women after menopause (when iron is no longer lost through menstruation and pregnancy). Type 2, also called juvenile hemochromatosis, is divided into types 2A and…

  • type 1 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (medical disorder)

    polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: Type 1 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome occurs in children or adolescents and is characterized primarily by hypoparathyroidism (deficiency of parathormone), infection with the fungal organism Candida albicans, which causes candidiasis of the skin or the mucous membrane of the mouth, and adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease). Affected…

  • type 1 Seyfert galaxy (astronomy)

    Seyfert galaxy: The nuclear spectra of Type 1 Seyfert galaxies show broad emission lines, which are indicative of a central concentration of hot gas that is expanding at speeds of up to thousands of kilometres per second. Type 2 Seyferts have strong emission lines, but they indicate more-modest velocities, less than…

  • type 2 diabetes (medical disorder)

    therapeutics: Hormones: …are also available for treating type 2 diabetes. The sulfonylureas are oral hypoglycemic agents used as adjuncts to diet and exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  • type 2 diabetes mellitus (medical disorder)

    therapeutics: Hormones: …are also available for treating type 2 diabetes. The sulfonylureas are oral hypoglycemic agents used as adjuncts to diet and exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  • Type 2 Diabetes: A Long-Ignored Epidemic

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health threat that rivals HIV/AIDS in its reach and deadly toll. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF), an alliance of diabetes associations in more than 160 countries, has described diabetes mellitus as a “global epidemic with devastating humanitarian, social,

  • type 2 FGC (ritual surgical procedure)

    female genital cutting: The procedure: Excision. Type 2 FGC involves the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora. It can also include the removal of the labia majora. Infibulation (also called Pharoanic circumcision). The vaginal opening is reduced by removing all or parts of the external…

  • type 2 hemochromatosis (pathology)

    hemochromatosis: Type 2, also called juvenile hemochromatosis, is divided into types 2A and 2B based on different genetic mutations and is characterized by the onset of symptoms in childhood that often lead to delayed puberty or sex hormone deficiencies. Type 3 is characterized by the onset…

  • type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (medical disorder)

    polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome occurs in adults and is characterized by adrenal insufficiency, type I diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or Graves disease, hypogonadism, and pernicious anemia. Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome may affect multiple members of a family, but the pattern of inheritance is not…

  • type 2 Seyfert galaxy (astronomy)

    Seyfert galaxy: Type 2 Seyferts have strong emission lines, but they indicate more-modest velocities, less than 1,000 km/sec. Seyfert galaxies appear normal in ordinary images but are extremely strong sources of infrared radiation. Moreover, many are powerful sources of radio energy and X-rays as well. Seyfert nuclei…

  • type 3 FGC (ritual surgical procedure)

    female genital cutting: The procedure: Infibulation (also called Pharoanic circumcision). The vaginal opening is reduced by removing all or parts of the external genitalia (the clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora) and sewing, pinning, or otherwise causing the remaining tissue to fuse together during the healing process. Those procedures that…

  • type 4 FGC (ritual surgical procedure)

    female genital cutting: The procedure: The operation is often performed without anesthesia and under conditions that are not hygienic. Its physiological repercussions generally increase with the amount of cutting;…

  • Type 41 Bugatti (automobile)

    Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti: Type 41 (“Golden Bugatti,” or “La Royale”), produced in the 1920s, was probably the most meticulously built of all cars and one of the most costly; only a few (six to eight) were constructed. The Bugatti firm did not survive very long after Ettore Bugatti’s…

  • Type 93 Long Lance (torpedo)

    naval ship: Destroyers and escort ships: These torpedoes were the Type 93 Long Lances, which proved extremely effective in the U.S.-Japanese naval battles around the Solomon Islands in 1942–43.

  • Type 99 Val (Japanese aircraft)

    air warfare: Ground attack: …and Helldiver and the Japanese Type 99 “Val” applied this maneuver to naval warfare. Dropping straight down from a cruising altitude of about 15,000 feet and releasing their bombs from below 2,000 feet, these planes destroyed or damaged many battleships and aircraft carriers. During the assault phase of amphibious landings,…

  • type A blood (biology)

    ABO blood group system: Persons may thus have type A, type B, type O, or type AB blood. The A, B, and O blood groups were first identified by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner in 1901. See blood group.

  • type A climate

    K?ppen climate classification: Type A climates: K?ppen’s A climates are found in a nearly unbroken belt around the Earth at low latitudes, mostly within 15° N and S. Their location within a region in which available net solar radiation is large and relatively constant from month to month…

  • type A orthomyxovirus

    antigenic drift: …drift is best characterized in influenza type A viruses. The viral coats, or outer surfaces, of these viruses contain two major antigenic glycoproteins—hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N)—which differ between influenza A subtypes (e.g., H1N1, H3N2, H5N1). The subtle mutations accumulated through antigenic drift of these subtypes give rise to different…

  • type AB blood (biology)

    ABO blood group system: …type B, type O, or type AB blood. The A, B, and O blood groups were first identified by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner in 1901. See blood group.

  • type area (geochronology)

    Cretaceous Period: Major subdivisions of the Cretaceous System: …Le Mans, France, as the type area. The Cenomanian Age is the interval of time that corresponds to the rocks, sediments, and fossils described in the type area for the Cenomanian Stage. For the Lower Cretaceous Series the stages are the Berriasian, Valanginian, Hauterivian, Barremian, Aptian, and Albian.

  • type B blood (biology)

    ABO blood group system: …may thus have type A, type B, type O, or type AB blood. The A, B, and O blood groups were first identified by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner in 1901. See blood group.

  • type B climate

    K?ppen climate classification: Type B climates: Arid and semiarid climates cover about a quarter of Earth’s land surface, mostly between 50° N and 50° S, but they are mainly found in the 15–30° latitude belt in both hemispheres. They exhibit low precipitation, great variability in precipitation from year…

  • type C climate

    K?ppen climate classification: Type C and D climates: Through a major portion of the middle and high latitudes (mostly from 25° to 70° N and S) lies a group of climates classified within the K?ppen scheme as C and D types. Most of these regions lie beneath the upper-level,…

  • type D climate

    K?ppen climate classification: Type C and D climates: Through a major portion of the middle and high latitudes (mostly from 25° to 70° N and S) lies a group of climates classified within the K?ppen scheme as C and D types. Most of these regions lie beneath the upper-level, mid-latitude westerlies…

  • type E climate

    K?ppen climate classification: Type E and H climates: K?ppen’s type E climates are controlled by the polar and arctic air masses of high latitudes (60° N and S and higher). These climates are characterized by low temperatures and precipitation and by a surprisingly great diversity of subtypes. In contrast,…

  • type h climate (meteorology)

    Highland climate, major climate type often added to the K?ppen classification, although it was not part of German botanist-climatologist Wladimir K?ppen’s original or revised systems. It contains all highland areas not easily categorized by other climate types. It is abbreviated H in the

  • type I CDG (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Congenital disorders of glycosylation: …common form of CDG (type I). Other enzymatic defects have been identified, but the biochemical bases of some CDG subtypes have not yet been determined. The classic form of CDG (type Ia) is characterized by low muscle tone in infancy, severe developmental delay, and brain abnormalities. Children with type…

  • type I cell (anatomy)

    human ear: Vestibule: …cells are of two types: type I cells have a rounded body enclosed by a nerve calyx, and type II cells have a cylindrical body with nerve endings at the base. They form a mosaic on the surface of the maculae, with the type I cells dominating in a curvilinear…

  • type I congenital disorder of glycosylation (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Congenital disorders of glycosylation: …common form of CDG (type I). Other enzymatic defects have been identified, but the biochemical bases of some CDG subtypes have not yet been determined. The classic form of CDG (type Ia) is characterized by low muscle tone in infancy, severe developmental delay, and brain abnormalities. Children with type…

  • type I diabetes (medical disorder)

    immune system disorder: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes mellitus is the autoimmune form of diabetes and often arises in childhood. It is caused by the destruction of cells of the pancreatic tissue called the islets of Langerhans. Those cells normally produce insulin, the hormone that…

  • type I diabetes mellitus (medical disorder)

    immune system disorder: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes mellitus is the autoimmune form of diabetes and often arises in childhood. It is caused by the destruction of cells of the pancreatic tissue called the islets of Langerhans. Those cells normally produce insulin, the hormone that…

  • type I error (statistics)

    statistics: Hypothesis testing: A type I error corresponds to rejecting H0 when H0 is actually true, and a type II error corresponds to accepting H0 when H0 is false. The probability of making a type I error is denoted by α, and the probability of making a type II…

  • type I glycogen storage disorder (pathology)

    Von Gierke’s disease, most common of a group of hereditary glycogen-storage diseases. It is inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. In von Gierke’s disease, the body’s metabolism of glycogen is blocked by the absence of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which regulates the release of the s

  • type I hypersensitivity (medicine)

    Atopy, type of hypersensitivity characterized by an immediate physiological reaction, with movement of fluid from the blood vessels into the tissues, upon exposure to an allergen. Atopy occurs mainly in persons with a familial tendency to allergic diseases; reaginic antibodies are found in the

  • type I interferon (biochemistry)

    interferon: …been classified into two types: type I includes the alpha and beta forms, and type II consists of the gamma form. This division is based on the type of cell that produces the interferon and the functional characteristics of the protein. Type I interferons can be produced by almost any…

  • type I muscle fibre (physiology)

    meat processing: Myoglobin content: These fibres are often called red fibres. Therefore, dark meat colour is a result of a relatively high concentration of slow-twitch fibres in the muscle of the animal.

  • type I OI (disease)

    osteogenesis imperfecta: …most common type of OI, type I, is normal at birth, but fractures occur over the following years; the frequency of fractures tends to diminish after puberty. The sclerae of the eyes may appear bluish because of their abnormal thinness, which permits the pigmentation of the choroid (the middle coat…

  • type I osteogenesis imperfecta (disease)

    osteogenesis imperfecta: …most common type of OI, type I, is normal at birth, but fractures occur over the following years; the frequency of fractures tends to diminish after puberty. The sclerae of the eyes may appear bluish because of their abnormal thinness, which permits the pigmentation of the choroid (the middle coat…

  • type I pneumocyte (cell)

    human respiratory system: The gas-exchange region: …thin, squamous cell type, the type I pneumocyte, covers between 92 and 95 percent of the gas-exchange surface; a second, more cuboidal cell type, the type II pneumocyte, covers the remaining surface. The type I cells form, together with the endothelial cells, the thin air–blood barrier for gas exchange; the…

  • type I restriction enzyme (biology)

    restriction enzyme: Types I and III enzymes are similar in that both restriction and methylase activities are carried out by one large enzyme complex, in contrast to the type II system, in which the restriction enzyme is independent of its methylase. Type II restriction enzymes also differ…

  • type I superconductor (physics)

    superconductivity: Critical field: …field apply to ordinary (so-called type I) superconductors. In the following section the behaviour of other (type II) superconductors is examined.

  • Type I supernova (astronomy)

    supernova: Type I supernovae: Type I supernovae can be divided into three subgroups—Ia, Ib, and Ic—on the basis of their spectra. The exact nature of the explosion mechanism in Type I generally is still uncertain, although Ia supernovae, at least, are thought to originate in binary…

  • Type I survivorship curve (statistics)

    survivorship curve: The Type I curve, illustrated by the large mammals, tracks organisms that tend to live long lives (low death rate and high survivorship rate); toward the end of their life expectancies, however, there is a dramatic increase in the death rate. The Type III curve, characteristic…

  • Type I tail (astronomy)

    comet: General considerations: The ion tail forms from the volatile gases in the coma when they are ionized by ultraviolet photons from the Sun and blown away by the solar wind. Ion tails point almost exactly away from the Sun and glow bluish in colour because of the presence…

  • type Ia CDG (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Congenital disorders of glycosylation: …classic form of CDG (type Ia) is characterized by low muscle tone in infancy, severe developmental delay, and brain abnormalities. Children with type Ia also have inverted nipples and an unusual distribution of fat, especially in the suprapubic region and buttocks. Other features include hypoglycemia, seizures, stroke-like episodes, retinal…

  • type Ia congenital disorder of glycosylation (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Congenital disorders of glycosylation: …classic form of CDG (type Ia) is characterized by low muscle tone in infancy, severe developmental delay, and brain abnormalities. Children with type Ia also have inverted nipples and an unusual distribution of fat, especially in the suprapubic region and buttocks. Other features include hypoglycemia, seizures, stroke-like episodes, retinal…

  • Type Ia supernova (astronomy)

    dark energy: …objects of known luminosity like Type Ia supernovas. Dark energy was discovered in 1998 with this method by two international teams that included American astronomers Adam Riess (the author of this article) and Saul Perlmutter and Australian astronomer Brian Schmidt. The two teams used eight

  • type Ib congenital disorder of glycosylation (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Congenital disorders of glycosylation: …rare type Ib disease (phosphomannose isomerase deficiency), in which oral administration of mannose may reverse symptoms in some cases.

  • type II cell (anatomy)

    human ear: Vestibule: …by a nerve calyx, and type II cells have a cylindrical body with nerve endings at the base. They form a mosaic on the surface of the maculae, with the type I cells dominating in a curvilinear area (the striola) near the centre of the macula and the cylindrical cells…

  • type II diabetes (medical disorder)

    therapeutics: Hormones: …are also available for treating type 2 diabetes. The sulfonylureas are oral hypoglycemic agents used as adjuncts to diet and exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  • type II diabetes mellitus (medical disorder)

    therapeutics: Hormones: …are also available for treating type 2 diabetes. The sulfonylureas are oral hypoglycemic agents used as adjuncts to diet and exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  • type II error (statistics)

    statistics: Hypothesis testing: … is actually true, and a type II error corresponds to accepting H0 when H0 is false. The probability of making a type I error is denoted by α, and the probability of making a type II error is denoted by β.

  • type II hyperlipemia (medical disorder)

    Familial hypercholesterolemia, an inherited metabolic disease that is caused by deficiency of the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor on the surface of cells in the liver and other organs. As a result, LDL cholesterol is not moved into the cells and thus remains in the blood, eventually

  • type II hypersensitivity (pathology)

    immune system disorder: Type II hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions of this type, also known as cytotoxic reactions, occur when cells within the body are destroyed by antibodies, with or without activation of the entire complement system. When antibody binds to an antigen on the surface of a target cell,…

  • type II interferon (biochemistry)

    interferon: …alpha and beta forms, and type II consists of the gamma form. This division is based on the type of cell that produces the interferon and the functional characteristics of the protein. Type I interferons can be produced by almost any cell upon stimulation by a virus; their primary function…

  • type II muscle fibre (physiology)

    fish processing: Structure of skeletal muscles: The high percentage of white fibres allows fish to swim with sudden, rapid movements and gives the meat its white colour. These fibres primarily metabolize glucose, a simple sugar released from muscle glycogen stores, for energy production through anaerobic (i.e., in the absence of oxygen) glycolysis. Therefore, white fibres…

  • type II OI (disease)

    osteogenesis imperfecta: In type II OI, the most severe form of the disease, stillbirth is common, or fractures are evident at birth; severe crippling often occurs, and survival to adulthood is uncommon. Type III OI causes symptoms that are similar to type I but is more severe. Type…

  • type II osteogenesis imperfecta (disease)

    osteogenesis imperfecta: In type II OI, the most severe form of the disease, stillbirth is common, or fractures are evident at birth; severe crippling often occurs, and survival to adulthood is uncommon. Type III OI causes symptoms that are similar to type I but is more severe. Type…

  • type II pneumocyte (cell)

    human respiratory system: The gas-exchange region: …more cuboidal cell type, the type II pneumocyte, covers the remaining surface. The type I cells form, together with the endothelial cells, the thin air–blood barrier for gas exchange; the type II cells are secretory cells. Type II pneumocytes produce a surface-tension-reducing material, the pulmonary surfactant, which spreads on the…

  • type II restriction endonuclease (biology)

    nucleic acid: Nucleases: Type II restriction endonucleases always cleave at or near their recognition sites. They produce small, well-defined fragments of DNA that help to characterize genes and genomes and that produce recombinant DNAs. Fragments of DNA produced by restriction endonucleases can be moved from one organism to…

  • type II restriction enzyme (biology)

    nucleic acid: Nucleases: Type II restriction endonucleases always cleave at or near their recognition sites. They produce small, well-defined fragments of DNA that help to characterize genes and genomes and that produce recombinant DNAs. Fragments of DNA produced by restriction endonucleases can be moved from one organism to…

  • type II superconductor (physics)

    superconductivity: Critical field: …the behaviour of other (type II) superconductors is examined.

  • Type II supernova (astronomy)

    supernova: Type II supernovae: The so-called classic explosion, associated with Type II supernovae, has as progenitor a very massive star (a Population I star) of at least eight solar masses that is at the end of its active lifetime. (These are seen only in spiral galaxies,…

  • Type II survivorship curve (statistics)

    survivorship curve: In contrast, the Type II curve considers birds, mice, and other organisms characterized by a relatively constant mortality or survivorship rate throughout their life expectancies.

  • Type II tail (comet)

    comet: General considerations: …glowing comae and their long dust tails and ion tails. Comets can appear at random from any direction and provide a fabulous and ever-changing display for many months as they move in highly eccentric orbits around the Sun.

  • type III hyperlipemia (medical disorder)

    metabolic disease: Lipoprotein disorders: Similar symptoms are present in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (hyperlipoproteinemia type III), which may be inherited as an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant condition (that is, if the trait has been inherited from both parents). In this disorder, which manifests in adulthood, increased blood cholesterol and triglycerides are present due to an…

  • type III hypersensitivity (medicine)

    immune system disorder: Type III hypersensitivity: Type III, or immune-complex, reactions are characterized by tissue damage caused by the activation of complement in response to antigen-antibody (immune) complexes that are deposited in tissues. The classes of antibody involved are the same ones that participate in type II reactions—IgG…

  • type III restriction enzyme (biology)

    restriction enzyme: Types I and III enzymes are similar in that both restriction and methylase activities are carried out by one large enzyme complex, in contrast to the type II system, in which the restriction enzyme is independent of its methylase. Type II restriction enzymes also differ from types I…

  • Type III survivorship curve (statistics)

    survivorship curve: The Type III curve, characteristic of small mammals, fishes, and invertebrates, is the opposite: it describes organisms with a high death rate (or low survivorship rate) immediately following birth. In contrast, the Type II curve considers birds, mice, and other organisms characterized by a relatively constant…

  • type IV hypersensitivity (medicine)

    immune system disorder: Type IV hypersensitivity: Type IV hypersensitivity is a cell-mediated immune reaction. In other words, it does not involve the participation of antibodies but is due primarily to the interaction of T cells with antigens. Reactions of this kind depend on the presence in the circulation…

  • type IV restriction enzyme (biology)

    restriction enzyme: Type IV restriction enzymes cleave only methylated DNA and show weak sequence specificity.

  • type metal

    Type metal, alloy of lead, antimony, and tin used to make type characters for printing. By varying the proportions of the metals, the desired properties are produced for different kinds of typecasting and printing processes. The use of metal type began in the first half of the 15th century (see

  • type name (literature)

    Type name, in dramatic practice, name given to a character to ensure that the personality may be instantly ascertained. In England the allegorical morality plays of the late Middle Ages presented characters personifying, for example, the seven deadly sins—being named Envy, Sloth, Lust, and so

  • type O blood (biology)

    ABO blood group system: …have type A, type B, type O, or type AB blood. The A, B, and O blood groups were first identified by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner in 1901. See blood group.

  • type specimen (biology)

    taxonomy: Verification and validation by type specimens: The determination of the exact organism designated by a particular name usually requires more than the mere reading of the description or the definition of the taxon to which the name applies. New forms, which may have become known since the description was written,…

  • Type VIIC (German submarine)

    submarine: World War II: The Type VIIC variant was 220.25 feet long, displaced 769 tons on the surface, and was powered by diesel-electric machinery at a speed of 17 knots on the surface and 7.5 knots submerged. Armament consisted of one 90-millimetre deck gun, various antiaircraft guns, and five torpedo…

  • Type XVII (German submarine)

    submarine: World War II: …many delays, the first Walter-propelled Type XVII combat submarines were completed and could reach 25 knots underwater for brief periods, and a submerged run of 20 knots for 5 12 hours was achieved on trials. But these submarines, like the Type XXI, were not ready for full-scale operations when the…

  • Type XXI (German submarine)

    submarine: World War II: …the war was the German Type XXI, a 250-foot, 1,600-ton craft that could attain 17 12 knots submerged for more than an hour, could travel at six knots underwater for two days, or could “creep” at slower speeds for four days. These submarines were fitted with snorkel devices (see below),…

  • type, movable

    Shen Kuo: …compass, the first description of movable type, and a fairly accurate explanation of the origin of fossils. The Mengxi bitan also contains Shen’s observations on such varied subjects as mathematics, astronomy, atmospheric phenomena, cartography, optics, and medicine. Shen produced a number of works, including commentaries on the Confucian Classics, atlases,…

  • type-A behavioural pattern (biology)

    stress: Types of stress and effects: …stressful behavioral patterns designated “Type A.” These patterns are reflected in a style of life characterized by impatience and a sense of time urgency, hard-driving competitiveness, and preoccupation with vocational and related deadlines.

  • typecasting machine (printing)

    Typesetting machine, basic element in modern letterpress printing. The problem of mechanizing typesetting was solved in the 19th century by devising machines that could cast type from matrices, or molds. The first to be successful was that of Ottmar Mergenthaler, German-born American inventor,

  • Typee (novel by Melville)

    Typee, first novel by Herman Melville, published in London in 1846 as Narrative of a Four Months’ Residence Among the Natives of a Valley of the Marquesas Islands. Initially regarded as a travel narrative, the novel is based on Melville’s monthlong adventure as a guest-captive of the Typee people,

  • Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life (novel by Melville)

    Typee, first novel by Herman Melville, published in London in 1846 as Narrative of a Four Months’ Residence Among the Natives of a Valley of the Marquesas Islands. Initially regarded as a travel narrative, the novel is based on Melville’s monthlong adventure as a guest-captive of the Typee people,

  • typeface (printing)

    Giambattista Bodoni: …printer who designed several modern typefaces, one of which bears his name and is in common use today.

  • types A, AB, B, and O blood (biology)

    ABO blood group system, the classification of human blood based on the inherited properties of red blood cells (erythrocytes) as determined by the presence or absence of the antigens A and B, which are carried on the surface of the red cells. Persons may thus have type A, type B, type O, or type AB

  • Types of Greek Coins, The (work by Gardner)

    Percy Gardner: Among his best-known works are The Types of Greek Coins (1883), important for demonstrating the ways in which coinage reflects the history of Greek cities and the development of Greek art, Samos and Samian Coins (1882), and New Chapters in Greek Art (1926). His Principles of Greek Art (1913), an…

  • types, theory of (logic)

    Theory of types, in logic, a theory introduced by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell in his Principia Mathematica (1910–13) to deal with logical paradoxes arising from the unrestricted use of predicate functions as variables. Arguments of three kinds can be incorporated as variables: (1) In

  • types, theory of (organic chemistry)

    Charles Gerhardt: Gerhardt’s theory of types: …work lay in his 1853 theory of types, the last of the ongoing attempts at organic classification by Laurent and Gerhardt. In 1846 Laurent had suggested that alcohol and ether could be seen as water in which hydrogen was replaced by ethyl residues.

  • typesetter (printing)

    Typesetting machine, basic element in modern letterpress printing. The problem of mechanizing typesetting was solved in the 19th century by devising machines that could cast type from matrices, or molds. The first to be successful was that of Ottmar Mergenthaler, German-born American inventor,

  • typesetting (printing)

    Typesetting, the setting of type for use in any of a variety of printing processes. See

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