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  • Twining, Nathan F. (United States Air Force officer)

    Nathan F. Twining, U.S. Air Force officer who played a large part in directing the air war against Japan during World War II. A 1918 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Twining became a U.S. army pilot in 1924 and gained further experience thereafter as a combat unit commander

  • Twining, Nathan Farragut (United States Air Force officer)

    Nathan F. Twining, U.S. Air Force officer who played a large part in directing the air war against Japan during World War II. A 1918 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Twining became a U.S. army pilot in 1924 and gained further experience thereafter as a combat unit commander

  • Twinkie defense (law)

    Harvey Milk: …was derided as the “Twinkie defense” by the satirist Paul Krassner while reporting on the trial for the San Francisco Bay Guardian. White’s conviction on the lesser charge of voluntary manslaughter sparked an uproar in the city that was subsequently termed the “White Night Riot.” Numerous books and films…

  • twinning (crystallography)

    Twinning, in crystallography, regular intergrowth of two or more crystal grains so that each grain is a reflected image of its neighbour or is rotated with respect to it. Other grains added to the twin form crystals that often appear symmetrically joined, sometimes in a starlike or crosslike shape.

  • twinning (biology)

    multiple birth: Twins and twinning: Twinning refers to the process that leads to the production of more than one offspring at one birth. In humans the most frequent type of twinning results in the birth of two babies (twins) at once, although repetition of twinning may lead to triplets,…

  • twinning axis (crystallography)

    twinning: …repetitions rotated about a common twinning axis, or both. Such twinning planes and axes have simple relations to the crystallographic axes of the crystal and are governed by some fundamental laws; e.g., because the resulting twin would be identical to the original crystal, no plane of symmetry in the simple…

  • twinning plane (crystallography)

    twinning: …reflected images along a common twinning plane, repetitions rotated about a common twinning axis, or both. Such twinning planes and axes have simple relations to the crystallographic axes of the crystal and are governed by some fundamental laws; e.g., because the resulting twin would be identical to the original crystal,…

  • Twinning, Alexander Catlin (American engineer)

    refrigeration: Twinning, in 1856. Shortly afterward, an Australian, James Harrison, examined the refrigerators used by Gorrie and Twinning and introduced vapour-compression refrigeration to the brewing and meat-packing industries. A somewhat more complex system was developed by Ferdinand Carré of France in 1859. Unlike earlier vapour-compression machines,…

  • Twins (American baseball team)

    Minnesota Twins, American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, that plays in the American League (AL). The Twins originally played in Washington, D.C. (1901–60), and were known as the Senators before relocating to Minneapolis in 1961. The franchise has won three World Series

  • Twins (constellation and astrological sign)

    Gemini, (Latin: “Twins”) in astronomy, zodiacal constellation lying in the northern sky between Cancer and Taurus, at about 7 hours right ascension and 22° north declination. Its brightest stars are Castor and Pollux (Alpha and Beta Geminorum); Pollux is the brighter of the two, with a magnitude of

  • Twins (American Indian culture heroes)

    Native American literature: Southwest: …pair of culture heroes, the Twins, also called the Little War Gods, who help stabilize the surface of the Earth and teach the people many features of their culture, including ceremonials. When the people were weary during the migration, powerful spirit-beings known as kachinas came and danced until someone made…

  • Twins (book series by Perkins)

    Lucy Fitch Perkins: …books, best remembered for her Twins series of storybooks that ranged in setting among different cultures and times.

  • Twins (play by Plautus)

    William Shakespeare: The early romantic comedies: …play called the Menaechmi (Twins). The story of one twin (Antipholus) looking for his lost brother, accompanied by a clever servant (Dromio) whose twin has also disappeared, results in a farce of mistaken identities that also thoughtfully explores issues of identity and self-knowing. The young women of the play,…

  • Twins Seven Seven (Nigerian artist)

    Mbari Mbayo Club: Twins Seven Seven was a dancer, drummer, and graphic artist; his themes were imaginative variations on Yoruba mythology and legend and were always full of humour. Jimoh Buraimoh was known for his mosaic compositions made with local beads, potsherds, or stones. Samuel Ojo worked in…

  • twinship (religion)

    African religions: Mythology: Twinship is a predominant theme in much West African myth and ritual, because the human body is conceived as the twin of the cosmic body. According to the cosmogony shared by the Dogon, Bambara, and Malinke peoples of Mali, the primordial beings were twins, and…

  • twintail (arthropod)

    dipluran: Members of the family Campodeidae have two long slender abdominal cerci that are sensitive to vibrations.

  • twirler moth (insect)

    Gelechiid moth, (family Gelechiidae), any of more than 4,500 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), some of which are important pests. The brown adults have gray or silver markings and average 19 mm (34 inch) in wingspan. The hindwings have somewhat concave outer margins and pointed tips, in

  • Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes, Sir Ranulph, 3rd Baronet (British adventurer and writer)

    Sir Ranulph Fiennes, British adventurer, pioneering polar explorer, and writer, who, among his many exploits, in 1979–82 led the first north-south surface circumnavigation of the world (i.e., along a meridian). Fiennes inherited the baronetcy at birth, as his father, an army officer, had already

  • twist (dance)

    Twist, vigorous dance that developed in the early 1960s in the United States and became internationally popular after its adoption in fashionable circles. The twist’s characteristic hip, arm, and leg movements have been described as “drying the buttocks with an imaginary towel while grinding out

  • Twist and Shout (song by Medley and Russell)

    the Isley Brothers: …of the Top Notes’ “Twist and Shout” remained on Billboard’s pop chart for 11 weeks.

  • twist conformation (chemistry)

    hydrocarbon: Cycloalkanes: designated as chair, boat, and skew (or twist), are essentially free of angle strain. Of these three the chair is the most stable, mainly because it has a staggered arrangement of all its bonds. The boat and skew conformations lack perfect staggering of bonds and are destabilized by torsional strain.…

  • twist drill (tool)

    drill: For general-purpose twist drills the helix angle is about 32°. The angle formed by the two sides of the tapering point is 118° for standard drills, while for drilling tough metals, a flatter point with a 135° angle is recommended. The peripheral portion of the drill body…

  • twist lift (ice skating)

    figure skating: Lifts: The twist lift requires both partners to skate backward as the man lifts his partner over his head and tosses her into the air. The airborne woman completes up to three rotations before being caught at the waist by the man and smoothly placed back on…

  • Twist, Kid (American gangster)

    Abe Reles, American killer and gangster who became a celebrated police informer in 1940–41. The son of Austrian–Jewish immigrants, Reles stole his nickname of Kid Twist from a gangster idol and pursued a life of crime. By the age of 34 in 1940, he had been arrested 42 times (six times for murder)

  • Twist, Oliver (fictional character)

    Oliver Twist, fictional character, a young orphan who is the hero of Charles Dickens’s Oliver Twist (1837–39), a novel that illustrates how poverty nurtures

  • Twist, The (song by Ballard)

    Hank Ballard: He also wrote “The Twist” (1959), which sparked a dance craze in the United States.

  • Twisted (film by Kaufman [2003])

    Philip Kaufman: Films in the 21st century: After Twisted (2004), which starred Ashley Judd as a San Francisco homicide inspector suspected of being a serial killer, Kaufman made the television movie Hemingway & Gellhorn (2012). The HBO production featured Clive Owen as the mercurial author and Nicole Kidman as the equally formidable journalist…

  • twisted moss (plant)

    Screw moss, any member of the moss genus Tortula (subclass Bryidae), which form yellow-green or reddish brown cushions on walls, soil, rocks, trees, and sand dunes in the Northern Hemisphere. About 25 of the 144 species are native to North America; the best-known species in both North America and

  • twisted sun orchid (plant)

    sun orchid: …lemon orchid (Thelymitra antennifera), the twisted sun orchid (T. flexuosa), the custard orchid (T. violosa), and the scented sun orchid (T. avistata) are common Australian species.

  • twisted whitlow grass (plant)

    whitlow grass: Twisted, or hoary, whitlow grass (D. incana) and the smaller D. norvegica have leaves on the stems and white flowers with notched petals.

  • twisted-nematic cell (physics)

    liquid crystal display: Twisted nematic displays: A TN cell, as shown in the figure, consists of upper and lower substrate plates separated by a narrow gap (typically 5–10 micrometres; 1 micrometre = 10?6 metre) filled with a layer of liquid crystal. The substrate plates are normally transparent glass and carry patterned electrically…

  • Twister (film by Bont [1996])

    Helen Hunt: That changed in 1996 with Twister. The special-effects-driven movie about tornado chasers was a blockbuster, grossing more than $200 million. As offers for other big-screen ventures poured in, Hunt chose the unlikely romantic comedy As Good As It Gets. Starring opposite Jack Nicholson, who played a neurotic and bigoted writer,…

  • twisting (textile process)

    Twisting, in yarn and rope production, process that binds fibres or yarns together in a continuous strand, accomplished in spinning or playing operations. The direction of the twist may be to the right, described as Z twist, or to the left, described as S twist. Single yarn is formed by twisting

  • twisting dive (sport)

    diving: …classification is that of the twisting dives, in which the diver rotates the body on its long axis while performing one of the other four types of dives—as in a forward 112 somersault with 3 twists. The five voluntary dives comprise one selected from each group.

  • twitch (physiology)

    muscle: Twitch and tetanus responses: …a single stimulation, called a twitch, than the tension record suggests.

  • Twitchell, Paul (American religious leader)

    ECKANKAR: …was founded in 1965 by Paul Twitchell (c. 1908–71).

  • Twitchell, Ralph E. (American historian)

    flag of New Mexico: …Mexico, designed by the historian Ralph E. Twitchell and adopted in 1915, was typical of American vexillography (flag design). On a blue background it included the name of the state, its order of admission to the Union (47), the state seal, and a U.S. flag.

  • Twitchett, Denis Crispin (British historian)

    Denis Crispin Twitchett, British historian (born Sept. 23, 1925, London, Eng.—died Feb. 24, 2006, Cambridge, Eng.), was one of the world’s foremost scholars of early Chinese history, most notably the T’ang dynasty (ad 618–907), and principal editor of the comprehensive 15-volume Cambridge History o

  • Twitter (microblogging service)

    Twitter, online microblogging service for distributing short messages among groups of recipients via personal computer or mobile telephone. Twitter incorporates aspects of social networking Web sites, such as Myspace and Facebook, with instant messaging technologies to create networks of users who

  • Twitter Takes on the World: 140 Characters at a Time

    The question “Do you Twitter?” was asked throughout 2009 by users of the Web’s most popular microblogging service. Whereas a traditional Web log, or blog, might be updated with long entries once or twice a day, a Twitter user might post dozens of short messages of up to 140 characters—called

  • Twittering Machine (work by Klee)
  • Twitty, Conway (American singer)

    Conway Twitty, (HAROLD LLOYD JENKINS), U.S. singer (born Sept. 1, 1933, Friars Point, Miss.—died June 5, 1993, Springfield, Mo.), was a successful songwriter and rockabilly star who struck gold with the 1958 pop recording "It’s Only Make Believe" and, when his star began to wane in the early 1

  • Twixt (film by Coppola [2011])

    Francis Ford Coppola: Later work: Twixt (2011), a thriller starring Val Kilmer, fared much less well critically and commercially.

  • two (number)

    number symbolism: 2: The number 2 symbolizes many of the basic dualities: me/you, male/female, yes/no, alive/dead, left/right, yin/yang, and so on. Dualities are common in human approaches to the world, probably because of our preference for two-valued logic—yet another duality, true/false. Although 2 was female to the…

  • Two African Tales (work by Nicol)

    Davidson Nicol: …short stories were published in Two African Tales (1965) and The Truly Married Woman, and Other Stories (1965), under the name Abioseh Nicol. They centre upon life in the government service and upon the interaction of Africans with colonial administrators in preindependent Sierra Leone. His short stories and poems appeared…

  • Two Against Nature (album by Steely Dan)

    Steely Dan: …in the studio working on Two Against Nature (2000). The well-crafted album, with its familiar but updated sound, silenced any doubts about the duo’s comeback, and it earned the Grammy Award for album of the year. That release was quickly followed by the equally accomplished Everything Must Go (2003). Becker…

  • Two and a Half Men (American television series)

    Kathy Bates: Television: …her 2012 guest appearance on Two and a Half Men, she received her first Emmy Award. In 2013 she joined American Horror Story for its third season (Coven), portraying the real-life Madame Delphine LaLaurie, a socialite who tortured and killed slaves in antebellum New Orleans. The role earned her an…

  • Two Arabian Knights (film Milestone [1927])

    Lewis Milestone: Early work: Two years later he directed Two Arabian Knights, for which he later won the first and only Academy Award for best direction of a comedy picture. (In 1930 the comedy and drama categories were merged.)

  • Two Books (work by Peresvetov)

    Ivan Semenovich Peresvetov: In 1549 he presented his Two Books (Dve Knigi) to Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. These works were ostensibly an account of the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II but actually provided a covert, allegorical denunciation of the privileges still enjoyed by the boyars. Peresvetov’s support of the…

  • Two Books of the Elements of Universal Jurisprudence (work by Pufendorf)

    Samuel, baron von Pufendorf: Early life and works: …first work on natural law, Two Books of the Elements of Universal Jurisprudence (1660), in which he further developed the ideas of Grotius and Hobbes. The elector palatine Karl Ludwig, to whom the work was dedicated, created a chair of natural law for Pufendorf in the arts faculty at the…

  • Two Brothers (work by Pratolini)

    Vasco Pratolini: Cronaca familiare (1947; Two Brothers) is a tender story of Pratolini’s dead brother. Cronache di poveri amanti (1947; A Tale of Poor Lovers), which has been called one of the finest works of Italian Neorealism, became an immediate best-seller and won two international literary prizes. The novel gives…

  • Two Brothers (sarcophagus)

    Western sculpture: Sarcophagi: …the sarcophagi called the “Two Brothers” (Museo Cristiano), that of Junius Bassus, dated 359, another with columns (both in the grotto of St. Peter’s, Rome), that of the “Three Good Shepherds” (Vatican Museums), and, finally, one in S. Sebastiano, Rome, which contains several rare scenes from the story of…

  • Two Brothers, War of the (Portuguese history)

    Portugal: The War of the Two Brothers: John VI acknowledged the independence of Brazil in 1825, assuming pro forma the imperial title and then yielding it to Pedro. However, when John died (March 10, 1826), no provision had been made for the succession except that his…

  • Two Callas (photograph by Cunningham)

    Imogen Cunningham: …favour of images such as Two Callas (c. 1929), which conveys a sensuous delight in nature.

  • Two Cantos of Mutabilitie: Which, both for Forme and Matter, appeare to be parcell of some following Booke of the Faerie Queene, under the legend of Constancie (poems by Spenser)

    Mutabilitie Cantos, two poems and two stanzas of a third by Edmund Spenser. They are generally considered to constitute a fragmentary Book VII of The Faerie Queene. They were first published with the folio edition of The Faerie Queene in 1609. The Mutabilitie Cantos employ the new nine-line stanza

  • Two Cities (religious concept)

    millennialism: Patristic and medieval millennialism: …the notion of the “Two Cities.” There was a “heavenly city,” the celestial Jerusalem where the millennium was already manifest, and an “earthly city,” the terrestrial Babylon where the millennium was not visible. These two cities would coexist as a corpus permixtum (“mixed body”) in every man and in…

  • Two Cities, The (work by Otto of Freising)

    Otto Of Freising: Otto’s Chronica sive historia de duabus civitatibus is a history of the world from the beginning to 1146. Following St. Augustine, it interprets all secular history as a conflict between the civitas Dei (“the realm of God”) and the world; and it views its contemporary period…

  • Two Crowded Hours (film by Powell [1931])

    Michael Powell: He directed his first film, Two Crowded Hours, in 1931. During the 1930s he directed over 20 low-budget, quickly made films before producer Alexander Korda teamed him with Hungarian-born screenwriter Emeric Pressburger on The Spy in Black (1939; U.S. title U-Boat 29). It was the beginning of a long stimulating…

  • Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, The (work by Snow)

    C.P. Snow: …book about science and literature; The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution (1959) and its sequel, Second Look (1964), constitute Snow’s most widely known—and widely attacked—position. He argued that practitioners of either of the two disciplines know little, if anything, about the other and that communication is difficult, if not…

  • Two Daughters (film by Ray)

    Satyajit Ray: Teen Kanya (1961; “Three Daughters,” English-language title Two Daughters) is a varied trilogy of short films about women, while Ghare Baire (1984; The Home and the World) is a sombre study of Bengal’s first revolutionary movement, set in 1907–08 during the period of British rule.

  • Two Days, One Night (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [2014])

    Marion Cotillard: …Deux jours, une nuit (2014; Two Days, One Night), she evoked the struggles of a young woman attempting to save her job by persuading her colleagues to forfeit their bonuses. Her moving performance earned her an Academy Award nomination for best actress. Cotillard then portrayed the murderous wife of the…

  • Two Days, The (work by Cherubini)

    Luigi Cherubini: …theme: Les Deux Journées (1800; The Two Days, also known as The Water Carrier from its German title, Der Wassertr?ger). This opera is considered by many to be Cherubini’s masterpiece.

  • two Dionysii, affair of the (Roman Catholic history)

    Saint Dionysius: …this became known as “the affair of the two Dionysii.” Semantics was at the root of the difficulty; Greek and Roman understandings of the same terms differed. The discussions at the synod helped to prepare the way for the theology of the Nicene Creed (325). The bishop cleared himself…

  • Two Dogmas of Empiricism (work by Quine)

    philosophy of language: Quine: In his seminal paper “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” (1951), Quine rejected, as what he considered the first dogma, the idea that there is a sharp division between logic and empirical science. He argued, in a vein reminiscent of the later Wittgenstein, that there is nothing in the logical structure…

  • Two Emperors’ Manifesto (European history)

    World War I: Czechs, Yugoslavs, and Poles: …by Germany; and when the Two Emperors’ Manifesto of Nov. 5, 1916, provided for the constitution of an independent Polish kingdom, it was clear that this kingdom would consist only of Polish territory conquered from Russia, not of any German or Austrian territory. When, after the March Revolution of 1917,…

  • Two English Girls (film by Truffaut [1971])

    Jean-Pierre Léaud: …Anglaises et le continent (1971; Two English Girls; Anne and Muriel), and La Nuit américaine (1973; Day for Night).

  • Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia, 1828–31 (book by Sturt)

    Charles Sturt: …in England, where he wrote Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia, 1828–31 (1833). The book led to the choice of South Australia as the site for a new British settlement.

  • Two for the Road (film by Donen [1967])

    Two for the Road, American dramatic film, released in 1967, that employed an innovative disjointed timeline to reveal the history of a marriage. It pivoted on the considerable onscreen chemistry between leads Audrey Hepburn and Albert Finney. The story is told in a series of vignettes, which

  • Two for the Seesaw (film by Wise [1962])

    Robert Wise: Films of the 1960s: The romantic comedy Two for the Seesaw (1962), based on the 1958 play by William Gibson, was considerably less successful, despite the unlikely chemistry generated by Robert Mitchum and Shirley MacLaine. Wise then went to England to make the suspenseful psychological thriller The Haunting (1963). Julie Harris

  • Two Gentlemen of Verona (work by Guare)

    John Guare: Two Gentlemen of Verona (1972; with Mel Shapiro), a rock-musical modernization of William Shakespeare’s comedy, won the Tony and New York Drama Critics Circle awards for best musical of 1971–72. Guare dealt with such issues as success—in Marco Polo Sings a Solo (1977) and Rich…

  • Two Gentlemen of Verona, The (work by Shakespeare)

    The Two Gentlemen of Verona, an early play in five acts by William Shakespeare, written perhaps in 1590–94 and published in the First Folio of 1623 from an authorial manuscript. It is a pastoral story about two young friends who travel to Milan, where they are educated in courtly behaviour. The

  • Two Georges, The (novel by Dreyfuss and Turtledove)

    Richard Dreyfuss: …released a critically praised novel, The Two Georges (1996), a humorous look at what American life might be like had the United States not won the Revolutionary War.

  • Two Girls, Fat and Thin (novel by Gaitskill)

    American literature: The influence of Raymond Carver: … in her witty satiric novel Two Girls, Fat and Thin (1991), written under the influences of Nabokov and Mary McCarthy. Lorrie Moore published rich, idiosyncratic stories as densely textured as novels. Deborah Eisenberg, Amy Bloom, Antonya Nelson, and Thom Jones also helped make the last years of the 20th century…

  • Two Landowners (work by Turgenev)

    Ivan Turgenev: Sketches of rural life: …these, the most important are “Two Landowners,” a study of two types of despotic serf-owners, and “Hamlet of Shchigrovsky Province,” which contains one of the most profound and poignant analyses of the problem of the “superfluous man.” Far more significant are the sketches that tell of Turgenev’s encounters with peasants…

  • Two Little Misogynists (work by Spitteler)

    Carl Spitteler: …also wrote two masterly stories—Die M?dchenfeinde (1907; Two Little Misogynists, 1922), a childhood idyll derived from his own experience; and Conrad der Leutnant (1898), a dramatically finished Novelle in which he approached the Naturalism he otherwise hated. His novel Imago (1906) so sharply reflected his inner conflict between a…

  • Two Lives (film by Maas and Kaufmann [2012])

    Liv Ullmann: …Darkly) and Zwei leben (2012; Two Lives). In addition, Ullmann directed the films Sofie (1992); Kristin Lavransdatter (1995); Trol?sa (1999; Faithless), for which Bergman wrote the screenplay; and Miss Julie (2014), which she adapted from August Strindberg’s play of the same name.

  • Two Lovers (painting by Reza ?Abbasi)

    E?fahān school: His painting Two Lovers (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) is among the most accomplished works of the E?fahān school. Although there is an element of stylization, the exquisiteness and delicacy of the hands, faces, and costumes infuse the painting with an impressionistic quality. The curved,…

  • Two Micron All Sky Survey (astronomical survey)

    Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), astronomical survey conducted from 1997 to 2001 of the entire sky at near-infrared wavelengths. Two automated 1.3-metre (4.3-foot) telescopes were used. One was at Mount Hopkins, Arizona; the other was at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The

  • Two Mrs. Grenvilles, The (television miniseries)

    Claudette Colbert: …and her last major project, The Two Mrs. Grenvilles (1987), for which she won a best supporting actress Golden Globe). In 1989 she was honoured with a Kennedy Center award for lifetime achievement.

  • Two Mules for Sister Sara (film by Siegel [1970])

    Budd Boetticher: Late work: …the story for Don Siegel’s Two Mules for Sister Sara (1970), which starred Clint Eastwood. Arruza was finally released in 1972. His last directorial credit was the documentary My Kingdom For… (1985), which focuses on horses. Boetticher also appeared as a judge in the 1988 crime drama Tequila Sunrise.

  • Two New Sciences (work by Galileo)

    Galileo: Galileo’s Copernicanism: …scienze attenenti alla meccanica (Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences). Galileo here treated for the first time the bending and breaking of beams and summarized his mathematical and experimental investigations of motion, including the law of falling bodies and the parabolic path of projectiles as a result of the mixing…

  • Two Nights (novel by Reichs)

    Kathy Reichs: Reichs’s other fictional works included Two Nights (2017), about a reclusive former police officer who tries to find a missing teenager. She also wrote (with her son, Brendan Reichs) the young adult series Virals, which chronicles the adventures of Tory Brennan, the grandniece of Temperance Brennan.

  • Two Noble Kinsmen, The (play by Shakespeare and Fletcher)

    The Two Noble Kinsmen, tragicomedy in five acts by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher. The play was probably written and first performed about 1612–14. It was published in quarto in 1634 with a title page identifying Fletcher and Shakespeare as joint authors. It was included in the second folio

  • Two Nudes (work by Picasso)

    Pablo Picasso: The move to Paris and the Rose Period: …form, especially in 1906 (Two Nudes; La Toilette). His Portrait of Gertrude Stein (1906) and a Self-Portrait with Palette (1906) show that development as well as the influence of his discovery of archaic Iberian sculpture.

  • Two Offers, The (work by Harper)

    Frances E.W. Harper: …various periodicals; her story “The Two Offers” in the Anglo-African Magazine in September–October 1859 was said to be the first published by an African American author.

  • Two Paths, The (work by Ruskin)

    John Ruskin: Cultural criticism: …Art and Policy” (published in The Two Paths, 1859), a text in which both the radical-conservative temper and the symbolic method of his later cultural criticism are clearly established. Beginning as an art critic, Ruskin contrasts the exquisite sculptured iron grilles of medieval Verona with the mass-produced metal security railings…

  • Two People (work by Dreyer)

    Carl Theodor Dreyer: …Danish cinema; Tv? m?nniskor (1945; Two People); and Ordet (1955; The Word), winner of the Grand Prize at the Venice Film Festival, dramatizes the complex relationship between social good and spiritual good in an ambiguous story of a hardworking, down-to-earth farm family who are burdened by the younger son’s insane…

  • Two People (film by Wise [1973])

    Robert Wise: Last films: …space, he directed the melodramatic Two People (1973), with Peter Fonda and Lindsay Wagner; The Hindenburg (1975), chronicling the events around the famous dirigible disaster; the thriller Audrey Rose (1977), with Anthony Hopkins; and the big-budget Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), the first entry in the franchise of movies…

  • Two Plays and a Preface (work by Dennis)

    Nigel Dennis: …of Cards of Identity, as Two Plays and a Preface (1958). His knowledge of journalism sharpened the satire of August for the People (1961), a much-praised play about the power of the press. His nonfiction included a critical biography of Jonathan Swift.

  • Two Preludes Through all Major Keys (work by Beethoven)

    modulation: In contrary fashion, Beethoven’s Two Preludes Through all Major Keys for piano or organ, op. 39 (1789), have several passages where the key signature changes in nearly every measure.

  • two red years (Italian history)

    Italy: Economic and political crisis: the two red years: Throughout the biennio rosso (“two red years”; 1919–20), revolution appeared imminent. While spontaneous land occupations swept through the south, riots and lootings hit shopkeepers in the north and centre in the summer of 1919, and prices were cut by half throughout the country. Socialist deputies walked out…

  • Two Rode Together (film by Ford [1961])

    Shirley Jones: … in the John Ford western Two Rode Together (1961) before returning to her roots with a winning performance as Marian, the librarian, in the musical The Music Man (1962).

  • Two Sacrifices of Capitalism (drawing by Dix)

    Otto Dix: …as Pimp and Girls and Two Sacrifices of Capitalism (the sacrifices are a grotesque prostitute and a defaced former soldier). In 1924 he etched a 50-plate series recording the horrors of war.

  • Two Serious Ladies (novel by Bowles)

    Jane Bowles: …writing her only published novel, Two Serious Ladies (1943). For a time the couple lived in a boardinghouse with, among others, the writers Richard Wright and Carson McCullers, the composer Benjamin Britten, and the entertainer Gypsy Rose Lee. The couple settled in Tangier, Morocco, in 1952. In December 1953 her…

  • Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the (historical kingdom, Italy)

    Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the state that united the southern part of the Italian peninsula with the island of Sicily between the mid-15th and the mid-19th centuries. (For a brief history of the state, see Naples, Kingdom of.) United by the Normans in the 11th century, the two areas were divided

  • Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race (book by Leonov and Scott)

    Aleksei Leonov: …2004 he wrote a book, Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race, with American astronaut David Scott.

  • Two Sisters, The (novel by Bates)

    H.E. Bates: …began writing his first novel, The Two Sisters, at this time, and he was fired when his employer discovered that he was writing it while at his job. Bates continued working on the novel, and, after multiple rejections, it was published in 1926. A collection of short stories, Day’s End,…

  • Two Solitudes (novel by MacLennan)

    Canadian literature: Modern period, 1900–60: In the panoramic Two Solitudes (1945) and The Watch That Ends the Night (1959), framed against the backdrop of the two world wars, Hugh MacLennan attempted to capture moral, social, and religious conflicts that rent individuals, families, and the French and English communities in Quebec. Sheila Watson’s enigmatic…

  • Two Sources of Morality and Religion, The (work by Bergson)

    Henri Bergson: Later years: …et de la religion (The Two Sources of Morality and Religion). As in the earlier works, he claimed that the polar opposition of the static and the dynamic provides the basic insight. Thus, in the moral, social, and religious life of men he saw, on the one side, the…

  • Two Stories (work by Virginia and Leonard Woolf)

    Virginia Woolf: Early fiction: …the press) published their own Two Stories in the summer of 1917. It consisted of Leonard’s Three Jews and Virginia’s The Mark on the Wall, the latter about contemplation itself.

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