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  • Turin, Peace of (Italy [1381])

    Venice: Struggle for naval supremacy: The Peace of Turin (1381) eliminated Genoese political influence from the Mediterranean and the East, leaving the Venetian government arbiter of the sea routes.

  • Turin, Shroud of (relic)

    Shroud of Turin, a length of linen that for centuries was purported to be the burial garment of Jesus Christ. It has been preserved since 1578 in the royal chapel of the cathedral of San Giovanni Battista in Turin, Italy. Measuring 4.3 metres (14 feet 3 inches) long and 1.1 metres (3 feet 7 inches)

  • Turin, Treaty of (Europe [1696])

    War of the Grand Alliance: …signed a separate peace (Treaty of Turin) with Louis in June 1696. A movement for a general peace culminated in the Treaty of Rijswijk in September-October 1697. The treaty brought no resolution to the conflict between the Bourbon rulers of France and the Habsburgs, or to the English-French conflict;…

  • Turin, University of (university, Turin, Italy)

    University of Turin, autonomous coeducational state institution of higher learning in Turin, Italy, that was founded in 1404. Erasmus was a graduate of the school in 1506. The university was reorganized and reestablished in 1713. An Institute of Business and Economics was added in 1906, a

  • Turina, Joaquín (Spanish composer)

    Joaquín Turina, Spanish composer who helped to promote the national character of 20th-century Spanish music. After studying in Sevilla (Seville) and Madrid, Turina went in 1905 to Paris, where he was a pupil of Moritz Moszkowski for piano and Vincent d’Indy for composition. Though he absorbed

  • Turing Award (computer science award)

    Turing Award, annual award given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), a professional computing society founded in 1947, to one or more individuals “selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community.” The Turing Award is often referred to as the computer

  • Turing complete (computing)

    computer science: Architecture and organization: …and loops are called “Turing complete,” which means that they can carry out the execution of any algorithm that can be defined. Turing completeness is a fundamental and essential characteristic of any computer organization.

  • Turing computability

    automata theory: The generalized automaton and Turing’s machine: …the general automaton and the Turing machine differ in logical design only with respect to the extent of memory storage.

  • Turing machine (computing device)

    Turing machine, hypothetical computing device introduced in 1936 by the English mathematician and logician Alan M. Turing. Turing originally conceived the machine as a mathematical tool that could infallibly recognize undecidable propositions—i.e., those mathematical statements that, within a given

  • Turing test (artificial intelligence)

    Turing test, in artificial intelligence, a test proposed (1950) by the English mathematician Alan M. Turing to determine whether a computer can “think.” There are extreme difficulties in devising any objective criterion for distinguishing “original” thought from sufficiently sophisticated

  • Turing’s undecidability theorem (logic)

    foundations of mathematics: Recursive definitions: The Church-Turing theorem of undecidability, combined with the related result of the Polish-born American mathematician Alfred Tarski (1902–83) on undecidability of truth, eliminated the possibility of a purely mechanical device replacing mathematicians.

  • Turing, Alan (British mathematician and logician)

    Alan Turing, British mathematician and logician, who made major contributions to mathematics, cryptanalysis, logic, philosophy, and mathematical biology and also to the new areas later named computer science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life. The son of a civil

  • Turing, Alan Mathison (British mathematician and logician)

    Alan Turing, British mathematician and logician, who made major contributions to mathematics, cryptanalysis, logic, philosophy, and mathematical biology and also to the new areas later named computer science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life. The son of a civil

  • Turinskiye Rudniki (Russia)

    Krasnoturinsk, town, Sverdlovsk oblast (region), western Russia. The town lies along the Turya River in the eastern foothills of the Northern Ural Mountains. Founded in 1758, it was called Turinskiye Rudniki (“Turinsky Mines”) until 1944, when it became the town of Krasnoturinsk. Now a centre of

  • turion (botany)

    Hydrocharitaceae: Many produce special stems with turions (leaflike buds) that drop off and spend the winter in the bottom mud as a form of asexual reproduction (i.e. Hydrocharis, Stratiotes, and Elodea).

  • Turishcheva, Lyudmila Ivanovna (Soviet gymnast)

    Lyudmila Ivanovna Turishcheva, Soviet gymnast who was European champion (1971 and 1973), world champion (1970 and 1974), and an Olympic medal winner (1968–76). Turishcheva graduated from the Rostov Pedagogical Institute in 1974. At the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City, she won a gold medal as a

  • Turk (pseudo-automaton)

    chess: Chess and artificial intelligence: …the 18th century, when the Turk, the first of the pseudo-automatons, began a triumphal exhibition tour of Europe. Like its 19th-century successor Ajeeb, the Turk was a cleverly constructed cabinet that concealed a human master. The mystery of the Turk was the subject of more than a dozen books and…

  • Turk

    Turkic peoples, any of various peoples whose members speak languages belonging to the Turkic subfamily of the Altaic family of languages. They are historically and linguistically connected with the Tujue, the name given by the Chinese to the nomadic people who in the 6th century ce founded an

  • Türk Oca?? (Turkish club)

    Ottoman Empire: Turkish nationalism: …Society (formed 1908) and the Turkish Hearth (formed 1912). A political twist was given by the adherents of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Turanianism. Pan-Turkism, which aimed at the political union of all Turkish-speaking peoples, began among Turks in Crimea and along the Volga River. Its leading exponent was Ismail

  • Türk Telekom (Turkish company)

    Saad al-Hariri: Education and early career: …orchestrate Saudi Oger’s acquisition of Türk Telekom. (The deal, completed in 2006, was at that time the largest private business deal in Turkey’s history.)

  • Turk’s cap (plant)

    Melon cactus, (genus Melocactus), any of about 30 species of cacti (family Cactaceae) native to the West Indies, Central America, and tropical South America. They are sometimes cultivated as novelties for their unusual bristly cap that forms at maturity. Melon cacti are ribbed and ball-shaped to

  • Turk’s cap lily (plant)

    lily: …turban shape, as in the Turk’s cap lily (L. martagon); or they may be less strongly reflexed and form an open cup or bowl shape, as in L. umbellatum and L. auratum. The flowers of some species are quite fragrant, and they occur in a wide variety of colours. Plants…

  • Turk’s head (plant)

    Melon cactus, (genus Melocactus), any of about 30 species of cacti (family Cactaceae) native to the West Indies, Central America, and tropical South America. They are sometimes cultivated as novelties for their unusual bristly cap that forms at maturity. Melon cacti are ribbed and ball-shaped to

  • Turkana (people)

    Turkana, a people living in the arid, sandy expanse of northwestern Kenya, from Lake Rudolf (Lake Turkana) to the Ugandan border. The Turkana speak an Eastern Nilotic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family. Their language closely resembles that of the Teso. They apparently moved to their

  • Turkana Boy (hominin fossil)

    Homo erectus: African fossils: …more complete skeleton named “Turkana Boy” (KNM-WT 15000) was found nearby at Nariokotome, a site on the northwestern shore of Lake Turkana. The remains of this juvenile male have provided much information about growth, development, and body proportions of an early member of the species.

  • Turkana, Lake (lake, East Africa)

    Lake Rudolf, fourth largest of the eastern African lakes. It lies mainly in northern Kenya, with its northern end stretching into Ethiopia. The lake lies in the eastern arm of eastern Africa’s Rift Valley. It covers an area of 2,473 square miles (6,405 square km) and lies at 1,230 feet (375 m)

  • Türk?e language

    Turkish language, the major member of the Turkic language family, which is a subfamily of the Altaic languages. Turkish is spoken in Turkey, Cyprus, and elsewhere in Europe and the Middle East. With Gagauz, Azerbaijani (sometimes called Azeri), Turkmen, and Khorāsān Turkic, it forms the

  • Türkenkalender (work by Gutenberg)

    Johannes Gutenberg: Printing of the Bible: …to Gutenberg himself is a Türkenkalender, a warning against the impending danger of Turkish invasion after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, printed December 1454 for 1455 use, some letters of indulgence, and some school grammars. The identity of the printer of a Missale Speciale Constantiense is still not established,…

  • Türkenlouis (margrave of Baden)

    Baden: Louis William I, margrave of Baden-Baden from 1677 to 1707, was a distinguished commander in the imperial army in wars against the Turks and against the French; he built the palace of Rastatt. Charles III William, margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1709 to 1738, founded Karlsruhe…

  • Turkes, Alpaslan (Turkish politician)

    Alpaslan Turkes, Cypriot-born Turkish army officer and politician who was a leader of the military overthrow of the Turkish government in 1960; he later formed the right-wing Nationalist Action Party and served as deputy prime minister (b. Nov. 25, 1917--d. April 4,

  • Turkestan (Kazakhstan)

    Turkestan, city, southern Kazakhstan. It lies in the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River) plain. Turkestan was an ancient centre of the caravan trade; it was known as Shavgar and later as Yasī. It became a religious centre called Khazret (Hazrat) because of the 12th-century Sufi (Muslim mystic) Ahmed

  • Turkestan (region, Central Asia)

    Turkistan, in Asian history, the regions of Central Asia lying between Siberia on the north; Tibet, India, Afghanistan, and Iran on the south; the Gobi (desert) on the east; and the Caspian Sea on the west. The term was intended to indicate the areas inhabited by Turkic peoples, but the regions

  • Turkestan Mountains (mountain range, Central Asia)

    Turkistan Range, mountain range in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Branching off from the Alay Mountains, it extends for 200 miles (320 km) east-west between the Fergana and Zeravshan valleys. Its highest point is Piramidalny Peak (18,077 feet [5,510 m]). The range is composed mainly of s

  • Turkestan rat (rodent)

    rat: General features: nitidus) and the Turkestan rat (R. turkestanicus), or brown all around the basal third to half of the tail with the rest uniformly white, as in Hoogerwerf’s rat (R. hoogerwerfi) and the white-tailed rat of Sulawesi.

  • Turkey

    Turkey, country that occupies a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe. Throughout its history it has acted as both a barrier and a bridge between the two continents. Turkey is situated at the crossroads of the Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, and eastern

  • turkey (bird)

    Turkey, either of two species of birds classified as members of either the family Phasianidae or Meleagrididae (order Galliformes). The best known is the common turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), a native game bird of North America that has been widely domesticated for the table. The other species is

  • turkey beard (plant species)

    bear grass: The turkey beard (X. asphodeloides) of southern North America is a similar plant that grows in dry pine barrens. In the southern and southwestern United States the name bear grass is given to various kinds of yucca, especially to Yucca filamentosa and Y. glauca; also to…

  • turkey beard (plant, Xerophyllum genus)

    Bear grass, one of two species of North American plants constituting the genus Xerophyllum of the family Melanthiaceae. The western species, X. tenax, also is known as elk grass, squaw grass, and fire lily. It is a smooth, light-green mountain perennial with a stout, unbranched stem, from 0.6 to 2

  • turkey buzzard (bird)

    Turkey vulture, (Cathartes aura), long-winged, long-tailed vulture (family Cathartidae, the New World vultures) that has dark plumage, a whitish beak, white legs, and a bare red head (black in immature birds) that is covered with whitish bumps. Its wingspread is about 1.8 m (6 feet), and its l

  • Turkey earthquake of 2011 (Turkey)

    Erci?-Van earthquake of 2011, severe earthquake that struck near the cities of Erci? and Van in eastern Turkey on October 23, 2011. More than 570 people were killed, and thousands of structures in Erci?, Van, and other nearby towns were destroyed. The earthquake was felt as far away as Jordan and

  • turkey fish (fish)

    Lionfish, (Pterois), any of several species of showy Indo-Pacific fishes of the scorpion fish family, Scorpaenidae (order Scorpaeniformes). Lionfish are noted for their venomous fin spines, which are capable of producing painful, though rarely fatal, puncture wounds. The fishes have enlarged

  • turkey gnat (insect)

    Black fly, (family Simuliidae), any member of a family of about 1,800 species of small, humpbacked flies in the order Diptera. Black flies are usually black or dark gray, with gauzy wings, stout antennae and legs, and rather short mouthparts that are adapted for sucking blood. Only females bite and

  • Turkey Red wheat (grain)

    Kansas: Statehood: …full of hand-selected grains of Turkey Red wheat. This excellent strain was the basis of the abundant winter wheat crops that became an important part of the Kansas economy. Many of the Mennonites’ descendants remain as prosperous farmers.

  • turkey trot (dance)

    popular art: Popular dance: Such exotic numbers as the turkey trot, the bunny hug, and the maxixe were influenced by the new music of jazz. The tango, purged of its more erotic elements, became acceptable to the clientele of the thé dansant (tea dance), and the Charleston epitomized the Jazz Age. When the quickstep…

  • turkey vulture (bird)

    Turkey vulture, (Cathartes aura), long-winged, long-tailed vulture (family Cathartidae, the New World vultures) that has dark plumage, a whitish beak, white legs, and a bare red head (black in immature birds) that is covered with whitish bumps. Its wingspread is about 1.8 m (6 feet), and its l

  • Turkey work (embroidery)

    Turkey work, form of knotted embroidery practiced in England from the 16th century to the mid-18th century, but especially in the 17th century. Used for upholstery and table covers, it was worked in imitation of Turkish carpets, which are known from paintings to have been imported to England from

  • turkey X disease (pathology)

    poison: Mycotoxins: The eruption of so-called turkey X disease in England in 1960 and the resulting discovery of the substance known as aflatoxin (see Table 4) stimulated study of the subject of mycotoxicology. Because mycotoxins have now been recognized as potential cancer-producing agents (carcinogens) that can become involved in man’s food…

  • Turkey’s Secular/Islamic Conundrum

    By the summer of 2008, there was an urgent need in Turkey for a consensus on the true meaning of laicism (secularism) between the secularist establishment (primarily the military, the Constitutional Court, and members of the opposition Republican People’s Party [CHP]) on the one hand and the

  • Turkey, flag of

    national flag consisting of a red field (background) with a central white star and crescent. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of approximately 2 to 3.Various myths are associated with the symbolism of the red colour and the star and crescent, but none really explains their origins. Although the

  • Turkey, history of

    Turkey: History: This entry discusses the history of modern Turkey from its formation in the aftermath of the Ottoman defeat in World War I (1914–18) until the 21st century. For discussion of earlier history of the area, see Anatolia; Ottoman Empire.

  • Turkey, Republic of

    Turkey, country that occupies a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe. Throughout its history it has acted as both a barrier and a bridge between the two continents. Turkey is situated at the crossroads of the Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, and eastern

  • Turkey-red oil (chemistry)

    castor oil: Turkey-red oil, long used as a dyeing aid, is produced by the reaction of castor oil with sulfuric acid.

  • turkeyfoot (plant)

    bluestem: Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), often more than 2 metres (6.5 feet) tall, is the characteristic plant species of the North American tallgrass prairie. It is sometimes known as turkeyfoot, in reference to its forked flower cluster, and is a good hay and pasture plant. Sand…

  • Turkī (Arab leader)

    history of Arabia: Resistance to the Ottomans: …second Saudi-Wahhābī kingdom began when Turkī, of a collateral Saudi branch, revolted and in 1824 captured Riyadh in Najd and made it his capital. He was succeeded by his son Fay?al. By 1833 Wahhābī overlordship was generally recognized in the Persian Gulf, though the Egyptians remained in the Hejaz.

  • Turkic languages

    Turkic languages, group of closely related languages that form a subfamily of the Altaic languages. The Turkic languages show close similarities to each other in phonology, morphology, and syntax, though Chuvash, Khalaj, and Sakha differ considerably from the rest. The earliest linguistic records

  • Turkic peoples

    Turkic peoples, any of various peoples whose members speak languages belonging to the Turkic subfamily of the Altaic family of languages. They are historically and linguistically connected with the Tujue, the name given by the Chinese to the nomadic people who in the 6th century ce founded an

  • Turkish Angora cat (breed of cat)

    Turkish Angora cat, Breed of longhaired domestic cat that probably arose from a domesticated cat of Tatars who migrated to Turkey, where it is now regarded as a national treasure. It has a long body, fine bones, a pointed face, and a silky, medium-length coat. White is the most popular colour, but

  • Turkish Baroque (architecture)

    Islamic arts: Architecture: …variants appear illustrating the little-known Turkish Baroque style. The latter, however, is more visible in ornamental details or in smaller buildings, especially the numerous fountains built in Istanbul in the 18th century. The sources of the Turkish Baroque are probably to be sought in the Baroque architecture of Vienna and…

  • Turkish bath (plumbing)

    Turkish bath, kind of bath that originated in the Middle East and combines exposure to warm air, then steam or hot-air immersion, massage, and finally a cold-water bath or shower. The Turkish bath typically requires movement from one room or chamber to the next. Separate wash rooms and soaking

  • Turkish Bath (work by Ingres)

    J.-A.-D. Ingres: Late life and works: The multifigure Turkish Bath (1863), Ingres’s culminating achievement in the genre of the female nude, could not be more different. Featuring references to a number of the artist’s previous nudes, this picture offers a veritable inventory of the contortions and distortions to which he had subjected the…

  • Turkish carpet

    rug and carpet: Turkey: After the 16th century, Turkish rugs either followed Persian designs—indeed, were possibly worked by immigrant Persians and Egyptians—or followed native traditions. The former, made on court looms, displayed exquisite cloud bands and feathery, tapering white leaves on grounds of pale rose relieved by blue and emerald green. Turkish patterns…

  • Turkish checkers (game)

    Turkish checkers, board game, variety of the game checkers (draughts) in which all 64 squares of the board are used. There are 16 men to a side, 8 each on the second and third rows to commence play. The men move to the sides or straight forward but not diagonally or backward. Captures are made by

  • Turkish drum (musical instrument)

    Bass drum, percussion instrument, the largest and deepest-sounding member of the drum family, usually played with a pair of large felt-headed sticks, or beaters. In modern popular-music bands the bass drum is often part of a drum set and is commonly struck by a single pedal-operated stick. In

  • Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (political division, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Efforts toward reunification: …proclaimed the Turkish-occupied area the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (a body calling itself the Provisional Cyprus-Turkish Administration had been in existence among Turkish Cypriots since 1967); Denktash announced that their purpose was not independence but federation. Talks were resumed in Vienna in 1975 and 1976 under UN auspices, and…

  • Turkish filbert (plant)

    hazelnut: Nuts produced by the Turkish hazelnut (C. colurna) are sold commercially as Constantinople nuts. The former common name for the genus was hazel; various species were termed filbert, hazelnut, or cobnut, depending on the relative length of the nut to its husk, but this distinction was found to be…

  • Turkish Gate (gate, Lucknow, India)

    Lucknow: The Rumi Darwaza, or Turkish Gate, was modeled (1784) on the Sublime Porte (Bab-i Hümayun) in Istanbul. The best-preserved monument is the Residency (1800), the scene of the defense by British troops during the Indian Mutiny. A memorial commemorating the Indians who died during the uprising was erected in…

  • Turkish hazelnut (plant)

    hazelnut: Nuts produced by the Turkish hazelnut (C. colurna) are sold commercially as Constantinople nuts. The former common name for the genus was hazel; various species were termed filbert, hazelnut, or cobnut, depending on the relative length of the nut to its husk, but this distinction was found to be…

  • Turkish Hearth (Turkish club)

    Ottoman Empire: Turkish nationalism: …Society (formed 1908) and the Turkish Hearth (formed 1912). A political twist was given by the adherents of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Turanianism. Pan-Turkism, which aimed at the political union of all Turkish-speaking peoples, began among Turks in Crimea and along the Volga River. Its leading exponent was Ismail

  • Turkish knot (carpet-making)

    rug and carpet: Materials and technique: The Turkish, or symmetrical, knot is used mainly in Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Iran (formerly Persia), and Europe. This knot was also formerly known as the Ghiordes knot. The Persian, or asymmetrical, knot is used principally in Iran, India, China, and Egypt. This knot was formerly known as the…

  • Turkish language

    Turkish language, the major member of the Turkic language family, which is a subfamily of the Altaic languages. Turkish is spoken in Turkey, Cyprus, and elsewhere in Europe and the Middle East. With Gagauz, Azerbaijani (sometimes called Azeri), Turkmen, and Khorāsān Turkic, it forms the

  • Turkish literature

    Turkish literature, the body of written works in the Turkish language. The Orhon inscriptions represent some of the earliest extant writing in Turkish. These inscriptions appear on two monuments built in the early 8th century ce in northern Mongolia. Other early Turkish writing includes poetry in

  • Turkish music

    Janissary music, in a narrow sense, the music of the Turkish military establishment, particularly of the Janissaries, an elite corps of royal bodyguards (disbanded 1826); in a broad sense, a particular repertory of European music the military aspect of which derives from conscious imitation of the

  • Turkish period (Mamlūk history)

    Mamluk: The Mamluk dynasty: …call the former the “Ba?rī” period and the latter the “Burjī,” because of the political dominance of the regiments known by these names during the respective times. The contemporary Muslim historians referred to the same divisions as the “Turkish” and “Circassian” periods, in order to call attention to the…

  • Turkish Petroleum Company (Iraqi company)

    Calouste Gulbenkian: (later Iraq Petroleum Co.) and became the first to exploit Iraqi oil; his 5% share made him one of the world’s richest men. From 1948 he negotiated Saudi Arabian oil concessions to U.S. firms. He amassed an outstanding art collection of some 6,000 works, now in…

  • Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (political division, Cyprus)

    flag of Cyprus: …only recognized by Turkey), the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus adopted a flag of its own based on the Turkish model.

  • Turkish rug

    rug and carpet: Turkey: After the 16th century, Turkish rugs either followed Persian designs—indeed, were possibly worked by immigrant Persians and Egyptians—or followed native traditions. The former, made on court looms, displayed exquisite cloud bands and feathery, tapering white leaves on grounds of pale rose relieved by blue and emerald green. Turkish patterns…

  • Turkish runes (ancient script)

    Central Asian arts: Turkish literature: …and called by Thomsen “Turkish runes.” They relate in epic and forceful language the origins of the Turks, their golden age, their subjugation by the Chinese, and their liberation by Bilge Kagan. The polished style suggests considerable earlier development of the language. Excavations in Chinese Turkistan have brought to…

  • Turkish Society (Turkish organization)

    Ottoman Empire: Turkish nationalism: …by educational work of the Turkish Society (formed 1908) and the Turkish Hearth (formed 1912). A political twist was given by the adherents of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Turanianism. Pan-Turkism, which aimed at the political union of all Turkish-speaking peoples, began among Turks in Crimea and along the Volga River. Its leading

  • Turkish Speech (speech by Agricola)

    Georgius Agricola: Life: His youthful “Turkish Speech” of 1529, a vigorous call to the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand I to undertake a war against the Turks, was a patriotic hymn to Germany and a call to political and religious unity. It made a great impression on the public and was…

  • Turkish straits (strait, Turkey)

    Turkey: …Dardanelles—are known collectively as the Turkish straits; Turkey’s control of the straits, the only outlet from the Black Sea, has been a major factor in its relations with other states. Most of the islands along the Aegean coast are Greek; only the islands of G?k?eada and Bozcaada remain in Turkish…

  • Turkish style (decorative arts)

    Turkish style, a fashion of furniture and decorative design based on Middle Eastern styles that flourished from the latter half of the 19th century until the late 1920s. It was favoured especially for the men’s smoking rooms once found in the homes of the wealthy, then for clubs, and finally, for

  • Turkish sweet gum (plant)

    sweet gum: …or Turkish, sweet gum (L. orientalis). The Formosan gum (L. formosana), with three-lobed leaves, is widely grown as a garden tree in mild climates.

  • Turkish triangle (architecture)

    Islamic arts: Architecture in Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia: …the new pendentive known as Turkish triangle (a transformation of the curved space of the traditional pendentive into a fanlike set of long and narrow triangles built at an angle from each other) were all used by Anatolian builders, thereby initiating the great development of vault construction in Ottoman architecture…

  • Turkish Van cat (breed of cat)

    Turkish Van cat, breed of semilonghaired domestic cat distinguished mainly by its unusual colour pattern: white, with coloured markings only on the head and tail. “Van” is a common term in the breed’s native region, Central and South Asia, and is also used to describe other cats with similar

  • Turkish War (Austrian history)

    Austria: Austria as a great power: …the Thirty Years’ War the Turkish front had been quiet, but in the 1660s a new war broke out with the Turks (1663–64) because of a conflict over Transylvania, where a successor had to be appointed for Gy?rgy II Rákóczi, who had been killed fighting against the Turks. The Turks…

  • Turkish yoke (Bulgarian history)

    Bulgaria: The Turkish yoke: The five centuries from 1396 to 1878, known as the era of the “Turkish yoke,” are traditionally seen as a period of darkness and suffering. Both national and ecclesiastical independence were lost. The Bulgarian nobility was destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted…

  • Türkistan (Kazakhstan)

    Turkestan, city, southern Kazakhstan. It lies in the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River) plain. Turkestan was an ancient centre of the caravan trade; it was known as Shavgar and later as Yasī. It became a religious centre called Khazret (Hazrat) because of the 12th-century Sufi (Muslim mystic) Ahmed

  • Turkistan (region, Central Asia)

    Turkistan, in Asian history, the regions of Central Asia lying between Siberia on the north; Tibet, India, Afghanistan, and Iran on the south; the Gobi (desert) on the east; and the Caspian Sea on the west. The term was intended to indicate the areas inhabited by Turkic peoples, but the regions

  • Turkistan Range (mountain range, Central Asia)

    Turkistan Range, mountain range in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Branching off from the Alay Mountains, it extends for 200 miles (320 km) east-west between the Fergana and Zeravshan valleys. Its highest point is Piramidalny Peak (18,077 feet [5,510 m]). The range is composed mainly of s

  • Türkiye Cumhuriyeti

    Turkey, country that occupies a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe. Throughout its history it has acted as both a barrier and a bridge between the two continents. Turkey is situated at the crossroads of the Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, and eastern

  • Türkiye Türk?esi language

    Turkish language, the major member of the Turkic language family, which is a subfamily of the Altaic languages. Turkish is spoken in Turkey, Cyprus, and elsewhere in Europe and the Middle East. With Gagauz, Azerbaijani (sometimes called Azeri), Turkmen, and Khorāsān Turkic, it forms the

  • Turkle, Sherry (social psychologist)

    The “Robotic Moment”: …field and an issue for all of us.

  • Turkmen (people)

    Turkmen, people who speak a language belonging to the southwestern branch of the Turkic languages. The majority live in Turkmenistan and in neighbouring parts of Central Asia and numbered more than 6 million at the beginning of the 21st century. About one-third of the total population lives in

  • Turkmen Academy of Sciences (Turkmen organization)

    Turkmenistan: Education: The Turkmen Academy of Sciences was founded in 1951 and directed from Moscow until the late 1980s. Education was provided tuition-free to students, and those selected for higher education received stipends from the republic’s budget. The academy was closed in 1998 and reopened in 2009, but…

  • Turkmen carpet

    rug and carpet: Turkistan: The Turkmen people emerged during the late first millennium as pastoral nomads in lands between powerful city-based states. Gradually they grew in power, and by the 19th century one tribe, the Tekke, had become dominant in the oases of Merv (now Mary) and Tedjend (now Tejen).…

  • Turkmen language

    Turkmen language, member of the Turkic language family, which is a subfamily of the Altaic languages. Turkmen is spoken in Turkmenistan, in parts of neighbouring Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and, by fewer people, in Iran and Afghanistan. Turkmen is a member of the southwestern, or O?uz, branch of

  • Turkmen literature

    Turkmen literature, the body of written works produced by the Turkmen people of Central Asia. Reconstructing a literary history of the Turkmen is extremely difficult. They did not possess their own educational or literary institutions but instead lived at various times under the rule of the

  • Türkmenabat (Turkmenistan)

    Türkmenabat, city and administrative centre, Lebap oblast (province), Turkmenistan, on the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River). The second largest city in Turkmenistan, it was founded as a Russian military settlement when the Transcaspian Railway reached the Amu Darya in 1886. It is now a rail junction

  • Turkmenbashi (president of Turkmenistan)

    Saparmurad Niyazov, Turkmen politician who ruled Turkmenistan for some 15 years. Niyazov’s rule, which began in 1991 when the former Soviet republic declared independence from the U.S.S.R., was marked by the promotion of an extensive personality cult. When Niyazov was still a youth, his father, a

  • Turkmenbashi (Turkmenistan)

    Turkmenbashi, port city, western Turkmenistan. The city was renamed in 1993 by Turkmenistan’s dictator-president, Saparmurad Niyazov, who patterned the new name after his own formal title of Turkmenbashi (“Head of the Turkmen”). The city lies on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, at the foot of

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