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  • Turanian (people)

    classification of religions: Ethnographic-linguistic: …dwell three great races, the Turanians (including the Ural-Altaic peoples), the Semites, and the Aryans, to which correspond three great families of languages. Originally, in some remote prehistory, each of these races formed a unity, but with the passage of time they split up into a myriad of peoples with…

  • Turanian Lowland (region, Central Asia)

    Turan Plain, extensive lowland in southwestern Kazakhstan and northwestern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. It is bounded by the Saryarqa (Kazakh uplands) in the north, the outliers of the Tien Shan, Pamir, and Alay mountains in the east, the Kopet-Dag Range in the south, and the Caspian Sea in the

  • Turatam (space centre, Kazakhstan)

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, former Soviet and current Russian space centre in south-central Kazakhstan. Baikonur was a Soviet code name for the centre, but American analysts often called it Tyuratam, after the railroad station at Tyuratam (Leninsk), the nearest large city. The Baikonur Cosmodrome lies on

  • Turati, Filippo (Italian political leader)

    Italy: Years of crisis: …1892 a young Milanese lawyer, Filippo Turati, had helped to found the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani), which in 1893 became the Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italiano; PSI). The PSI united the various socialist and labour groups of northern and central Italy and Sicily and stood in…

  • Turba (Spain)

    Teruel, town, capital of Teruel provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Aragon, northeastern Spain. Located at the confluence of the Guadalaviar and Alfambra rivers, northwest of Valencia, it originated as the Iberian settlement of Turba, which was destroyed by the

  • turban (headdress)

    Turban, a headdress consisting of a long scarf wound round the head or a smaller, underlying hat. Turbans vary in shape, colour, and size; some are made with up to 50 yards (45 metres) of fabric. In the Old World, the turban is of Eastern origin and is often worn by Muslim men, though after the

  • turban buttercup (plant)

    buttercup: The turban, or Persian buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus), is the florist’s ranunculus; usually the double-flowered form R. asiaticus, cultivar Superbissimus, is grown for the winter trade. Among the many wild species are the tall meadow buttercup (R. acris), native to Eurasia but widely introduced elsewhere; the swamp…

  • turban shell (gastropod family)

    Turban shell, any marine snail of the family Turbinidae (subclass Prosobranchia of the class Gastropoda) that has a wide aperture in the first whorl of the stout shell, which is topped by a bulbous, turbanlike coil. The shell may be beaded, knobbed, or ridged. The largest species of turban shell

  • Turbat (Pakistan)

    Turbat, town, Balochistān province, Pakistan. The town is located on the left bank of the Kech River, which is a tributary to the Dasht River. The area in which Turbat is situated is drained to the south by the Dasht River; the Makrān Range to the north and east descends to coastal plains in the

  • Turbay Ayala, Julio César (president of Colombia)

    Julio César Turbay Ayala, president of Colombia from 1978 to 1982, a centrist liberal who proved unable to end his country’s continuing social unrest. Born into a middle-class family descended from Lebanese immigrants, Turbay was educated at the National Commercial School in Bogotá and the

  • türbe (mausoleum)

    Türbe, (Turkish: “tomb-tower”, ) form of mausoleum architecture developed by and popular among the Seljuq Turks in Iran (mid-11th to 13th century) and later carried by them into Iraq and Anatolia. The tower form of the tomb may have been based on the cylindrical and conical forms of Seljuq tents.

  • Turbellaria (flatworm class)

    flatworm: (flukes), Cestoda (tapeworms), Turbellaria (planarians), and Monogenea. It should be noted that some authorities consider Monogenea, which contains the order Aspidogastrea, to be a subclass within the class Trematoda. Members of all classes except Turbellaria are parasitic during all or part of the life cycle. Most turbellarians are…

  • turbellarian (flatworm class)

    flatworm: (flukes), Cestoda (tapeworms), Turbellaria (planarians), and Monogenea. It should be noted that some authorities consider Monogenea, which contains the order Aspidogastrea, to be a subclass within the class Trematoda. Members of all classes except Turbellaria are parasitic during all or part of the life cycle. Most turbellarians are…

  • Turbervile, George (English poet)

    George Turberville, first English poet to publish a book of verses to his lady, a genre that became popular in the Elizabethan age. After attending the University of Oxford, Turberville went to Russia (1568–69) as secretary to Thomas Randolph, the first English ambassador there, and later settled

  • Turberville, George (English poet)

    George Turberville, first English poet to publish a book of verses to his lady, a genre that became popular in the Elizabethan age. After attending the University of Oxford, Turberville went to Russia (1568–69) as secretary to Thomas Randolph, the first English ambassador there, and later settled

  • turbidimetry (chemistry)

    nephelometry and turbidimetry: turbidimetry, in analytical chemistry, methods for determining the amount of cloudiness, or turbidity, in a solution based upon measurement of the effect of this turbidity upon the transmission and scattering of light. Turbidity in a liquid is caused by the presence of finely divided suspended…

  • turbidite (rock deposit)

    Turbidite, a type of sedimentary rock composed of layered particles that grade upward from coarser to finer sizes and are thought to have originated from ancient turbidity currents in the oceans. They are integral components of sedimentary deep-sea fans adjacent to the base of continental slopes,

  • turbidity (water impurity)

    water supply system: Health concerns: Turbidity refers to cloudiness caused by very small particles of silt, clay, and other substances suspended in water. Even a slight degree of turbidity in drinking water is objectionable to most people. Turbidity also interferes with disinfection by creating a possible shield for pathogenic organisms.…

  • turbidity current (oceanography)

    Turbidity current, underwater density current of abrasive sediments. Such currents appear to be relatively short-lived, transient phenomena that occur at great depths. They are thought to be caused by the slumping of sediment that has piled up at the top of the continental slope, particularly at

  • Turbina (plant genus)

    Turbina, a genus of some 15 species of plants, native in tropical America and Southeast Asia, belonging to the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae). Of special interest is the woody stemmed perennial climber known to the ancient Aztecs as ololiuqui (Turbina corymbosa), the brown seeds of which

  • Turbina corymbosa (plant)

    Convolvulaceae: Major genera and species: The seeds of two species, Turbina corymbosa and Ipomoea violacea, are sources of hallucinogenic drugs of historical interest and contemporary concern.

  • turbinal (anatomy)

    Nasal concha, any of several thin, scroll-shaped bony elements forming the upper chambers of the nasal cavities. They increase the surface area of these cavities, thus providing for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lungs. In higher vertebrates the olfactory epithelium is

  • turbinate (anatomy)

    Nasal concha, any of several thin, scroll-shaped bony elements forming the upper chambers of the nasal cavities. They increase the surface area of these cavities, thus providing for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lungs. In higher vertebrates the olfactory epithelium is

  • turbine

    Turbine, any of various devices that convert the energy in a stream of fluid into mechanical energy. The conversion is generally accomplished by passing the fluid through a system of stationary passages or vanes that alternate with passages consisting of finlike blades attached to a rotor. By

  • turbine pump

    pump: Kinetic pumps.: A regenerative pump is also called a turbine, or peripheral, pump. The impeller has vanes on both sides of the rim that rotate in a ringlike channel in the pump’s casing. The fluid does not discharge freely from the tip of the impeller but is recirculated…

  • turbine staging (engineering)

    turbine: Turbine staging: Only a small fraction of the overall pressure drop available in a turbine can be extracted in a single stage consisting of a set of stationary nozzles or vanes and moving blades or buckets. In contrast to water turbines where the total head…

  • Turbinia (ship)

    ship: Passenger liners in the 20th century: Parsons designed the yacht Turbinia, using a steam turbine engine with only rotating parts in place of reciprocating engines. It proved a success, and in the late 1890s, when competition intensified in the Atlantic Ferry, the question arose as to whether reciprocating or turbine engines were the best for…

  • Turbinidae (gastropod family)

    Turban shell, any marine snail of the family Turbinidae (subclass Prosobranchia of the class Gastropoda) that has a wide aperture in the first whorl of the stout shell, which is topped by a bulbous, turbanlike coil. The shell may be beaded, knobbed, or ridged. The largest species of turban shell

  • Turbo (gastropod genus)

    gastropod: Importance to humans: …Japan, and turban shells (Turbo) in the Pacific are the most frequently eaten marine snails. Occasionally limpets and whelks are used for food, but they are more commonly used as fish bait. Freshwater snails rarely are eaten. Land snails of the family Helicidae have been eaten in the Middle…

  • Turbo (film by Soren [2013])

    Ryan Reynolds: Hollywood career: …family films The Croods (2013), Turbo (2013), and Pokémon Detective Pikachu (2019). Exhibiting his skill for self-mockery, he played himself in an episode of Seth MacFarlane’s series Family Guy (2011) and made memorable cameo appearances in MacFarlane’s feature comedies Ted (2012) and A Million Ways to Die in the West…

  • Turbo marmoratus (snail)

    turban shell: …shell is the 20-centimetre (8-inch) green turban (Turbo marmoratus), native to the East Indies and Australia; its broad, round “cat’s-eye” operculum (lid for closing the aperture) is used for making buttons.

  • turbo train (transportation)

    Turbo train, high-speed passenger train powered by a gas-turbine engine similar to that used in jet aircraft. Unlike conventional trains, the turbo variety does not have a separate locomotive; its turbine power unit is small enough to be built into a passenger car. A typical turbo train consists

  • Turbo, Marcius (Roman prefect)

    Hadrian: Policies as emperor: …installed as prefects the distinguished Marcius Turbo, a general to whom the new emperor owed much, and Septicius Clarus, the patron of Suetonius the biographer. Before many years had passed, both of these men had fallen into disgrace. Hadrian was mercurial or possibly just shrewdly calculating in dispensing favours.

  • turbocharger (mechanical device)

    gasoline engine: Supercharger: A turbocharger employs a gas turbine operated by the exhaust gases to drive a centrifugal blower. The turbocharged engine not only gains increased power capacity but also operates at improved fuel economy. Historically, large airplane reciprocating gasoline engines were usually supercharged both by geared blowers and…

  • turbocompounding (mechanics)

    ship: Combinations of machinery: This technique was known as turbocompounding. Turbocompounding, in the guise of turbocharging, is common in diesel technology. Absent an excessively long stroke, a diesel cylinder cannot fully expand its working fluid. One remedy is to exhaust the cylinder gas into a turbine that drives a compressor that in turn supplies…

  • turbodrill (tool)

    petroleum production: The turbodrill: One variation in rotary drilling employs a fluid-powered turbine at the bottom of the borehole to produce the rotary motion of the bit. Known as the turbodrill, this instrument is about nine metres long and is made up of four major parts: the upper…

  • turbofan (engineering)

    jet engine: The propulsor: …of engines, such as the turbofan, thrust is generated by both approaches: A major part of the thrust is derived from the fan, which is powered by a low-pressure turbine and which energizes and accelerates the bypass stream (see below). The remaining part of the total thrust is derived from…

  • turbojet (engineering)

    Turbojet, jet engine in which a turbine-driven compressor draws in and compresses air, forcing it into a combustion chamber into which fuel is injected. Ignition causes the gases to expand and to rush first through the turbine and then through a nozzle at the rear. Forward thrust is generated as a

  • turbopause (atmosphere)

    atmosphere: Vertical structure of the atmosphere: …and heterosphere, is called the turbopause.

  • turboprop (engineering)

    Turboprop, hybrid engine that provides jet thrust and also drives a propeller. It is basically similar to a turbojet except that an added turbine, rearward of the combustion chamber, works through a shaft and speed-reducing gears to turn a propeller at the front of the engine. The first

  • turboramjet

    jet engine: Turboramjets: As noted above, the ramjet provides a simple and efficient means of propulsion for aircraft at relatively high supersonic flight speeds. It is, however, quite inefficient at transonic flight speeds and is completely ineffective at subsonic velocities. The turboramjet has been developed to overcome…

  • turboshaft (engineering)

    jet engine: Turboshaft engines: The helicopter is designed to operate for substantial periods of time hovering at zero flight speed. Even in forward flight, helicopters rarely exceed 240 kilometres per hour or a Mach number of 0.22. (The Mach number is the ratio of the velocity of…

  • turbosupercharger (device)

    supercharger: …brought the introduction of the turbosupercharger, or simply turbocharger, a centrifugal blower driven by a small gas turbine powered by the exhaust gases from the engine cylinders.

  • turbot (fish)

    Turbot, (Psetta maxima), broad-bodied European flatfish of the family Scophthalmidae. A highly valued food fish, the turbot lives along sand and gravel shores. It is a left-sided flatfish, with its eyes normally on the left side of the head, and it is scaleless, though its head and body are studded

  • Turbotrain (transportation)

    Turbo train, high-speed passenger train powered by a gas-turbine engine similar to that used in jet aircraft. Unlike conventional trains, the turbo variety does not have a separate locomotive; its turbine power unit is small enough to be built into a passenger car. A typical turbo train consists

  • Turbott Wolfe (work by Plomer)

    William Plomer: His first novel, Turbott Wolfe (1925), caused a scandal because it touched upon miscegenation and dared to criticize the supposed benevolence of whites toward blacks, even casting some white characters in the role of villains. I Speak of Africa (1927), a collection of short stories, exacerbated his reputation.…

  • turbulence (physics)

    Turbulence, In fluid mechanics, a flow condition (see turbulent flow) in which local speed and pressure change unpredictably as an average flow is maintained. Common examples are wind and water swirling around obstructions, or fast flow (Reynolds number greater than 2,100) of any sort. Eddies,

  • turbulence inversion (meteorology)

    temperature inversion: A turbulence inversion often forms when quiescent air overlies turbulent air. Within the turbulent layer, vertical mixing carries heat downward and cools the upper part of the layer. The unmixed air above is not cooled and eventually is warmer than the air below; an inversion then…

  • turbulence, atmospheric (meteorology)

    Atmospheric turbulence, small-scale, irregular air motions characterized by winds that vary in speed and direction. Turbulence is important because it mixes and churns the atmosphere and causes water vapour, smoke, and other substances, as well as energy, to become distributed both vertically and

  • turbulence, primordial (astronomy)

    nebula: Turbulence: …always show chaotic motions called turbulence. This is a well-known phenomenon in gas dynamics that results when there is low viscosity in flowing fluids, so the motions become chaotic eddies that transfer kinetic and magnetic energy and momentum from large scales down to small sizes. On small-enough scales viscosity always…

  • turbulent flow (physics)

    Turbulent flow, type of fluid (gas or liquid) flow in which the fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations, or mixing, in contrast to laminar flow, in which the fluid moves in smooth paths or layers. In turbulent flow the speed of the fluid at a point is continuously undergoing changes in both

  • turbulent heating (physics)

    Yevgeny Konstantinovich Zavoysky: …he discovered the phenomenon of turbulent heating, or the process of heating a plasma to very high temperatures using a large electric field that increases the plasma’s resistivity, thereby increasing large-scale turbulence, which is transmitted from the macroscale to the microscale as thermal energy.

  • Turbulent Indigo (album by Mitchell)

    Joni Mitchell: … (1991) and the Grammy Award-winning Turbulent Indigo (1994). Having dealt with international political and social issues such as Ethiopian famine on Dog Eat Dog, she returned by the early 1990s to more personal subject matter—singing about true love, for instance, on Turbulent Indigo. Though unworried about pop chart trends, in…

  • Türck, Ludwig (German physician)

    otolaryngology: …the laryngoscope, was adopted by Ludwig Türck and Jan Czermak, who undertook detailed studies of the pathology of the larynx; Czermak also turned the laryngoscope’s mirror upward to investigate the physiology of the nasopharyngeal cavity, thereby establishing an essential link between laryngology and rhinology. One of Czermak’s assistants, Friedrich Voltolini,…

  • Turco (president of Colombia)

    Julio César Turbay Ayala, president of Colombia from 1978 to 1982, a centrist liberal who proved unable to end his country’s continuing social unrest. Born into a middle-class family descended from Lebanese immigrants, Turbay was educated at the National Commercial School in Bogotá and the

  • Turcoman (people)

    Turkmen, people who speak a language belonging to the southwestern branch of the Turkic languages. The majority live in Turkmenistan and in neighbouring parts of Central Asia and numbered more than 6 million at the beginning of the 21st century. About one-third of the total population lives in

  • Turcotte, Elise (Canadian poet and novelist)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: Elise Turcotte published her poetry collection La Terre est ici (1989; “The Earth Is Here”) before creating the brief poetic novel Le Bruit des choses vivantes (1991; The Sound of Living Things). Similarly, Louise Dupré established her reputation as a poet before writing the well-received…

  • Turcotte, Ron (Canadian jockey)

    Secretariat: Breeding and early years: …marked his first ride by Ron Turcotte, who from then on was the colt’s primary jockey. With his first wins under his belt, the time had arrived for Secretariat to prove that he was something special. The six-furlong Sanford Stakes in New York on August 16 was his first event…

  • Turda (Romania)

    Turda, city, Cluj jude? (county), west-central Romania, on the Arie? River. Turda was first a Dacian settlement (Dierna) and later a Roman castrum (Potaissa), around which grew a municipium and later a colony. On the outskirts of the city are the salt mines worked in Roman times. In the Middle

  • Turdetani (ancient people)

    Iberian: The Turdetani of the Guadalquivir River valley were the most powerful of this group. Culturally the tribes of the northeast and of the Valencian coast were greatly influenced by the Greek settlements at Emporion (modern Ampurias) and in the Alicante region, those of the southeast by…

  • Turdidae (bird family)

    Turdidae, songbird family, order Passeriformes, consisting of the thrushes, bluebirds, robins, and other birds—hundreds of species of the most renowned songbirds in the world, absent only from the polar regions and certain islands. Members range in size from 11.5 to 33 cm (4.5 to 13 inches) long.

  • Turdoides striata (bird)

    Jungle babbler, any of about 32 species of songbirds constituting the tribe Pellorneini of the babbler family Timaliidae. Found from Africa to Malaysia and the Philippines, these drab birds with slender, often hook-tipped bills skulk in forest undergrowth. An example is the striped jungle babbler,

  • Turdus (bird genus)

    thrush: …are species of the genus Turdus, which include the blackbird, fieldfare, ouzel, and redwing of Europe, as well as the American robin. Other true thrush groups are called ground thrush and nightingale thrush.

  • Turdus merula (bird species, Turdus merula)

    migration: In Europe: (Carduelis carduelis), and blackbirds (Turdus merula) are usually sedentary in western Europe; they are usually migratory, however, in northern Europe, where their flights resemble a short migration. Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are sedentary in western Europe, where large numbers gather from eastern Europe. Large flocks also pass the winter…

  • Turdus migratorius (bird)

    robin: The American robin (Turdus migratorius), a large North American thrush, is one of the most familiar songbirds in the eastern United States. Early colonial settlers named it robin because its breast colour resembled that of a smaller thrush, the European robin (Erithacus rubecula).

  • Turdus torquatus (bird)

    Ouzel, (species Turdus torquatus), a thrush of the family Turdidae (order Passeriformes), characterized by a white crescent on the breast. A blackish bird, 24 cm (9.5 inches) long, it breeds locally in uplands from Great Britain and Norway to the Middle East. The name ouzel was formerly applied to

  • turé (instrument)

    Native American music: Circum-Caribbean: …from this area is the turé, a kind of single-reed wind instrument played by Palikur men. Performance contexts include manioc-beer-drinking rituals, shamanic rituals, funeral rites, lullabies, love songs, and laments.

  • Ture, Kwame (West Indian-American activist)

    Stokely Carmichael, West-Indian-born civil rights activist, leader of black nationalism in the United States in the 1960s and originator of its rallying slogan, “black power.” Carmichael immigrated to New York City in 1952, attended high school in the Bronx, and enrolled at Howard University in

  • Tureck, Rosalyn (American musician)

    Rosalyn Tureck, American pianist, teacher, writer, and conductor (born Dec. 14, 1914, Chicago, Ill.—died July 17, 2003, New York, N.Y.), sparked new interest in the composer Johann Sebastian Bach with her powerful interpretations of his music and extensive research and writings on his work. She f

  • tureen

    Tureen, covered container, sometimes made to rest on a stand or dish, from which liquids, generally soup or sauce, are served at table. The earliest silver and pottery examples, dating from the early 18th century, were called terrines or terrenes (from Latin terra, “earth”), which suggests a

  • Türelem (film by Nemes [2007])

    László Nemes: …of his own: Türelem (2007; With a Little Patience), which was shown at the Venice International Film Festival. In 2006 he briefly sojourned in New York City, attending the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University. He directed two more shorts, The Counterpart (2008) and The Gentleman Takes…

  • Turenne, Henri de La Tour d’Auvergne, vicomte de (French military leader)

    Henri de La Tour d’Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, French military leader, marshal of France (from 1643), one of the greatest military commanders during the reign of Louis XIV. Beginning his military career in the Thirty Years’ War (from 1625), he subsequently commanded the royal armies in the civil

  • Turenum (Italy)

    Trani, town and archiepiscopal see, Puglia (Apulia) regione, southeastern Italy. It lies along the Adriatic Sea, northwest of Bari city. Trani originated in Roman times and flourished under the Norman and Swabian (Hohenstaufen) kings of Sicily by means of its trade with the Middle East. Its

  • turf (lawn)

    Turf, in horticulture, the surface layer of soil with its matted, dense vegetation, usually grasses grown for ornamental or recreational use. Such turf grasses include Kentucky bluegrass, creeping bent grass, fine or red fescue, and perennial ryegrass among the popular cool-season types and

  • turf (fuel)

    Peat, fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands such as swamps, muskegs, bogs, fens, and moors. The development of peat is favoured by warm moist climatic conditions; however, peat can develop even in cold regions

  • turf toe (medical condition)

    Turf toe, sprain involving the big toe (hallux) metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the foot. The term turf toe was coined in 1976 after it was found that the frequency of injuries to the MTP joint of the big toe was increased in gridiron football players who wore relatively flexible soccer-style

  • Turfan (China)

    Turfan, city, north-central Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, northwestern China. It lies about 112 miles (180 km) southeast of the city of ürümqi (Urumchi), on the northern edge of the deep Turfan Depression between the Bogda Mountains (an eastern extension of the Tien Shan) to the north and

  • Turfan Depression (mountain basin, China)

    Turfan Depression, deep mountain basin in the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, northwestern China. The Turfan Depression is a fault trough, descending ultimately to 508 feet (155 metres) below sea level (the lowest point in China), whereas the neighbouring Tarim River and Lop Nur areas are

  • Turfanian dialect (language)

    Indo-European languages: Tocharian: …are known, labeled A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) and B (West Tocharian, or Kuchean). One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries. These languages became known to scholars…

  • Turgai (region and former oblysy, Kazakhstan)

    Turgay, region and former oblysy (administrative region), central Kazakhstan. The administrative unit was created in 1970, though a larger unit of the same name existed in tsarist times, and it embraced the western fringes of the Kazakh Upland and part of the Turgay Steppe. The main rivers are the

  • Turgaj (region and former oblysy, Kazakhstan)

    Turgay, region and former oblysy (administrative region), central Kazakhstan. The administrative unit was created in 1970, though a larger unit of the same name existed in tsarist times, and it embraced the western fringes of the Kazakh Upland and part of the Turgay Steppe. The main rivers are the

  • Turgalium (Spain)

    Trujillo, town, Cáceres provincia (province), in the Extremadura comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), western Spain, on the Tozo River, a tributary of the Tagus River. It is sited on a hill 25 miles (40 km) east of the provincial capital Cáceres. Trujillo was a town of importance in the

  • Turgay (region and former oblysy, Kazakhstan)

    Turgay, region and former oblysy (administrative region), central Kazakhstan. The administrative unit was created in 1970, though a larger unit of the same name existed in tsarist times, and it embraced the western fringes of the Kazakh Upland and part of the Turgay Steppe. The main rivers are the

  • Turgay Valley (valley, Kazakhstan)

    Turgay Valley, depression in western Kazakhstan. Some 12–125 miles (20–200 km) wide, it runs roughly north-south for about 375 miles (600 km) through the middle of the Torghay Plateau. It was formed by a caving-in of the ancient foundation, and in the Ice Age, water flowed along it from the West

  • Turgenev, Ivan (Russian author)

    Ivan Turgenev, Russian novelist, poet, and playwright whose major works include the short-story collection A Sportsman’s Sketches (1852) and the novels Rudin (1856), Home of the Gentry (1859), On the Eve (1860), and Fathers and Sons (1862). These works offer realistic, affectionate portrayals of

  • Turgenev, Ivan Sergeyevich (Russian author)

    Ivan Turgenev, Russian novelist, poet, and playwright whose major works include the short-story collection A Sportsman’s Sketches (1852) and the novels Rudin (1856), Home of the Gentry (1859), On the Eve (1860), and Fathers and Sons (1862). These works offer realistic, affectionate portrayals of

  • Turgenev, Nikolay Ivanovich (Russian government official)

    Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev, Russian government official and economist who was a cofounder of the revolutionary Northern Society, which staged the Decembrist uprising of 1825 in St. Petersburg. Born into the middle class, Turgenev was one of a number of Russian youths infected by the liberal spirit

  • Turgeon, Pierre (Canadian hockey player)

    New York Islanders: …behind the play of centre Pierre Turgeon, the 1990s were a bleak time for the franchise. The Islanders finished in last place in their division five times during the decade and eight total times in the 13 seasons from 1988–89 to 2000–01. The team returned to the postseason in 2001–02.…

  • turgo water turbine

    turbine: Impulse turbines: …of impulse turbine is the turgo type. The jet impinges at an oblique angle on the runner from one side and continues in a single path, discharging at the other side of the runner. This type of turbine has been used in medium-sized units for moderately high heads.

  • turgor (botany)

    Turgor, Pressure exerted by fluid in a cell that presses the cell membrane against the cell wall. Turgor is what makes living plant tissue rigid. Loss of turgor, resulting from the loss of water from plant cells, causes flowers and leaves to wilt. Turgor plays a key role in the opening and closing

  • Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, baron de l’Aulne (French economist)

    Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, baron de l’Aulne, French economist who was an administrator under Louis XV and served as the comptroller general of finance (1774–76) under Louis XVI. His efforts at instituting financial reform were blocked by the privileged classes. Turgot was born into an old Norman

  • T?rgovishte (Bulgaria)

    T?rgovishte, town, eastern Bulgaria, on the Vrana River. Known formerly for its great cattle fair, which attracted visitors from throughout the Balkans, it continues as a craft centre, producing textiles, furniture, pottery, and processed foods. It has long been a centre for the Muslim faith in

  • Turhan Sultan (Ottoman sultana)

    K?sem Sultan: … naturally passed to Mehmed’s mother, Turhan Sultan, but K?sem remained her superior with the new title büyük valide (“grandmother”). A rivalry ensued between the two, as Turhan began to form her own faction within the palace and among the military. K?sem conspired to unseat Turhan Sultan by deposing Mehmed and…

  • Turin (Italy)

    Turin, city, capital of Torino provincia and of Piemonte (Piedmont) regione, northwestern Italy. It is located on the Po River near its junction with the Sangone, Dora Riparia, and Stura di Lanzo rivers. The original settlement of Taurisia, founded by the Taurini, was partly destroyed by the

  • Turin 2006 Olympic Winter Games

    Turin 2006 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Turin, Italy, that took place Feb. 10–26, 2006. The Turin Games were the 20th occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. In 2006 the Winter Games returned to Italy after a 50-year absence. Unlike the 1956 Games, which were held in the small

  • Turin Canon

    Turin Papyrus, hieratic manuscript of the 19th dynasty (1292–1190 bce) of ancient Egypt, listing the kings of Egypt from earliest times to the reign of Ramses II (1279–13 bce), under whom it was written. Although the papyrus, now in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy, is in very fragmentary

  • Turin faience (pottery)

    Turin faience, tin-glazed earthenware made in Turin, Italy, from the 16th century through the 18th. It is known that the Genoese G.G. Bianchi opened a pottery factory in Turin in 1646. In 1725 Giorgio Rossetti expanded Turin’s faience industry, in which he was followed by his descendants. Another

  • Turin Melancholy (work by de Chirico)

    Metaphysical painting: In his painting Turin Melancholy (1915), for example, he illustrated just such a square, using unnaturally sharp contrasts of light and shadow that lend an aura of poignant but vaguely threatening mystery to the scene. The arcades in this painting, as well as the deep perspectival space and…

  • Turin Papyrus

    Turin Papyrus, hieratic manuscript of the 19th dynasty (1292–1190 bce) of ancient Egypt, listing the kings of Egypt from earliest times to the reign of Ramses II (1279–13 bce), under whom it was written. Although the papyrus, now in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy, is in very fragmentary

  • Turin Papyrus of Kings

    Turin Papyrus, hieratic manuscript of the 19th dynasty (1292–1190 bce) of ancient Egypt, listing the kings of Egypt from earliest times to the reign of Ramses II (1279–13 bce), under whom it was written. Although the papyrus, now in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy, is in very fragmentary

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