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  • tunnel kiln (oven)

    brick and tile: Firing and cooling: …cool end of a long tunnel kiln and move slowly forward through gradually increasing temperatures to the firing zone, pass through it, and emerge through decreasing heat zones until cooled.

  • tunnel of Corti (anatomy)

    human ear: Organ of Corti: …Corti is the arch, or tunnel, of Corti, formed by two rows of pillar cells, or rods. The pillar cells furnish the major support of this structure. They separate a single row of larger, pear-shaped inner hair cells from three or more rows of smaller, cylindrical outer hair cells. The…

  • tunnel oven

    baking: Ovens: …commercial bakeries use either the tunnel oven, consisting of a metal belt passing through a connected series of baking chambers open only at the ends, or the tray oven, with a rigid baking platform carried on chain belts. Other types include the peel oven, having a fixed hearth of stone…

  • tunnel vault (architecture)

    Barrel vault, ceiling or roof consisting of a series of semicylindrical arches. See

  • tunnel withering

    tea: Withering: …instead of troughs, and in tunnel withering, leaf is spread on tats carried by mobile trolleys and is subjected to hot-air blasts in a tunnel. Continuous withering machines move the leaf on conveyor belts and subject it to hot air in an enclosed chamber, discharging withered leaf while fresh leaf…

  • Tunnel, Der (work by Kellermann)

    Bernhard Kellermann: …his novel Der Tunnel (1913; The Tunnel, 1915), a sensational technical-utopian work about the construction of a tunnel between Europe and North America.

  • Tunnel, The (work by Kellermann)

    Bernhard Kellermann: …his novel Der Tunnel (1913; The Tunnel, 1915), a sensational technical-utopian work about the construction of a tunnel between Europe and North America.

  • tunnel-boring machine (tunneling machine)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Soft-ground moles: …their first success in 1954, moles (mining machines) have been rapidly adopted worldwide. Close copies of the Oahe moles were used for similar large-diameter tunnels in clay shale at Gardiner Dam in Canada and at Mangla Dam in Pakistan during the mid-1960s, and subsequent moles have succeeded at many other…

  • tunneling (physics)

    Tunneling, in physics, passage of minute particles through seemingly impassable force barriers. The phenomenon first drew attention in the case of alpha decay, in which alpha particles (nuclei of helium atoms) escape from certain radioactive atomic nuclei. Because nuclear constituents are held

  • tunneling mole (tunneling machine)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Soft-ground moles: …their first success in 1954, moles (mining machines) have been rapidly adopted worldwide. Close copies of the Oahe moles were used for similar large-diameter tunnels in clay shale at Gardiner Dam in Canada and at Mangla Dam in Pakistan during the mid-1960s, and subsequent moles have succeeded at many other…

  • tunneling shield (engineering)

    Tunneling shield, machine for driving tunnels in soft ground, especially under rivers or in water-bearing strata. The problem of tunneling under a river had defied the engineering imagination for centuries because of the difficulty of preventing mud and water from seeping in and collapsing the

  • Tunnell, Emlen (American football player)

    Emlen Tunnell, American gridiron football player who in 1967 became the first African American to be enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. His career stretched from 1948 through 1961, and he was a key member of National Football League (NFL) championship teams in New York and Green Bay. In

  • Tunnell, Emlen Lewis (American football player)

    Emlen Tunnell, American gridiron football player who in 1967 became the first African American to be enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. His career stretched from 1948 through 1961, and he was a key member of National Football League (NFL) championship teams in New York and Green Bay. In

  • Tunney, Gene (American boxer)

    Gene Tunney, American boxer who defeated Jack Dempsey in 1926 to become the world heavyweight boxing champion. Tunney began boxing while working as a clerk for the Ocean Steamship Company in New York City (1915–17). He joined the U.S. Marine Corps during World War I and in 1919 won the light

  • Tunney, James Joseph (American boxer)

    Gene Tunney, American boxer who defeated Jack Dempsey in 1926 to become the world heavyweight boxing champion. Tunney began boxing while working as a clerk for the Ocean Steamship Company in New York City (1915–17). He joined the U.S. Marine Corps during World War I and in 1919 won the light

  • Tunney, John V. (United States senator)

    Gene Tunney: One of his four children, John V. Tunney, was a U.S. senator (1971–77).

  • tunny (fish)

    Tuna, (genus Thunnus), any of seven species of oceanic fishes, some very large, that constitute the genus Thunnus and are of great commercial value as food. They are related to mackerels and are placed with them in the family Scombridae (order Perciformes). Tunas vary considerably, both within and

  • Tunny (German code device)

    Colossus: …that the British code-named “Tunny.” Tunny was the Schlüsselzusatz (SZ) cipher attachment, manufactured by Berlin engineering company C. Lorenz AG. Tunny sent its messages in binary code—packets of zeroes and ones resembling the binary code used inside present-day computers.

  • Tunnyng of Elynour Rummynge,The (poem by Skelton)

    John Skelton: … a political satire, followed by The Tunnyng of Elynour Rummynge, a portrayal of a drunken woman in an alehouse, which, though popular, contributed largely to Skelton’s later reputation as a “beastly” poet. His three major political and clerical satires, Speke Parrot (written 1521), Collyn Clout (1522), and Why come ye…

  • Tunolase, Moses Orimolade (Nigerian religious leader)

    Aladura: …of the Aladura founded by Moses Orimolade Tunolase, a Yoruba prophet, and Christiana Abiodun Akinsowon, an Anglican who had experienced visions and trances. In 1925–26 they formed the society, with doctrines of revelation and divine healing replacing traditional charms and medicine. They separated from the Anglican and other churches in…

  • Tunstall, Cuthbert (English prelate)

    Cuthbert Tunstall, prelate, bishop of London (1522–30) and of Durham (1530–52 and 1553–59), who was a leading conservative in the age of the English Reformation. He wrote an excellent arithmetic textbook, De arte supputandi libri quattuor (1522) and a treatise on the Eucharist in which he defended

  • Tunstr?m, G?ran (Swedish author)

    G?ran Tunstr?m, Swedish novelist, poet, and playwright (born 1937, Sunne, Swed.—died Feb. 5, 2000, Stockholm, Swed.), was widely regarded as Sweden’s foremost contemporary author. His largely autobiographical works were sensitive explorations of childhood, family relationships, and the struggle t

  • tunta (food)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The cold as a resource: Chu?o is the name popularly used for processed tubers, but a rich vocabulary for tubers exists in the Quechuan (Andean) languages: there is a separate term for each plant and for each mode of preparation. Chu?o cannot be made where a diurnal temperature extreme is…

  • Tuntemation sotilas (novel by Linna)

    Finnish literature: Postwar poetry and prose: …whose novel Tuntemation sotilas (1954; The Unknown Soldier), a depiction of the War of Continuation, initially caused an uproar, only to become one of the most widely read novels in Finland. Its characters were for decades widely known by name in Finland, because they seemed to embody the archetypal qualities…

  • Tūnus (national capital, Tunisia)

    Tunis, capital and largest city of Tunisia, on the northern African coast, between the western and eastern basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Tunis was built at the end of the shallow Lake of Tunis, an inlet of the Gulf of Tunis, and is linked with its port, ?alq al-Wādī, 6 miles (10 km) to the

  • Tunxi (district, Huangshan, China)

    Huangshan: In 1987 the cities of Tunxi and Huangshan were combined to form a single prefecture-level municipality; though the name Huangshan was retained, Tunxi district became the seat of the municipality. The area under the municipality corresponds approximately to the original Huizhou prefecture. Huizhou is famous in Chinese history as an…

  • Tuo River (river, China)

    Sichuan: Drainage: …the Yangtze are the Min, Tuo, Jialing, and Fu rivers, which flow from north to south. Most of the major streams flow to the south, cutting steep gorges in the west or widening their valley floors in the soft sediments of the Sichuan Basin; they then empty into the Yangtze…

  • Tuoba (people)

    Wei dynasty: …was founded by Tabgatch (Tuoba) tribesmen who, like many of the nomads inhabiting the frontiers of northern China, were of uncertain origin. Their language was basically Turkic, and scholars presume that their ancestry can be traced to proto-Turkic, proto-Mongol, or Xiongnu peoples. In any case, the Tuoba were non-Han…

  • Tuoba (Chinese history [386-534/535])

    Wei dynasty, (386–534/535 ce), the longest-lived and most powerful of the northern Chinese dynasties that existed before the reunification of China under the Sui and Tang dynasties. The Wei dynasty was founded by Tabgatch (Tuoba) tribesmen who, like many of the nomads inhabiting the frontiers of

  • Tuoba Hong (emperor of Wei dynasty)

    Xiaowendi, posthumous name (shi) of the seventh emperor of the Bei (Northern) Wei dynasty (386–534/535), which dominated much of North China during part of the chaotic 360-year period between the end of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220) and the founding of Sui rule (581–618). Xiaowendi sinicized his

  • Tuojiangosaurus (dinosaur)

    stegosaur: …dinosaur species, including Stegosaurus and Tuojiangosaurus of the Late Jurassic period (about 161 million to 146 million years ago) and Wuerhosaurus of the Early Cretaceous (about 146 million to 100 million years ago). Stegosaurs were four-legged herbivores that reached a maximum length of about 9 metres (30 feet). The skull…

  • Tuonela (Finnish mythology)

    Manala, in Finnish mythology, the realm of the dead. The word is possibly derived from the compound maan-ala, “the space (or area) under the earth.” It is also called Tuonela, the realm of Tuoni, and Pohjola, derived from the word pohja, meaning “bottom” and also “north.” The Finnish underworld

  • tuotai bodiless ware (Chinese pottery)

    Eggshell porcelain, Chinese porcelain characterized by an excessively thin body under the glaze. It often had decoration engraved on it before firing that, like a watermark in paper, was visible only when held to the light; such decoration is called anhua, meaning literally “secret language.”

  • Tuotilo (monk of Saint Gall)

    Western music: Monophonic liturgical chant: Tuotilo (died 915), a monk of Sankt Gallen (in what is now Switzerland), is credited with the invention of tropes. Notker Balbulus (died 912) is notable for his association with the sequence, a long hymn that originated as a trope added to the final syllable…

  • Túpac Amaru (Peruvian revolutionary group)

    Túpac Amaru, Peruvian revolutionary group. Founded in 1983, the group is best known for holding 490 people hostage in the Japanese embassy in Lima (1996) in an effort to gain the release of jailed comrades. After a standoff of several weeks, Peruvian troops stormed the embassy and killed all the

  • Túpac Amaru II (Incan revolutionary)

    Túpac Amaru II, Peruvian Indian revolutionary, a descendant of the last Inca ruler, Túpac Amaru, with whom he was identified when he led the Peruvian peasants in an unsuccessful rebellion against Spanish rule. Túpac Amaru II was a cacique (hereditary chief) in the Tinta region of southern Peru. He

  • Túpac Amaru Plan (Peruvian history)

    Francisco Morales Bermúdez: …Morales presented the four-year “Túpac Amaru Plan,” designed to return the country to civilian rule, reduce state control of the economy, and encourage foreign investment. Morales held elections on May 18, 1980, and stepped aside for the winner, Fernando Belaúnde Terry, the civilian president who had been overthrown by…

  • Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Peruvian revolutionary group)

    Túpac Amaru, Peruvian revolutionary group. Founded in 1983, the group is best known for holding 490 people hostage in the Japanese embassy in Lima (1996) in an effort to gain the release of jailed comrades. After a standoff of several weeks, Peruvian troops stormed the embassy and killed all the

  • Tupaia minor (mammal)

    tree shrew: …the smaller species is the pygmy tree shrew (T. minor) of Malaysia, with a body 11 to 14 cm long and a longer tail (13 to 16 cm). Their dense fur is soft or slightly harsh. The upperparts of most species are olive to reddish brown in colour and speckled…

  • Tupaia tana (mammal)

    tree shrew: The large tree shrew (Tupaia tana) of Sumatra, Borneo, and adjacent islands is one of the larger species, with a body 19 to 22 cm (7.5 to 8.7 inches) long and a tail nearly as long. Among the smaller species is the pygmy tree shrew (T.…

  • Tupamaro (guerrilla organization, Uruguay)

    Tupamaro, Uruguayan leftist urban guerrilla organization founded in about 1963. The group was named for Túpac Amaru II, the leader of an 18th-century revolt against Spanish rule in Peru. The chief founder of Tupamaro was Raúl Sendic, a labour organizer. The earliest Tupamaro efforts were a mixture

  • Tupamaro National Liberation Front (guerrilla organization, Uruguay)

    Tupamaro, Uruguayan leftist urban guerrilla organization founded in about 1963. The group was named for Túpac Amaru II, the leader of an 18th-century revolt against Spanish rule in Peru. The chief founder of Tupamaro was Raúl Sendic, a labour organizer. The earliest Tupamaro efforts were a mixture

  • tupelo (tree genus)

    Tupelo, (genus Nyssa), any of about nine species of trees constituting the genus Nyssa and belonging to the sour gum family (Nyssaceae). Five of the species are found in moist or swampy areas of eastern North America, three in eastern Asia, and one in western Malaysia. They all have horizontal or

  • Tupelo (Mississippi, United States)

    Tupelo, city, seat (1867) of Lee county, northeastern Mississippi, U.S., located 62 miles (100 km) northeast of Columbus. It is the headquarters and focal point of the Natchez Trace Parkway. In 1859 the original settlement of Harrisburg was moved 2 miles (3 km) east to the Mobile and Ohio Railroad

  • Tupelo National Battlefield (historical site, Tupelo, Mississippi, United States)

    Tupelo: Tupelo National Battlefield, where the Confederates under Nathan Bedford Forrest and Stephen D. Lee were contained by A.J. Smith’s Union troops (July 14–15, 1864) during the American Civil War, and the Oren Dunn Museum, which contains artifacts on space exploration, Chickasaw Indians, local history, and…

  • tupeng (Javanese mask)

    mask: Theatrical uses: … and Bali, wooden masks (tupeng) are used in certain theatrical performances called wayang wong. These dance dramas developed from the shadow plays of the 18th century and are performed not only as amusement but as a safeguard against calamities. The stories are in part derived from ancient Sanskrit literature,…

  • Tupí (people)

    Tupian, South American Indians who speak languages of the Tupian linguistic group. Tupian-speaking peoples were widespread south of the Amazon. The similarity between dialects suggests that their scattering was fairly recent. Aboriginal Tupian speakers were found from the mouth of the Amazon to

  • Tupí language

    South American Indian languages: Lingua francas and cultural tongues: Tupí, now extinct, was an important language of Portuguese evangelization and had a considerable literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. Another dialect, Guaraní, was the language of the Jesuit missions and also had abundant literature until the middle of the 17th century when the…

  • Tupí-Guaraní (people)

    Gran Chaco: Early settlement: Wichí, Zamuco, and Tupí-Guaraní. Most of these people lived under extremely primitive conditions; settlement depended on the availability of fresh water, making stream courses the most coveted sites. Implements were fashioned largely from wood and bones because of the absence of stones, while the spiny leaves of the…

  • Tupí-Guaraní languages

    Tupí-Guaraní languages, one of the most widespread groups of South American Indian languages (after Arawakan). It is divided by some scholars into two major divisions: Tupí in eastern Brazil and Guaraní in Paraguay and Argentina. These languages were used by the first European traders and

  • Tupí-Kawaíb (people)

    Kawaíb: The Tupí-Kawaíb economy and culture were similar to those of the Parintintin. The Tupí-Kawaíb had a complex social organization with more than 20 clans. They were first encountered in 1913–14 by the Brazilian military. The effect of European diseases on native populations is tragically demonstrated by…

  • Tupian (people)

    Tupian, South American Indians who speak languages of the Tupian linguistic group. Tupian-speaking peoples were widespread south of the Amazon. The similarity between dialects suggests that their scattering was fairly recent. Aboriginal Tupian speakers were found from the mouth of the Amazon to

  • Tupian languages

    Tupian languages, family of South American Indian languages with at least seven subgroups, spoken or formerly spoken in scattered areas from the Andes Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean and (with two exceptions) south of the Amazon River to southernmost Brazil and Paraguay. About one half of the 50

  • Tupinambá (people)

    Tupinambá, South American Indian peoples who spoke Tupian languages and inhabited the eastern coast of Brazil from Ceará in the north to Porto Alegre in the south. The various groups bore such names as Potiguara, Caeté, Tupinambá, Tupinikin, and Guaraní but are known collectively as Tupinambá. The

  • Tupinamba language

    South American Indian languages: Lingua francas and cultural tongues: …influence the modified form of Tupinamba known as língua-geral (“general language”) was the medium of communication between Europeans and Indians and among Indians of different languages in Brazil. It was still in common use along the coast in the 18th century, and it is still spoken in the Amazon. Tupí,…

  • Tupinambarama Island (island, Brazil)

    Amazon River: Physiography of the river course: …200-mile- (320-km-) long island of Tupinambarana. Beyond its first cataract, 600 miles (970 km) up the river, its three major affluents—the Madre de Dios, the Beni, and the Mamoré—provide access to the rubber-rich forests of the Bolivian Oriente; the meandering Purus and Juruá rivers that flank the Madeira on the…

  • Tupinambis (lizard)

    Tegu, (genus Tupinambis), any of about seven large, carnivorous, tropical South American lizards of the family Teiidae. The background colour of most species is black. Some have yellow, reddish, or white bands across the back, whereas others have broad lines extending down the body with irregular

  • Tupinambis longilineus (lizard)

    tegu: …conspicuous lizards, two new species, T. longilineus and T. quadrilineatus, were described as late as the mid-1990s, and additional undescribed species are known to exist. Several species have been heavily exploited commercially, primarily in Argentina, for their hides—a source of high-quality leather used for making shoes and purses. Tegus are…

  • Tupinambis merianae (lizard)

    tegu: …long; however, one species, the black-and-white tegu (T. merianae), reaches 1.3 metres (about 4 feet) in total length. Like other teiids, the tegu uses its tongue and Jacobson’s organ (a chemoreceptor organ located on the roof of its mouth) to detect and discriminate chemical cues associated with prey and other…

  • Tupinambis quadrilineatus (lizard)

    tegu: longilineus and T. quadrilineatus, were described as late as the mid-1990s, and additional undescribed species are known to exist. Several species have been heavily exploited commercially, primarily in Argentina, for their hides—a source of high-quality leather used for making shoes and purses. Tegus are considered a delicacy…

  • Tupiza (Bolivia)

    Tupiza, town, southwest Bolivia. It lies in a region of the Andes Mountains at an elevation of 9,800 feet (2,990 metres) about 130 miles (210 km) west of Tarija. Once a thriving mining centre, Tupiza is mainly a commercial and trade hub; however, some nearby mining operations remained after the

  • Tupolev (Russian design bureau)

    Tupolev, Russian aerospace design bureau that is a major producer of civilian passenger airliners and military bombers. As a Soviet agency, it developed the U.S.S.R.’s first commercial jetliner and the world’s first supersonic passenger jet. Headquarters are in Moscow. Tupolev consists of the main

  • Tupolev Tu-144 (Soviet aircraft)

    Tupolev Tu-144, world’s first supersonic transport aircraft, designed by the veteran Soviet aircraft designer Andrey N. Tupolev and his son Alexey. It was test-flown in December 1968, exceeded the speed of sound in June 1969, and was first publicly shown in Moscow in May 1970. In its production

  • Tupolev Tu-22M (Soviet aircraft)

    bomber: …actually a strategic bomber) and Tu-26 Backfire and the long-range B-1 and Tu-160 Blackjack, respectively. These planes were designed to slip under early-warning radar at low level and to approach military targets using terrain-following radars and inertial-guidance systems. They could carry gravity bombs (nuclear or conventional), air-launched cruise missiles, or…

  • Tupolev, Aleksey Andreyevich (Russian aircraft designer)

    Aleksey Andreyevich Tupolev, Russian aircraft designer who contributed to the design of many of the Soviet Union’s most successful jet airplanes, including the Tu-104 (the country’s first commercial jetliner), the Tu-134 (for short-range commercial flights), and the Tu-154 (for medium-range

  • Tupolev, Alexey (Russian aircraft designer)

    Aleksey Andreyevich Tupolev, Russian aircraft designer who contributed to the design of many of the Soviet Union’s most successful jet airplanes, including the Tu-104 (the country’s first commercial jetliner), the Tu-134 (for short-range commercial flights), and the Tu-154 (for medium-range

  • Tupolev, Andrey Nikolayevich (Soviet aircraft designer)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev, one of the Soviet Union’s foremost aircraft designers, whose bureau (see Tupolev) produced a number of military bombers and civilian airliners—including the world’s first supersonic passenger plane. In 1909 Tupolev entered the Moscow Imperial Technical School (now

  • Tupou V (Tongan monarch)

    Tupou V, (King Siaosi [George] Tupou V; Siaosi Taufa’ahau Manumataongo Tuku’aho Tupou), Tongan monarch (born May 4, 1948, Nuku’alofa, Tongatapu island, British-protected Tonga—died March 18, 2012, Hong Kong), relinquished the absolute power that he initially held and oversaw Tonga’s transformation

  • Tupou VI (Tongan monarch)

    Tonga: History: …Tupouto‘a Lavaka, who ruled as Tupou VI. Following the Democratic Party’s victory in December 2014 elections, ‘Akilisi Pohiva took office as prime minister in January 2015. Pohiva died in September 2019, however, and was replaced by Semisi Sika, who held the title of acting prime minister until later that month,…

  • Tupper, Sir Charles Hibbert (prime minister of Canada)

    Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet, premier of Nova Scotia from 1864 to 1867 and prime minister of Canada in 1896, who was responsible for the legislation that made Nova Scotia a province of Canada in 1867. As Canada’s minister of railways and canals (1879–84), Tupper introduced the bill giving the

  • Tupper, Sir Charles, 1st Baronet (prime minister of Canada)

    Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet, premier of Nova Scotia from 1864 to 1867 and prime minister of Canada in 1896, who was responsible for the legislation that made Nova Scotia a province of Canada in 1867. As Canada’s minister of railways and canals (1879–84), Tupper introduced the bill giving the

  • Tuppy, Hans (Austrian biochemist)

    Frederick Sanger: Insulin research: …Sanger and the Austrian biochemist Hans Tuppy to determine the complete sequence of amino acids in the phenylalanine chain of insulin. Similarly, Sanger and the Australian biochemist E.O.P. Thompson determined the sequence of the glycine chain.

  • Tupqaraghan Peninsula (peninsula, Kazakhstan)

    Kazakhstan: Relief: …the Ustyurt Plateau and the Tupqaraghan (formerly Mangyshlak) Peninsula jutting into the Caspian Sea. Vast amounts of sand form the Greater Barsuki and Aral Karakum deserts near the Aral Sea, the broad Betpaqdala Desert of the interior, and the Muyunkum and Kyzylkum deserts in the south. Most of these desert…

  • tupu (unit of measurement)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Inca technology and intellectual life: …was done by units called tupu, since the Andean concern was with units of human energy expended. Somehow, two measurements that belonged to very different European systems of reckoning were part of a single Andean concern. Units of land measurement, called papakancha, also differed: where the land was in continuous…

  • Tupungato, Cerro (mountain, South America)

    Mount Tupungato, volcanic peak in the Central Andes Mountains of South America. It is situated on the Chile-Argentina boundary and rises to 22,310 feet (6,800 metres). The peak was first climbed in 1897 by members of the expedition led by the British mountaineer Edward

  • Tupungato, Mount (mountain, South America)

    Mount Tupungato, volcanic peak in the Central Andes Mountains of South America. It is situated on the Chile-Argentina boundary and rises to 22,310 feet (6,800 metres). The peak was first climbed in 1897 by members of the expedition led by the British mountaineer Edward

  • Tupuri language (language)

    Adamawa-Ubangi languages: …are Mumuye (500,000 speakers) and Tupuri (250,000). The Adamawa group contains the least-studied languages in the Niger-Congo family.

  • Tuque, La (Quebec, Canada)

    La Tuque, city, Mauricie–Bois-Francs region, southern Quebec province, Canada, situated on the Saint-Maurice River. During the French regime the site was occupied by a trading post of the Company of New France. The original lumbering settlement of 1908 was named for a rock on the river’s edge that

  • Tuquy-Timurid dynasty (Asian history)

    history of Central Asia: The Uzbeks: …and even more under the Ashtarkhanids (also known as Astrakhanids, Tuquy-Timurids, or Janids) who succeeded them during the 1600s, Central Asia experienced a decline in prosperity compared with the preceding Timurid period, in part because of a marked reduction in the transcontinental caravan trade following the opening of new oceanic…

  • Tur (work by Jacob ben Asher)

    Joseph ben Ephraim Karo: …Bet Yosef on the codification Arba?a ?urim (1475; “Four Rows”) of Jacob ben Asher. Following Asher’s topical arrangement, Karo brought together the legal decisions of three leading representative Talmudists: Moses Maimonides, Isaac Alfasi, and Asher ben Jehiel. When he found disagreement among the three, Karo took the majority opinion as…

  • ?ūr, Al- (Egypt)

    Al-?ūr, town, capital of Janūb Sīnā? mu?āfa?ah (governorate), southwestern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. It lies on the coast of the Gulf of Suez. Al-?ūr has been an administrative centre and seaport since the Roman and Byzantine periods. In the town the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (527–565) built a

  • ?ūr, A?- (Egypt)

    Al-?ūr, town, capital of Janūb Sīnā? mu?āfa?ah (governorate), southwestern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. It lies on the coast of the Gulf of Suez. Al-?ūr has been an administrative centre and seaport since the Roman and Byzantine periods. In the town the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (527–565) built a

  • ?ūr, Jabal Al- (ridge, Jerusalem)

    Mount of Olives, multi-summit limestone ridge just east of the Old City of Jerusalem and separated from it by the Kidron Valley. Frequently mentioned in the Bible and later religious literature, it is holy to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The peak usually regarded as the Mount of Olives proper

  • ?ur, Jabal a?- (mountain, Lower Galilee, Israel)

    Mount Tabor, historic elevation of northern Israel, in Lower Galilee near the edge of the Plain of Esdraelon (?Emeq Yizre?el). Though comparatively low (1,929 feet [588 m]), it dominates the level landscape around it, leading to the biblical expression “like Tabor among the mountains” (Jeremiah

  • Tura (Russia)

    Tura, urban settlement and administrative centre of the former Evenk autonomous okrug (district), now merged with Krasnoyarsk kray (territory), east-central Russia. The settlement lies along the Nizhnaya (Lower) Tunguska River at its confluence with the Kochechum. Tura is a transshipment point on

  • Tura Berikha (mountain, West Bank)

    Mount Gerizim, mountain located in the West Bank just south of Nāblus, near the site of biblical Shechem. In modern times it was incorporated as part of the British mandate of Palestine (1920–48) and subsequently as part of Jordan (1950–67). After 1967 it became part of the West Bank (territory

  • Tura, Cosimo (Italian painter)

    Cosmè Tura, early Italian Renaissance painter who was the founder and the first significant figure of the 15th-century school of Ferrara. His well-documented career provides a detailed glimpse of the life of a court painter. Tura was probably trained in Francesco Squarcione’s workshop in Padua and

  • Tura, Cosmè (Italian painter)

    Cosmè Tura, early Italian Renaissance painter who was the founder and the first significant figure of the 15th-century school of Ferrara. His well-documented career provides a detailed glimpse of the life of a court painter. Tura was probably trained in Francesco Squarcione’s workshop in Padua and

  • Turabah, Battle of (Arabian history)

    Ikhwān: …King ?usayn ibn ?Alī at Turabah (1919), then conducted border raids against his sons ?Abd Allāh of Transjordan and Fay?al of Iraq (1921–22). In 1924, when ?usayn was proclaimed caliph in Mecca, the Ikhwān labelled the act heretical and accused ?usayn of obstructing their performance of the pilgrimage to Mecca.…

  • Turābī, ?asan al- (Sudanese religious scholar and lawyer)

    ?asan al-Turābī, Sudanese Muslim religious scholar and lawyer. After receiving a law degree at Gordon Memorial College (later the University of Khartoum)—where, in the early 1950s, he joined the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood—he pursued graduate studies at the University of London and

  • Turabi, Hassan al- (Sudanese religious scholar and lawyer)

    ?asan al-Turābī, Sudanese Muslim religious scholar and lawyer. After receiving a law degree at Gordon Memorial College (later the University of Khartoum)—where, in the early 1950s, he joined the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood—he pursued graduate studies at the University of London and

  • Turabi, Hassan al- (Sudanese religious scholar and lawyer)

    ?asan al-Turābī, Sudanese Muslim religious scholar and lawyer. After receiving a law degree at Gordon Memorial College (later the University of Khartoum)—where, in the early 1950s, he joined the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood—he pursued graduate studies at the University of London and

  • Turabi, Hassan ?Abd Allah al- (Sudanese religious scholar and lawyer)

    ?asan al-Turābī, Sudanese Muslim religious scholar and lawyer. After receiving a law degree at Gordon Memorial College (later the University of Khartoum)—where, in the early 1950s, he joined the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood—he pursued graduate studies at the University of London and

  • turaco (bird)

    Turaco, (order Musophagiformes), any of about 18 species in six genera of colourful, fruit-eating African birds. The green and iridescent turacos (Tauraco, Musophaga, and Corythaeola) are primarily residents of dense broad-leaved evergreen forest; the grayer forms (Crinifer), most of which are

  • Tūrān (region, Iran)

    ancient Iran: Rise of Ardashīr I: …sovereigns, including the rulers of Tūrān (Quzdar, south of modern Quetta) and of Mokrān (Makran), whose surrender was received by Ardashīr. These military and political successes were further extended by Ardashīr when he took possession of the palace at Ctesiphon and assumed the title “king of kings of the Iranians”…

  • Turan Plain (region, Central Asia)

    Turan Plain, extensive lowland in southwestern Kazakhstan and northwestern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. It is bounded by the Saryarqa (Kazakh uplands) in the north, the outliers of the Tien Shan, Pamir, and Alay mountains in the east, the Kopet-Dag Range in the south, and the Caspian Sea in the

  • Tūrān-Shāh (sultan of Egypt)

    Baybars I: …year murdered the new sultan, Tūrān Shāh. The death of the last Ayyūbid sultan was followed by a period of confusion that continued throughout the first years of the Mamlūk sultanate.

  • Turandot (work by Gozzi)

    Yevgeny Bagrationovich Vakhtangov: …Carlo Gozzi’s Chinese fairy tale Turandot, he introduced commedia dell’arte techniques and had actors dress and make up on the stage and stagehands change sets in view of the audience. The production of Turandot, which was begun when Vakhtangov was fatally ill, was nevertheless infused with the gaiety, charm, and…

  • Turandot (work by Puccini)

    Ferruccio Busoni: …other short operas, Arlecchino and Turandot, composed at Zürich, attempted to revive the commedia dell’arte in modern form. Busoni’s piano works include an immense concerto with choral finale; six sonatinas, which contain the essence of his musical thought; and the great Fantasia Contrappuntistica on an unfinished fugue by Bach (two…

  • Turangal?la-Symphonie (work by Messiaen)

    Olivier Messiaen: …important orchestral works is the Turangal?la-Symphonie (1948) in 10 movements—containing a prominent solo piano part and using percussion instruments in the manner of the Indonesian gamelan orchestra, along with an ondes martenot (an electronic instrument). Also notable is Chronochromie for 18 solo strings, wind, and percussion (1960). Le Réveil des…

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