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  • tsuridono (Japanese architecture)

    shinden-zukuri: …corridors extended south, ending in tsuridono, small pavilions, creating a U-shaped arrangement around the court. Wealthier nobles built additional buildings behind the shinden and tainoya.

  • Tsuruga (Japan)

    Tsuruga, city, Fukui ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It faces Tsuruga Bay of the Sea of Japan. A flourishing port since early historic times, it was one of the main centres of communication with the Asian mainland and a major shipment centre for the former national capitals of Nara and Kyōto.

  • Tsuruga Castle (castle, Aizu-wakamatsu, Japan)

    Aizu-wakamatsu: …castle was rebuilt and named Tsuruga Castle. During the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), Aizu-wakamatsu was an important commercial and manufacturing centre, famous for its lacquerware. It was held as a fief by a member of the Tokugawa family and was the scene of the last resistance to the Meiji Restoration…

  • Tsuruoka (Japan)

    Tsuruoka, city, Yamagata ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan, in the Shōnai Plain. Tsuruoka developed as a castle town during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867), and most of its buildings are of that period. Traditional industries produce candles, silk textiles, and sake (rice wine). After the Meiji

  • Tsuruya Namboku IV (Japanese dramatist)

    Tsuruya Namboku IV, Japanese Kabuki playwright of the late Tokugawa period (1603–1867), known for his plays with supernatural themes and macabre and grotesque characters. Little is known of his early years, but in 1755 he became an apprentice of the dramatist Sakurada Jisuke I. About 1780 he

  • Tsushima (archipelago, Japan)

    Tsushima, archipelago, northwestern Nagasaki ken (prefecture), off the coast of southeastern Japan. The islands lie in the Korea Strait separating Japan and Korea, and divide the strait into the Tsushima Strait (west) and the Korea Strait (east). The archipelago consists principally of two rocky

  • Tsushima Current (ocean current, Pacific Ocean)

    Tsushima Current, surface oceanic current, the northeastward-flowing branch of the Kuroshio along the west coast of Japan. Entering the Sea of Japan through the Korea Strait, the Tsushima Current issues the East Korea Warm Current as a northern branch. It is primarily a spring and summer current

  • Tsushima Shūji (Japanese author)

    Dazai Osamu, novelist who emerged at the end of World War II as the literary voice of his time. His dark, wry tone perfectly captured the confusion of postwar Japan, when traditional values were discredited and the younger generation nihilistically rejected all of the past. Born in northern Japan,

  • Tsushima Strait (strait, Japan)

    Korea Strait: …being often referred to as Tsushima Strait. The western channel was formerly called the Chōsen Strait.

  • Tsushima, Battle of (Russo-Japanese war)

    Battle of Tsushima, (May 27–29, 1905), naval engagement of the Russo-Japanese War, the final, crushing defeat of the Russian navy in that conflict. The Japanese had been unable to secure the complete command of the sea because the Russian naval squadrons at Port Arthur and Vladivostok made sorties

  • Tsushima-kaikyo (strait, Japan)

    Korea Strait: …being often referred to as Tsushima Strait. The western channel was formerly called the Chōsen Strait.

  • tsutsugamushi disease

    Scrub typhus, acute infectious disease in humans that is caused by the parasite Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of certain kinds of trombiculid mites, or chiggers. The causative agent of scrub typhus, the bacterium R. tsutsugamushi, is primarily a parasite of

  • Tsutsumi family (Japanese family)

    Tsutsumi Family, family of Japanese businessmen who built two vast corporate empires as Japan made the transition from a manufacturing-based to a service-based economy in the late 20th century. Born into a peasant family, Tsutsumi Yasujiro (b. 1889, Shiga prefecture, Japan—d. April 26, 1964)

  • Tsutsumi Seiji (Japanese businessman)

    Tsutsumi Family: …prominent son of Yasujiro was Seiji (b. March 30, 1927), who in 1964 received only a single department store as his share of his father’s inheritance. But Seiji was able to parlay this property into the Seibu chain of luxury department stores, which by 1990 had become Japan’s largest department…

  • Tsutsumi Yasujiro (Japanese politician)

    Tsutsumi Family: Born into a peasant family, Tsutsumi Yasujiro (b. 1889, Shiga prefecture, Japan—d. April 26, 1964) graduated from Waseda University in 1913. He founded the Kokudo Keikaku land-management company in 1918 and began buying real estate on a significant scale in the 1920s. He also entered politics, being elected to the…

  • Tsutsumi Yoshiaki (Japanese businessman)

    Tsutsumi Family: Tsutsumi Yoshiaki (b. May 29, 1934) inherited the bulk of his father’s fortune, becoming president of Seibu Railway Co. and the principal shareholder in Kokudo Keikaku. The owner of the largest private railroad company in Japan, Yoshiaki built many hotels, amusement parks, resorts, golf courses,…

  • Tsuu T’ina (people)

    Sarcee, North American Plains Indians of Athabaskan linguistic stock who lived in the 18th and 19th centuries near the upper Saskatchewan and Athabaska rivers in the present provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, Can. They probably moved southward to this region near the end of the 17th century

  • Tsuyama (Japan)

    Tsuyama, city, northeastern Okayama ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. It lies along the upper Yoshii River, in the centre of the Tsuyama basin. A castle was built there in 1442. An important post town during the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), Tsuyama is still a centre of traditional home

  • tsuyogin (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Melodic principles: …basic styles, the strong (tsuyogin) and the lyric (yowagin). Their differences are most evident in the placement of fundamental tones and the use of auxiliary tones around them. In the lyric style the three basic tones (jō, chū, and ge) are a fourth apart. The movement to and from…

  • Tsūzoku Suikoden gōketsu hyakuhachinin (prints by Utagawa Kuniyoshi)

    Utagawa Kuniyoshi: …his series of prints entitled Tsūzoku Suikoden gōketsu hyakuhachinin (“One Hundred and Eight Popular Warrior Heroes from Shui-hu ch’uan”), published in about 1827. He also produced landscapes, frequently using Western perspective. Among the most famous of these are the 10-print series Tōto meisho (“Famous Sights of Edo”) and the five-print…

  • tsuzumi (musical instrument)

    Tsuzumi, any of a family of Japanese two-headed drums with hourglass-shaped (waisted) bodies. The two most commonly used tsuzumi are the ko-tsuzumi and the ō-tsuzumi, found in the music of Noh and Kabuki theatres. Although the ko-tsuzumi and the ō-tsuzumi are quite similar in appearance, the manner

  • tsuzure (tapestry)

    Tsuzure, Japanese tapestry, the full name of which is tsuzure-nishiki (“polychrome tapestry”). They were usually woven of silk on cotton warp covered with silk, gold, or silver threads. Tsuzure techniques reached Japan from China in the late 15th or early 16th century during the Muromachi

  • tsuzure-nishiki (tapestry)

    Tsuzure, Japanese tapestry, the full name of which is tsuzure-nishiki (“polychrome tapestry”). They were usually woven of silk on cotton warp covered with silk, gold, or silver threads. Tsuzure techniques reached Japan from China in the late 15th or early 16th century during the Muromachi

  • Tsvangirai, Morgan (prime minister of Zimbabwe)

    Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwean opposition leader and trade union activist known for his dissent against the policies of Zimbabwe’s longtime president Robert Mugabe. He formed a power-sharing government with Mugabe and served as prime minister (2009–13). Tsvangirai failed in his attempt to unseat

  • Tsvet granata (film by Paradzhanov)

    Sergey Yosifovich Paradzhanov: …further with Tsvet granata (1969; The Colour of Pomegranates, or Sayat Nova), in which he used ancient Armenian music to enhance symbolic episodes drawn from the colorful life of 18th-century Armenian poet Sayat-Nova. In 1974 he was tried on a range of charges, including homosexuality, currency offenses, and “dealing in…

  • Tsvet, Mikhail Semyonovich (Russian botanist)

    Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet, Russian botanist who developed the adsorption chromatography technique of separating plant pigments by extracting them from leaves with ether and alcohol and percolating the solution through a column of calcium carbonate. Tsvet studied in Geneva, Switz., receiving his

  • Tsvetayeva, Marina Ivanovna (Russian poet)

    Marina Ivanovna Tsvetayeva, Russian poet whose verse is distinctive for its staccato rhythms, originality, and directness and who, though little known outside Russia, is considered one of the finest 20th-century poets in the Russian language. Tsvetayeva spent her youth predominantly in Moscow,

  • Tsvett, Mikhail Semyonovich (Russian botanist)

    Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet, Russian botanist who developed the adsorption chromatography technique of separating plant pigments by extracting them from leaves with ether and alcohol and percolating the solution through a column of calcium carbonate. Tsvet studied in Geneva, Switz., receiving his

  • Tsvishn tsvey berg (story by Peretz)

    Yiddish literature: The classic writers: Peretz’s masterpiece is Tsvishn tsvey berg (1900; “Between Two Peaks”), narrated by a young Hasidic man. The story subtly balances Hasidic and anti-Hasidic views. These texts inspired the neo-Hasidism of authors such as Martin Buber, but Peretz himself did not romanticize Hasidic life.

  • Tsvishn Tsvey Veltn (play by Ansky)

    The Dybbuk, expressionistic drama in four acts by S. Ansky, performed in 1920 in Yiddish as Der Dibek and published the following year. Originally titled Tsvishn Tsvey Veltn (“Between Two Worlds”), the play was based on the mystical concept from ?asidic Jewish folklore of the dybbuk, a disembodied

  • Tswa (people)

    Pygmy: …is the large group of Tswa (Batswa), who, like the Twa, have adopted much of the culture and language of neighbouring tribes. They live largely by fishing and trapping.

  • Tswana (people)

    Tswana, westerly division of the Sotho, a Bantu-speaking people of South Africa and Botswana. The Tswana comprise several groupings, the most important of which, numerically speaking, are the Hurutshe, Kgatla, Kwena, Rolong, Tlhaping, and Tlokwa. They numbered about four million at the turn of the

  • Tswett, Mikhail Semyonovich (Russian botanist)

    Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet, Russian botanist who developed the adsorption chromatography technique of separating plant pigments by extracting them from leaves with ether and alcohol and percolating the solution through a column of calcium carbonate. Tsvet studied in Geneva, Switz., receiving his

  • TSX (stock exchange, Toronto, Canada)

    Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX), the largest stock exchange in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It opened in 1861 with 18 stock listings and has since become an innovator in securities-trading technology. The Toronto Stock Exchange, which originally used the acronym TSE, was the first

  • Tsygany (poem by Pushkin)

    Aleksandr Pushkin: At Mikhaylovskoye: …1824 he published Tsygany (The Gypsies), begun earlier as part of the “southern cycle.” At Mikhaylovskoye, too, he wrote the provincial chapters of Yevgeny Onegin; the poem Graf Nulin (1827; “Count Nulin”), based on the life of the rural gentry; and, finally, one of his major works, the historical…

  • TT (chronology)

    eclipse: Prediction and calculation of solar and lunar eclipses: …made some years ahead in Terrestrial Time (TT), which is defined by the orbital motion of Earth and the other planets. At the time of the eclipse, the correction is made to Universal Time (UT), which is defined by the rotation of Earth and is not rigorously uniform.

  • TT races (motorcycle race)

    Tourist Trophy races, best known and most demanding of the European motorcycle races. First run in 1907 on the Isle of Man off the northwestern coast of England, the race attracted many riders from all over England and the European continent. The race was originally intended for motorcycles

  • TTAPS (scientific study)

    nuclear winter: …ambitious study, known as the TTAPS study (from the initials of the last names of its authors, R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, T.P. Ackerman, J.B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan), took into consideration the crucial factor of smoke and soot arising from the burning petroleum fuels and plastics in nuclear-devastated cities. (Smoke…

  • TTC (Canadian transportation)

    Toronto: Transportation: …came the creation of the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) to provide public transportation for the whole region. New subway lines and extensions were added to the system, although many were delayed because of a lack of funding. Other changes to the transit system included phasing out the trolleys. To facilitate…

  • TTCT (psychology)

    creativity: Individual qualities of creative persons: …a means of assessment, the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), that accounts for all of these skills. The TTCT became one of the most widely used measures of creativity. Torrance provided additional support for his approach in follow-up studies of his subjects after 7, 12, and 22 years, and…

  • TTF (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfides: …heterocyclic sulfur compounds—such as thiophene, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), and the bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF) cation—as organic metals and superconductors (e.g., for use as switching elements and light-emitting diodes). Indeed, the 2000 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, awarded to American chemists Alan J. Heeger and Alan G. MacDiarmid and Japanese chemist Shirakawa Hideki, recognized the…

  • TTF therapy (therapeutics)

    mesothelioma: Survival prediction and treatment: Tumour-treating field (TTF) therapy, in which an electric field is used to impair tumour cell division, may be given in combination with certain chemotherapeutic agents to combat malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  • TTK

    Test of teaching knowledge (TTK), any of various tests used to assess teachers’ knowledge before, during, and after teacher preparation programs. TTKs are designed to identify an individual’s degree of formal teacher preparation, if any, and to predict teaching success. In general, three types of

  • TTL metering (photography)

    exposure meter: …meters are of the “through-the-lens” (TTL) type, reading light as it is focused by the camera’s lens and strikes the film or sensor. Many of the capabilities of handheld meters are found in built-in meters. Exposure correction can be done either semiautomatically or automatically. In a semiautomatic model, the…

  • TTP (militant organization, Pakistan)

    Peshawar school massacre: …the massacre was claimed by Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the Pakistani branch of the Taliban, a militant Islamic movement. TTP leaders sought to justify the massacre as retribution for violent government attacks on its members. In the view of knowledgeable observers, the most probable provocation was Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a government anti-militant…

  • TTPI (former United States territory, Pacific Ocean)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, former United Nations strategic-area trusteeship that was administered by the United States from 1947 to 1986. The territory consisted of more than 2,000 islands scattered over about 3,000,000 square miles (7,770,000 square km) of the tropical western Pacific

  • TTR (gene)

    amyloidosis: …mutations in a gene designated TTR (transthyretin). Transthyretin protein, produced by the TTR gene, normally circulates in the blood and plays an important role in the transport and tissue delivery of thyroid hormone and retinol. FAP primarily affects the nervous system, resulting in abnormal nerve sensation, pain, and limb weakness.…

  • TTS (device)

    printing: Automatic composition (perforated tape): The Teletypesetter (TTS) system extends to slugcasting machines the principle of separation of function originally characteristic of the Monotype: it enables Linotype or Intertype machines to be controlled by a perforated tape produced on a separate keyboard, even situated in a different city, since the combination…

  • TTZ (ceramics)

    advanced structural ceramics: Transformation toughening: Ceramics such as transformation-toughened zirconia (TTZ) are often referred to as ceramic steel because the strain, or change in dimension, in response to stress behaviour resembles that of steel instead of a brittle ceramic. Also, the underlying phase transformation is called martensitic, after a similar transformation in rapidly…

  • Tu (novel by Grace)

    Patricia Grace: The novel Tu (2004) was inspired by Grace’s father’s service in New Zealand’s Maori Battalion during World War II. It is, among other things, a reflection on the irony of Maori soldiers fighting, as a Maori leader puts it, “for the people who had stolen their country.”…

  • ?u bi-Sheva? (Judaism)

    ?u bi-Sheva?, (Hebrew: “Fifteenth of Sheva?”), Jewish festival of the new year of trees, or arbor day. It occurs on Sheva? 15 (January or early February), after most of the annual rain in Israel has fallen and when, thereafter, the fruit of a tree is considered, for tithing, to belong to a new

  • Tu Chiang-yen irrigation system (irrigation system, China)

    Chengdu: …Chengdu Plain, the site of Dujiangyan, one of China’s most ancient and successful irrigation systems, watered by the Min River. The system and nearby Mount Qingcheng, an early centre of Daoism, were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2000. The irrigation system, first set up during the Qin…

  • Tu Duc (emperor of Vietnam)

    Tu Duc, emperor of Vietnam who followed a policy of conservatism and isolation and whose persecution of Christian missionaries foreshadowed the French conquest of Vietnam. The son of Emperor Thieu Tri, Prince Nguyen Phuoc Hoang Nham was chosen over his older brother to succeed his father. He

  • Tu es Petrus (mass by Palestrina)

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: Music: …fa, sol, la; Ave Maria; Tu es Petrus; and Veni Creator Spiritus. These titles refer to the source of the particular cantus firmus. Palestrina’s mastery of contrapuntal ingenuity may be appreciated to the fullest extent in some of his canonic masses (in which one or more voice parts are derived…

  • Tu Fu (Chinese poet)

    Du Fu, Chinese poet, considered by many literary critics to be the greatest of all time. Born into a scholarly family, Du Fu received a traditional Confucian education but failed in the imperial examinations of 735. As a result, he spent much of his youth traveling. During his travels he won renown

  • Tu Kuang-t’ing (Taoist scholar)

    Tu Kuang-t’ing, Taoist scholar of the T’ang period who contributed to the development of Taoist liturgical ritual and the blending of the T’ien-shih and Ling-pao scriptures. His ideas on Taoist ritual were especially influential in the articulation of the common Taoist “fasting,” or chia, rites a

  • Tu language

    Mongolian languages: …Daur in the east; and Monguor (Tu), Bao’an (Bonan), and Santa (Dongxiang) in the south—were isolated from the main body of Mongolian languages when the tide of Mongol conquest receded. These languages diverged from the main group of Mongolian dialects and to this day retain archaic features characteristic of Middle…

  • Tu Luc Van Doan (Vietnamese literary movement)

    Vietnamese literature: …their lasting effect, were the Tu Luc Van Doan (“Independent Literary Group”), led by Khai Hung and Nhat Linh, and the Tho Moi (“New Poetry”) school, which included important writers such as Xuan Dieu, Che Lan Vien, Cu Huy Can, Bang Ba Lan, and Luu Trong Lu. Both groups succeeded…

  • Tu mi turbi (film by Benigni [1983])

    Roberto Benigni: …with Tu mi turbi (You Upset Me), which he also wrote and starred in. The film featured his wife, actress Nicoletta Braschi, who frequently appeared in his work and played his onscreen spouse in Life Is Beautiful. Benigni again performed triple duties in Il piccolo diavolo (1988; “The Little…

  • Tu Youyou (Chinese scientist and phytochemist)

    Tu Youyou, Chinese scientist and phytochemist known for her isolation and study of the antimalarial substance qinghaosu, later known as artemisinin, one of the world’s most-effective malaria-fighting drugs. For her discoveries, Tu received the 2015 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (shared

  • Tu-104 (aircraft)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev: …aircraft were derived from these—the Tu-104, which appeared in 1955 and became one of the first jet transports to provide regular passenger service, and the Tu-114 long-range passenger plane, the largest propeller-driven aircraft ever in regular service.

  • Tu-144 (Soviet aircraft)

    Tupolev Tu-144, world’s first supersonic transport aircraft, designed by the veteran Soviet aircraft designer Andrey N. Tupolev and his son Alexey. It was test-flown in December 1968, exceeded the speed of sound in June 1969, and was first publicly shown in Moscow in May 1970. In its production

  • Tu-16 (aircraft)

    Tu-16, one of the principal strategic bombers of the Soviet Union, designed by Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev (1888–1972) and first flown in 1952. More than 2,000 of the mid-wing monoplanes were built. Powered by two turbojet engines, it had a maximum speed of 652 miles per hour (1,050 km per hour) at

  • Tu-160 (Soviet aircraft)

    bomber: … and the long-range B-1 and Tu-160 Blackjack, respectively. These planes were designed to slip under early-warning radar at low level and to approach military targets using terrain-following radars and inertial-guidance systems. They could carry gravity bombs (nuclear or conventional), air-launched cruise missiles, or air-launched ballistic missiles.

  • Tu-160 Blackjack (Soviet aircraft)

    bomber: … and the long-range B-1 and Tu-160 Blackjack, respectively. These planes were designed to slip under early-warning radar at low level and to approach military targets using terrain-following radars and inertial-guidance systems. They could carry gravity bombs (nuclear or conventional), air-launched cruise missiles, or air-launched ballistic missiles.

  • Tu-2 (aircraft)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev: From this came the Tu-2, a twin-engine bomber that saw wide use in World War II and, in 1943, earned Tupolev his freedom and a Stalin Prize. Near the end of the war he was given the job of copying the U.S. B-29 Superfortress, three of which had force-landed…

  • Tu-22M (Soviet aircraft)

    bomber: …actually a strategic bomber) and Tu-26 Backfire and the long-range B-1 and Tu-160 Blackjack, respectively. These planes were designed to slip under early-warning radar at low level and to approach military targets using terrain-following radars and inertial-guidance systems. They could carry gravity bombs (nuclear or conventional), air-launched cruise missiles, or…

  • Tu-26 (Soviet aircraft)

    bomber: …actually a strategic bomber) and Tu-26 Backfire and the long-range B-1 and Tu-160 Blackjack, respectively. These planes were designed to slip under early-warning radar at low level and to approach military targets using terrain-following radars and inertial-guidance systems. They could carry gravity bombs (nuclear or conventional), air-launched cruise missiles, or…

  • Tu-26 Backfire (Soviet aircraft)

    bomber: …actually a strategic bomber) and Tu-26 Backfire and the long-range B-1 and Tu-160 Blackjack, respectively. These planes were designed to slip under early-warning radar at low level and to approach military targets using terrain-following radars and inertial-guidance systems. They could carry gravity bombs (nuclear or conventional), air-launched cruise missiles, or…

  • Tu-4 (Soviet aircraft)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev: This project resulted in the Tu-4 (NATO designation “Bull”), which first flew in 1947 and was the U.S.S.R.’s principal strategic bomber until the mid-1950s.

  • Tu-95 (aircraft)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev: …Tupolev’s longtime associate, designed the Tu-95 (“Bear”), a huge turboprop bomber that first flew in 1954 and became one of the most durable military aircraft ever built. Two civilian aircraft were derived from these—the Tu-104, which appeared in 1955 and became one of the first jet transports to provide regular…

  • Tu-yün (China)

    Duyun, city, central Guizhou sheng (province), southern China. It is situated on the Jian River, some 60 miles (100 km) southeast of the provincial capital of Guiyang. Duyun is a transport centre, with a highway route running eastward into Hunan province and a main route, followed by a highway and

  • Tuaim (Ireland)

    Tuam, chief market town of the northern part of eastern County Galway, Ireland. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop, the see having been founded by St. Jarlath (c. 550), and the seat of a Protestant bishop. The Protestant cathedral incorporates part of an ancient church built about 1130

  • Tuam (Ireland)

    Tuam, chief market town of the northern part of eastern County Galway, Ireland. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop, the see having been founded by St. Jarlath (c. 550), and the seat of a Protestant bishop. The Protestant cathedral incorporates part of an ancient church built about 1130

  • Tuamotu Archipelago (islands, French Polynesia)

    Tuamotu Archipelago, island group of French Polynesia, central South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago comprises 75 atolls, one raised coral atoll (Makatea), and innumerable coral reefs, roughly dispersed northwest-southeast as a double chain for more than 900 miles (1,450 km). It is the largest group

  • tuan (mammal)

    marsupial mouse: …marsupial mice, or tuans (Phascogale), are grayish above and whitish below in colour; the distal half of the long tail is thickly furred and resembles a bottle brush when the hairs are erected. Tuans are arboreal but may raid poultry yards. In both appearance and behaviour the flat-skulled marsupial…

  • Tuan Ch’i-jui (Chinese warlord)

    Duan Qirui, warlord who dominated China intermittently between 1916 and 1926. A student of military science in Germany, Duan became President Yuan Shikai’s minister of war following the Chinese Revolution of 1911. Shortly before Yuan’s death in 1916, Duan became premier, and he kept the post in the

  • Tuan, Ph?m (Vietnamese pilot and cosmonaut)

    Ph?m Tuan, Vietnamese pilot and cosmonaut, the first Vietnamese citizen in space. Tuan joined the Vietnam People’s Air Force in 1965, where he became a pilot and engineer. During the Vietnam War he flew combat missions against American fighter planes and in 1972 won the praise of his government,

  • Tuanku Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah (king of Malaysia)

    Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, (Tuanku Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah), Malaysian monarch (born March 8, 1926, Klang, Malaya—died Nov. 21, 2001, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), was the ceremonial head of state, or yang di-pertuan agong (paramount ruler), of Malaysia f

  • Tuapse (Russia)

    Tuapse, city and seaport of Krasnodar kray (territory), southwestern Russia. It lies on a sheltered bay of the Black Sea. Founded in 1838 around a fortress established in 1828, it grew in the 20th century as a major ship-repairing, oil-refining, and oil-export centre. It is linked by pipeline to

  • Tuareg (people)

    Tuareg, Berber-speaking pastoralists who inhabit an area in North and West Africa ranging from Touat, Algeria, and Ghadames, Libya, to northern Nigeria and from Fezzan, Libya, to Timbuktu, Mali. Their political organizations extend across national boundaries. In the 2010s there were estimated to be

  • Tuareg language

    Berber languages: Kabyle, Tamazight, and Tamahaq. The family may also include extinct languages such as the Guanche languages of the Canary Islands, Old Libyan (Numidian), and Old Mauretanian, which are known from inscriptions but have not yet been studied thoroughly enough to make any affirmative generalizations about their linguistic characteristics.…

  • Tuat (oasis group, Algeria)

    Touat, oasis group, west-central Algeria. Situated along the Wadi Messaoud (called Wadi Saoura farther north), the Touat oases are strung beadlike in a northwest-southeast orientation west of the Plateau of Tadema?t. The area was brought under Islamic control in the 10th century ad. In modern times

  • tuatara (reptile)

    Tuatara, (genus Sphenodon), any of two species of moderately large lizardlike reptiles endemic to New Zealand. Although a growing number of geneticists contend that all living tuatara belong to the same species, two species of extant tuatara are recognized, Sphenodon guntheri and S. punctatus.

  • tuatha (ancient Irish kingdom)

    Ireland: Political and social organization: …petty kingdoms, or clans (tuatha), each of which was quite independent under its elected king. Groups of tuatha tended to combine, but the king who claimed overlordship in each group had a primacy of honour rather than of jurisdiction. Not until the 10th century ad was there a king…

  • Tuatha Dé Danann (Celtic mythology)

    Tuatha Dé Danann, (Gaelic: “People of the Goddess Danu”), in Celtic mythology, a race inhabiting Ireland before the arrival of the Milesians (the ancestors of the modern Irish). They were said to have been skilled in magic, and the earliest reference to them relates that, after they were banished

  • Tuathal Techtmar (Irish legendary conqueror)

    Teutates: The Irish Tuathal Techtmar, one of the legendary conquerors of Ireland, has a name that comes from an earlier form, Teuto-valos (“Ruler of the People”); he may have been an eponymous deity of the district that he is reputed to have conquered, but he was probably just…

  • tub front (furniture)

    Goddard Family: …credited with having originated the blockfront, or tub front (although the Townsends have an equally qualified claim to this style), a distinctive furniture front that is divided vertically through alternating convex (sides) and concave (centre) panels. His blockfront desks, secretaries, and cabinets usually have readily identifiable ogee bracket feet (also…

  • tub gurnard (fish)

    sea robin: The tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucernus) of Europe, for example, is a reddish fish with pectoral fins brightly edged and spotted with blue and green. Sea robins are also vocal and can produce audible sounds with their swim bladders and certain attached muscles. Along the American Atlantic,…

  • tuba (musical instrument)

    Tuba, deep-pitched brass wind instrument with valves and wide conical bore. The word tuba originally was the name of a straight-built Roman trumpet and was the medieval Latin word for trumpet. Valved bass brass instruments for bands are mentioned as early as 1829, but little is now known about

  • Tuba (river, Russia)

    Yenisey River: Physiography: …from the left and the Tuba River from the right. Fed chiefly by rainwater and melting snow, they begin their spring high water in late April and are swollen by summer rain floods. The Angara, on the other hand, is highly regulated by its source—the huge Lake Baikal—and rarely experiences…

  • tuba curva (musical instrument)

    cornu: Under the name tuba curva a version of the instrument was revived in France during the Revolution and was used by the composer André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry in his music for Voltaire’s interment in the Pantheon.

  • tubal ligation

    sterilization: …oldest form of surgical sterilization, tubal ligation, remains one of the most widely used. As originally performed, this consisted of tying the female’s fallopian tubes closed with silk thread. Simple ligation has a high failure rate, however, and modern procedures usually rely on stitching the tubes closed or severing a…

  • tubal pregnancy

    ectopic pregnancy: Tubal pregnancy, in which the ovum becomes implanted in one of the fallopian tubes, may be brought about by factors that interfere with the propulsion of the fertilized ovum from the fallopian tube toward the uterine cavity. Examples include inflammation of the fallopian tube, developmental…

  • Tubalar (people)

    Tofalar, Turkic-speaking people of southern Siberia who numbered about 800 in the mid-1980s. Their traditional habitat was the northern slopes of the Eastern Sayan Mountains, where they lived by nomadic hunting and reindeer breeding. Of all the peoples of Siberia, only the Tofalar failed to develop

  • Tuban (Indonesia)

    Tuban, city, northwestern East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), northern Java, Indonesia. It is a fishing port on the Java Sea, about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Surabaya. Road and railway link it with Babat to the south, and it is connected by road with Rembang and Kudus to

  • tubaphone (musical instrument)

    glockenspiel: The tubaphone is a softer-toned offspring of the glockenspiel. It is used in military bands and has metal tubes rather than bars.

  • Tubar language

    Mesoamerican Indian languages: The classification and status of Mesoamerican languages: Corachol-Aztecan

  • Tubar?o (city, Brazil)

    Tubar?o, city, southeastern Santa Catarina estado (state), southern Brazil. It is the seat of Tubar?o municipality, a unit of local government created in 1870. The city lies on the Tubar?o River. Crops cultivated in the surrounding coastal plain include grains, beans, coffee, rice, and sugarcane.

  • Tübatulabal language

    Uto-Aztecan languages: The languages of the Southern Uto-Aztecan division are as follows:

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