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  • Tsagadai (Mongol ruler)

    Chagatai, the second son of Genghis Khan who, at his father’s death, received Kashgaria (now the southern part of Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China) and most of Transoxania between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya (ancient Oxus and Jaxartes rivers, respectively) as his vassal kingdom. His

  • Tsai Ing-wen (president of Taiwan)

    Tsai Ing-wen, educator and politician who was the first female president of Taiwan (2016– ). Tsai, who was of Hakka descent, was one of nine children born to a wealthy business family. She spent her early childhood in coastal southern Taiwan before going to Taipei, where she completed her

  • Tsai Ming-liang (Malaysian-Taiwanese film director)

    history of the motion picture: Taiwan: Tsai Ming-liang, a filmmaker originally from Malaysia, continued Yang’s scrutiny of contemporary urban mores, albeit with more emphasis on socially marginal characters, in films such as Ching shao nien na cha (1993; Rebels of the Neon God), Aiqing wansui (1994; Vive l’amour), and Ni nei…

  • Tsaidam Basin (basin, China)

    Qaidam Basin, northeastern section of the Plateau of Tibet, occupying the northwestern part of Qinghai province, western China. The basin is bounded on the south by the towering Kunlun Mountains—with many peaks in the western part exceeding 20,000 feet (6,000 metres) above sea level—and on the

  • Tsakalov, Athanasios (Greek revolutionary)

    Greece: Philikí Etaireía: Athanasios Tsakalov—had little vision of the shape of the independent Greece they sought beyond the liberation of the motherland.

  • Tsakhur language

    Caucasian languages: The Lezgian languages: … (about 12,000); Rutul (about 15,000); Tsakhur (about 11,000); Archi (fewer than 1,000); Kryz (about 6,000); Budukh (about 2,000); Khinalug (about 1,500); and Udi (about 3,700). The majority of Lezgi languages are spoken in southern Dagestan, but some of them (Kryz, Budukh, Khinalug, Udi) are spoken chiefly in Azerbaijan; and one…

  • Tsakonian dialect

    Greek language: Local dialects: Of the local dialects, Tsakonian, spoken in certain mountain villages in eastern Peloponnese, is quite aberrant and shows evidence of descent from the ancient Doric dialect (e.g., it often has an /a/ sound for the early Greek /ā/ that went to /ē/ in Attic, later to /i/). The Asia…

  • Tsalagi (people)

    Cherokee, North American Indians of Iroquoian lineage who constituted one of the largest politically integrated tribes at the time of European colonization of the Americas. Their name is derived from a Creek word meaning “people of different speech”; many prefer to be known as Keetoowah or Tsalagi.

  • Tsamkong (China)

    Zhanjiang, city and major port, southwestern Guangdong sheng (province), China. It is located on Zhanjiang Bay on the eastern side of the Leizhou Peninsula, where it is protected by Naozhou and Donghai islands. Originally Zhanjiang was a minor fishing port in the area dominated by the city of

  • Tsan-Usdi (chief of Cherokee Nation)

    John Ross, Cherokee chief who, after devoting his life to resisting U.S. seizure of his people’s lands in Georgia, was forced to assume the painful task of shepherding the Cherokees in their removal to the Oklahoma Territory. Born of a Scottish father and a mother who was part Cherokee, the

  • Tsang Yam-kuen (Chinese politician)

    Donald Tsang, politician in Hong Kong and second chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China (2005–12). Tsang grew up in Hong Kong. He joined the Hong Kong Civil Service in 1967. Over the years he gained experience in many sectors of the government, eventually

  • Tsang Yin-ch’üan (Chinese politician)

    Donald Tsang, politician in Hong Kong and second chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China (2005–12). Tsang grew up in Hong Kong. He joined the Hong Kong Civil Service in 1967. Over the years he gained experience in many sectors of the government, eventually

  • Tsang, Donald (Chinese politician)

    Donald Tsang, politician in Hong Kong and second chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China (2005–12). Tsang grew up in Hong Kong. He joined the Hong Kong Civil Service in 1967. Over the years he gained experience in many sectors of the government, eventually

  • Tsangpo (river, Asia)

    Brahmaputra River, major river of Central and South Asia. It flows some 1,800 miles (2,900 km) from its source in the Himalayas to its confluence with the Ganges (Ganga) River, after which the mingled waters of the two rivers empty into the Bay of Bengal. Along its course the Brahmaputra passes

  • Tsankov, Aleksand?r (prime minister of Bulgaria)

    Aleksand?r Tsankov, politician, prime minister of Bulgaria (1923–26) during years of great domestic unrest and violence. Tsankov studied law at Sofia University, where in 1910 he became professor of economics. Originally a social democrat, he had by 1922 moved considerably to the right politically,

  • Tsankov, Dragan (Bulgarian political leader)

    Bulgaria: The principality: The Liberal Party, under Dragan Tsankov, Petko Karavelov (the brother of Lyuben Karavelov), and Petko Slaveikov, dominated the assembly and created a constitution that was one of the most democratic in Europe. It provided for a single National Assembly elected by universal male suffrage, guarantees of civil rights, and…

  • tsantsa (talisman)

    headhunting: …skin with hot sand, thus shrinking it to the size of the head of a small monkey but preserving the features intact. There, again, headhunting was probably associated with cannibalism in a ceremonial form.

  • Tsao Chün (Chinese mythology)

    Zao Jun, in Chinese religion, the “Furnace Prince” whose magical powers of alchemy produced gold dinnerware that conferred immortality on the diner. The Han-dynasty emperor Wudi was reportedly duped by Li Shaojun, a self-styled mystic, into believing that this new deity was capable of conferring

  • Tsao Shen (Chinese mythology)

    Zao Shen, in Chinese religion, the Kitchen God (literally, “god of the hearth”), who is believed to report to the celestial gods on family conduct and to have it within his power to bestow poverty or riches on individual families. Because he is also a protector of the home from evil spirits, his

  • Tsao-chuang (China)

    Zaozhuang, city, southern Shandong sheng (province), eastern China. The city includes an extensive area on the western flank of the southwestern spur of the Shandong Hills, to the east of the Grand Canal, that contains one of the most important coal-mining districts of eastern China. The coal

  • tsar (title)

    Tsar, title associated primarily with rulers of Russia. The term tsar, a form of the ancient Roman imperial title caesar, generated a series of derivatives in Russian: tsaritsa, a tsar’s wife, or tsarina; tsarevich, his son; tsarevna, his daughter; and tsesarevich, his eldest son and heir apparent

  • Tsar Bell (Russian bell)

    percussion instrument: Idiophones: …the Tsar Kolokol III (Emperor Bell III; 1733–35) of Moscow, weighing about 180,000 kg (400,000 pounds), proved too cumbersome and heavy for hanging. The hemispheric form was abandoned early as chimes became larger, culminating in tower-borne carillons brought into existence by progress in casting methods and mechanization. Chime bells…

  • Tsar Bomba (Soviet thermonuclear bomb)

    Tsar Bomba, (Russian: “King of Bombs”) Soviet thermonuclear bomb that was detonated in a test over Novaya Zemlya island in the Arctic Ocean on October 30, 1961. The largest nuclear weapon ever set off, it produced the most powerful human-made explosion ever recorded. The bomb was built in 1961 by a

  • Tsar Cannon (Russian cannon)

    Moscow: The Kremlin: Nearby is the Tsar Cannon, cast in 1586. Beside the gun are located the mid-17th-century Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles and the adjoining Patriarchal Palace.

  • Tsar Kolokol (Russian bell)

    percussion instrument: Idiophones: …the Tsar Kolokol III (Emperor Bell III; 1733–35) of Moscow, weighing about 180,000 kg (400,000 pounds), proved too cumbersome and heavy for hanging. The hemispheric form was abandoned early as chimes became larger, culminating in tower-borne carillons brought into existence by progress in casting methods and mechanization. Chime bells…

  • Tsaratanana Massif (massif, Madagascar)

    Antsiran?ana: …is dominated by the forested Tsaratanana Massif, which includes the highest mountain in the country, Maromokotra Peak (9,436 feet [2,876 metres]). Most of the people of the region live in the lowlands along the east and west coasts, and a road runs along each coast. The Ankara caves south of…

  • tsarina (title)

    Tsar, title associated primarily with rulers of Russia. The term tsar, a form of the ancient Roman imperial title caesar, generated a series of derivatives in Russian: tsaritsa, a tsar’s wife, or tsarina; tsarevich, his son; tsarevna, his daughter; and tsesarevich, his eldest son and heir apparent

  • Tsarina’s Meadow (field, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    St. Petersburg: Admiralty Side: …into the Neva lies the Field of Mars, one of the city’s beautiful open spaces. Begun under Peter (when it was known as the Field of Amusement), it was intended for popular festivities and fireworks. It was a favourite haunt of the 18th-century nobility, but its present name derives from…

  • Tsarist Triple Crown (horse racing)

    James Winkfield: …in Russia and the “Tsarist Triple Crown”—the Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Warsaw derbies—and he was the 1904 Russian national riding champion. Beginning in 1909, he rode in Austria and Germany for a Polish prince and a German baron, notably winning the 1909 Grosser Preis von Baden in Germany. In…

  • Tsaritsyn (Russia)

    Volgograd, city and administrative centre of Volgogradoblast (region), southwestern Russia, on the Volga River. It was founded as the fortress of Tsaritsyn in 1589 to protect newly acquired Russian territory along the Volga. During the Russian Civil War (1918–20), Joseph Stalin organized the

  • Tsarnaev, Dzhokhar (Kyrgyz American criminal)

    Boston: Development of the contemporary city: The surviving suspect, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, was apprehended by police in the wake of a manhunt that brought the Greater Boston area to an unprecedented standstill.

  • Tsarnaev, Tamerlan (criminal)

    Boston Marathon bombing of 2013: The manhunt: During the gun battle, 26-year-old Tamerlan Tsarnaev, identified as one of the two suspects in the bombing, was seriously wounded by explosives and multiple gunshots. He was apprehended by police, but he was further injured when the second suspect—his younger brother, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev—struck him with a car as he fled…

  • Tsarskoye Selo (Russia)

    Pushkin, suburban town and administrative raion (district) of St. Petersburg, northwestern European Russia, 14 miles (22 km) south of the city of St. Petersburg. Tsarskoye Selo grew up around one of the main summer palaces of the Russian royal family. Catherine I commissioned the palace (1717–23);

  • Tsarstvo bozhiye vnutri vas (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Conversion and religious beliefs: …Tsarstvo bozhiye vnutri vas (1893; The Kingdom of God Is Within You) and many other essays and tracts. In brief, Tolstoy rejected all the sacraments, all miracles, the Holy Trinity, the immortality of the soul, and many other tenets of traditional religion, all of which he regarded as obfuscations of…

  • Tsaryovo Gorodishche (Russia)

    Kurgan, city and administrative centre of Kurgan oblast (region), west-central Russia, on the Tobol River. In 1553 the fortified settlement of Tsaryovo Gorodishche was founded on a large ancient tumulus or artificial mound (Russian kurgan); it became a town in 1782, and by the late 19th century it

  • Tsatchela (people)

    Tsáchila, Indian people of the Pacific coast of Ecuador. They live in the tropical lowlands of the northwest, where, along with the neighbouring Chachi, they are the last remaining aboriginal group. The Tsáchila are linguistically related to the Chachi, although their Chibchan languages are

  • Tsavo National Park (national park, Kenya)

    Tsavo National Park, national park, southeastern Kenya, east of Mount Kilimanjaro. The largest (8,036 square miles [20,812 square km]) of Kenya’s national parks, it was established in 1948. Later that year, for administrative purposes, the park was divided into two smaller units: Tsavo East and

  • Tsawwassen (people)

    Vancouver: The contemporary city: In 2009 the Tsawwassen people initiated through their economic development corporation a project to construct an industrial park in the suburb of Delta, just south of Vancouver, on their lands abutting the Strait of Georgia. First Nations workers from the entire metropolitan area were to be employed in…

  • TSC (pathology)

    Tuberous sclerosis, autosomal dominant disorder marked by the formation of widespread benign tumors throughout the body. This disease has a well-established molecular link, which stems from defects or mutations in either of two genes—TSC1 or TSC2—that cause uncontrolled cell growth. Eighty percent

  • Tschaikovsky, Peter Ilich (Russian composer)

    Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, the most popular Russian composer of all time. His music has always had great appeal for the general public in virtue of its tuneful, open-hearted melodies, impressive harmonies, and colourful, picturesque orchestration, all of which evoke a profound emotional response.

  • tschego (primate)

    chimpanzee: Taxonomy: troglodytes are recognized: the tschego, or Central African chimpanzee (P. troglodytes troglodytes), also known as the common chimpanzee in continental Europe; the West African, or masked, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes verus), known as the common chimpanzee in Great Britain; the East African, or long-haired, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii); and the…

  • Tschermak von Seysenegg, Erich (Austrian botanist)

    Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg, Austrian botanist, one of the co-discoverers of Gregor Mendel’s classic papers on his experiments with the garden pea. Tschermak interrupted his studies in Vienna to work at the Rotvorwerk Farm near Freiberg, Saxony. He completed his education at the University of

  • tschermakite (pyroxene molecule)

    pyroxene: Chemical composition: … for Si4+ yields the ideal tschermakite component MgAlSiAlO6.

  • Tscherning, Anton Frederik (Danish politician)

    Anton Frederik Tscherning, military reformer and radical champion of democracy in mid-19th-century Denmark. While still an artillery officer in the Danish army, Tscherning developed a hatred for his country’s absolutist regime. Leaving the military in the early 1840s, he became a founder in 1846 of

  • Tschichold, Jan (German typographer and author)

    Jan Tschichold, German typographer and author who played a seminal role in the development of 20th-century graphic design and typography. The son of a sign painter, Tschichold trained as a calligrapher and designer at the Leipzig Academy of Graphic Arts and Book Production (1919–21) and then

  • Tschirnhaus, Ehrenfried Walter von (German scientist)

    pottery: Porcelain: …about 1707 in Saxony, when Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus, assisted by an alchemist called Johann Friedrich B?ttger, substituted ground feldspathic rock for the ground glass in the soft porcelain formula. Soft porcelain, always regarded as a substitute for hard porcelain, was progressively discontinued because it was uneconomic; kiln wastage was…

  • Tschopp, Emanuel (Swiss paleontologist)

    Brontosaurus: Taxonomic controversy: …2015 study by Swiss paleontologist Emanuel Tschopp and colleagues estimated that an average-sized Brontosaurus weighed 30.5 tonnes (33.6 tons). In contrast, the average Apatosaurus was heavier, weighing an estimated 41.3 tonnes (45.4 tons), and longer, measuring up to 27.4 metres (90 feet) from head to tail.

  • Tschudi, Gilg (Swiss historian)

    Gilg Tschudi, Swiss humanist and scholar, the author of a chronicle of Swiss history that was used as a source by many subsequent writers, including Friedrich Schiller. Though a pupil of the religious reformer Huldrych Zwingli, Tschudi remained a convinced and militant Roman Catholic; and his

  • Tschumi, Bernard (Swiss American architect)

    New Acropolis Museum: …designed by Swiss American architect Bernard Tschumi, was intended to resemble the nearby Parthenon. In addition to adjusting the dimensions and modeling the columns to mirror those of the Parthenon exactly, Tschumi’s design also incorporated seismic technology in anticipation of the region’s frequent earthquakes. Among the museum’s many treasures are…

  • Tschunkur, Eduard (German chemist)

    rubber: The rise of synthetic rubber: Farben by Walter Bock and Eduard Tschunkur, who synthesized a rubbery copolymer of styrene and butadiene in 1929, using an emulsion process. The Germans referred to this rubber as Buna S; the British called it SBR, or styrene-butadiene rubber. Because styrene and butadiene can be made from petroleum, grain alcohol,…

  • TSD (reproduction)

    reptile: Embryonic development and parental care: Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), discovered in the early 1970s, is the most researched of these factors. The sex of the offspring in species with TSD is influenced by the temperature during one critical period of incubation, instead of by hereditary factors. In most turtles females…

  • TSDF (waste management)

    hazardous-waste management: Transport of hazardous waste: …requires transport to an approved treatment, storage, or disposal facility (TSDF). Because of potential threats to public safety and the environment, transport is given special attention by governmental agencies. In addition to the occasional accidental spill, hazardous waste has, in the past, been intentionally spilled or abandoned at random locations…

  • TSE (stock exchange, Tokyo, Japan)

    Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), the main stock market of Japan, located in Tokyo, and one of the world’s largest marketplaces for securities. The exchange was first opened in 1878 to provide a market for the trading of government bonds that had been newly issued to former samurai. At first, government

  • TSE (stock exchange, Toronto, Canada)

    Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX), the largest stock exchange in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It opened in 1861 with 18 stock listings and has since become an innovator in securities-trading technology. The Toronto Stock Exchange, which originally used the acronym TSE, was the first

  • tse-tse fly (insect)

    Tsetse fly, (genus Glossina), any of about two to three dozen species of bloodsucking flies in the housefly family, Muscidae (order Diptera), that occur only in Africa and transmit sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) in humans and a similar disease called nagana in domestic animals. Tsetse

  • Tsedenbal, Yumjaagiin (Mongolian political leader)

    Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, Mongolian political leader who was first prime minister (1952–74) and then head of state (1974–84) of Mongolia during the country’s communist period. Tsedenbal, the son of nomadic herders, studied at the Irkutsk Institute of Finance and Economics in the Soviet Union before

  • Tsedenbal, Yumjaagiyn (Mongolian political leader)

    Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, Mongolian political leader who was first prime minister (1952–74) and then head of state (1974–84) of Mongolia during the country’s communist period. Tsedenbal, the son of nomadic herders, studied at the Irkutsk Institute of Finance and Economics in the Soviet Union before

  • Tsederbaum, Yuly Osipovich (Russian revolutionary)

    L. Martov, leader of the Mensheviks, the non-Leninist wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party. Martov served his revolutionary apprenticeship in Vilna as a member of the Bund, a Jewish Socialist group. In 1895 he and Vladimir Ilich Lenin formed the St. Petersburg Union of Struggle for

  • Tsegaye, Gabre-Medhin (Ethiopian author)

    Gabre-Medhin Tsegaye, Ethiopian playwright and poet, who wrote in Amharic and English. Tsegaye earned a degree (1959) from the Blackstone School of Law in Chicago. His interests soon turned to drama, however, and he studied stagecraft at the Royal Court Theatre in London and at the

  • Tsek’ehne (people)

    Sekani, Athabaskan-speaking North American Indian group that lived mostly in river valleys on the eastern and western slopes of the Rocky Mountains in what are now British Columbia and Alberta, Can. They were often harassed by the neighbouring Cree, Beaver, Carrier, and Shuswap peoples and, during

  • Tselinograd (national capital, Kazakhstan)

    Nursultan, city, capital of Kazakhstan. Nursultan lies in the north-central part of the country, along the Ishim River, at the junction of the Trans-Kazakhstan and South Siberian railways. It was founded in 1824 as a Russian military outpost and became an administrative centre in 1868. Its

  • Tsement (work by Gladkov)

    Fyodor Vasilyevich Gladkov: …best known for Tsement (1925; Cement, 1929), the first postrevolutionary novel to dramatize Soviet industrial development. Although crudely written, this story of a Red Army fighter who returns to find his hometown in ruins and dedicates himself to making industry thrive again anticipated in two important ways the future trends…

  • Tsenacommacah (territory of Powhatan empire)

    Powhatan: …his territory was known as Tsenacommacah. Each tribe within the Powhatan empire had its own chief, or weroance, and Powhatan ruled as the chief of these chiefs.

  • tsenatsil (musical instrument)

    Sistrum, percussion instrument, a rattle consisting of a wood, metal, or clay frame set loosely with crossbars (often hung with jingles) that sound when the instrument is shaken. A handle is attached to the frame. In ancient Egypt, sistrums were either temple-shaped or had a closed-horseshoe shape.

  • Tsene-rene (Yiddish work)

    Yiddish literature: Old Yiddish literature: Tsenerene) by Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi. The text is a loose paraphrase of the biblical passages that are read in the synagogue: the Five Books of Moses, the supplementary readings (haftarot), and the five scrolls (megillot). First published about 1600, Tsenerene incorporated a wide selection…

  • Tsenerene (Yiddish work)

    Yiddish literature: Old Yiddish literature: Tsenerene) by Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi. The text is a loose paraphrase of the biblical passages that are read in the synagogue: the Five Books of Moses, the supplementary readings (haftarot), and the five scrolls (megillot). First published about 1600, Tsenerene incorporated a wide selection…

  • Tseng Kuo-fan (Chinese official)

    Zeng Guofan, Chinese administrator, the military leader most responsible for suppressing the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64)—thus staving off the collapse of China’s imperial regime. Zeng Guofan was born into a prosperous family dominated by his grandfather Zeng Yuping, a farmer with social ambitions.

  • Tseng, Yani (Taiwanese golfer)

    Yani Tseng, In 2011 Taiwanese golfer Yani Tseng solidified her status as the dominant player on the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) tour. In June she turned in a phenomenal performance at the LPGA Championship, winning the tournament by 10 strokes. Her 19-under-par 269 tied the

  • Tseng-chang (Hindu and Buddhist mythology)

    lokapāla: …Buddhist lokapālas are Dh?tarā??ra (east), Virū?haka (south), and Virūpāk?a (west).

  • Tseng-tze (Chinese philosopher)

    Zengzi, Chinese philosopher, disciple of Confucius, traditionally believed to be the author of the Daxue (“Great Learning”). In this classic, which became a part of the Liji (“Collection of Rituals”) and one of the Four Books during the Song dynasty, he discussed the great importance of the

  • Tsentralen S?vet na Profesionalnite S?yuzi (labour organization, Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: Labour and taxation: …trade unions belonged to the Central Council of Trade Unions (Tsentralen S?vet na Profesionalnite S?yuzi), founded in 1944 and allied with the Bulgarian Communist Party. It was reconstituted in 1989 as the Confederation of Independent Bulgarian Trade Unions (S’uz na Nezavisemite B’lgarski Profs’uze).

  • Tsereteli, Irakli (Soviet politician)

    Russian Provisional Government: The April–May crisis: leader Viktor Chernov and Menshevik Irakli Tsereteli. The April–May events were important not only because the conservative elements of the Provisional Government were removed from power but also because the Petrograd Soviet had demonstrated that it could exert effective veto power over the Provisional Government, a fact that would not…

  • Tsering, Tashi (Tibetan religious leader, scholar, and activist)

    Thubten Jigme Norbu, (Tashi Tsering; Taktser Rinpoche), Tibetan religious leader, scholar, and activist (born Aug. 16, 1922, Takster, Amdo, Tibet—died Sept. 5, 2008, Bloomington, Ind.), was identified as the reincarnation of the Tibetan lama Taktser Rinpoche at age three, 10 years before the birth

  • Tsesis (Latvia)

    Cēsis, city and district centre, Latvia, situated on the Gauja River at the foot of the Vidzeme (Livonia) highlands, 55 miles (90 km) northeast of the city of Riga. It is an old city, first mentioned in documents in 1206, and its castle dates from 1207. It was once a prosperous town of the

  • tsessebe (mammal)

    Topi, (Damaliscus lunatus), one of Africa’s most common and most widespread antelopes. It is a member of the tribe Alcelaphini (family Bovidae), which also includes the blesbok, hartebeest, and wildebeest. Damaliscus lunatus is known as the topi in East Africa and as the sassaby or tsessebe in

  • tsetse fly (insect)

    Tsetse fly, (genus Glossina), any of about two to three dozen species of bloodsucking flies in the housefly family, Muscidae (order Diptera), that occur only in Africa and transmit sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) in humans and a similar disease called nagana in domestic animals. Tsetse

  • Tsetserleg (Mongolia)

    Tsetserleg, town, central Mongolia. It lies on the northeastern slopes of the Hangayn Mountains, 250 miles (400 km) southwest of Ulaanbaatar, the capital. Once the seat of a monastery, Tsetserleg is an ancient cultural and commercial centre; it now has a theatre, hotel, hospital, and an

  • Tsetserlig (Mongolia)

    Tsetserleg, town, central Mongolia. It lies on the northeastern slopes of the Hangayn Mountains, 250 miles (400 km) southwest of Ulaanbaatar, the capital. Once the seat of a monastery, Tsetserleg is an ancient cultural and commercial centre; it now has a theatre, hotel, hospital, and an

  • Tsetserlik (Mongolia)

    Tsetserleg, town, central Mongolia. It lies on the northeastern slopes of the Hangayn Mountains, 250 miles (400 km) southwest of Ulaanbaatar, the capital. Once the seat of a monastery, Tsetserleg is an ancient cultural and commercial centre; it now has a theatre, hotel, hospital, and an

  • Tsévié (Togo)

    Tsévié, town, southern Togo, West Africa. It is located about 20 miles (32 km) north of Lomé, the national capital. The town constitutes an important centre for palm oil processing and a major market for commercial trade among Togo’s regions. Tsévié has road and railway links with Notsé, Atakpamé,

  • Tsez language

    Caucasian languages: The Avar-Andi-Dido languages: …and the Dido subgroup, including Dido (Tsez), Khvarshi, Hinukh, Bezhta, and Hunzib.

  • TSH (biochemistry)

    Thyrotropin, substance produced by cells called thyrotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. Thyrotropin binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells in the thyroid gland. This binding stimulates the breakdown of thyroglobulin (a large protein that is cleaved to form the thyroid hormones and

  • TSH-receptor antibody (medicine)

    thyroid function test: …that act like thyrotropin (called TSH-receptor antibodies). Most patients with Hashimoto disease have high serum concentrations of antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Many patients with Graves disease have high serum concentrations of these two antibodies, as well as high serum concentrations of the TSH-receptor antibodies that cause the hyperthyroidism that…

  • Tshabalala-Msimang, Manto (South African physician and politician)

    Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, (Mantombazana Edmie Tshabalala-Msimang), South African physician and politician (born Oct. 9, 1940, Durban, S.Af.—died Dec. 16, 2009, Johannesburg, S.Af.), as South Africa’s health minister (1999–2008), earned the epithet Dr. Beetroot for her insistence that AIDS could be

  • Tshabalala-Msimang, Mantombazana Edmie (South African physician and politician)

    Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, (Mantombazana Edmie Tshabalala-Msimang), South African physician and politician (born Oct. 9, 1940, Durban, S.Af.—died Dec. 16, 2009, Johannesburg, S.Af.), as South Africa’s health minister (1999–2008), earned the epithet Dr. Beetroot for her insistence that AIDS could be

  • Tshaka (Zulu chief)

    Shaka, Zulu chief (1816–28), founder of Southern Africa’s Zulu Empire. He is credited with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region. His life is the subject of numerous colourful and exaggerated stories, many of which are debated by historians. Shaka was the son of Senzangakona,

  • Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho (Dalai Lama)

    Dalai Lama: The sixth Dalai Lama, Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho (1683–1706), was a libertine and a writer of romantic verse, not entirely suited for a seat of such authority. He was deposed by the Mongols and died while being taken to China under military escort.

  • Tshangs-pa Dkar-po (Tibetan deity)

    Tshangs-pa Dkar-po, in Tibetan Buddhism, one of the eight fierce protection deities. See

  • Tshikapa (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Tshikapa, village, Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the Kasai River, about 30 miles (50 km) north of the Angolan border. A noted diamond mining locale (arising after the first diamond was discovered in the area in 1907), exploitation fell off in the 1970s, but gravel quarrying remained

  • Tshisekedi wa Mulumba, étienne (prime minister of Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    étienne Tshisekedi, Congolese opposition leader who founded (1982) the country’s first opposition party and worked against the successive presidents Mobutu Sese Seko, Laurent Kabila, and Joseph Kabila. When Mobutu seized power in 1965, Tshisekedi was a supporter, and he served in Mobutu’s

  • Tshisekedi, étienne (prime minister of Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    étienne Tshisekedi, Congolese opposition leader who founded (1982) the country’s first opposition party and worked against the successive presidents Mobutu Sese Seko, Laurent Kabila, and Joseph Kabila. When Mobutu seized power in 1965, Tshisekedi was a supporter, and he served in Mobutu’s

  • Tshisekedi, Félix (president of Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Joseph Kabila: Presidency: …week and a half later, Félix Tshisekedi—son of étienne Tshisekedi, who had died in 2017—was declared the winner, followed closely by Martin Fayulu, another opposition candidate; Shadary came in third. The results, however, disagreed with a preelection poll, the tallies compiled by an election monitoring group, and leaked voting data,…

  • Tshogdu (Bhutani national assembly)

    Bhutan: Constitutional framework: …national assembly known as the Tshogdu was established in Bhutan through the king’s initiative. It had 151 members, who were elected by village headmen or chosen by the king and the country’s official Buddhist monastic order. The Tshogdu met twice a year and passed legislation enacted by the king. The…

  • tshol (African sacred object)

    African art: Baga: These objects are called tshol. They have cylindrical bases with a birdlike beak. One type of tshol, the a-tshol, refers to wealth, elegance, and leadership and is the supreme authority within the clan. The Baga have a rich tradition of masquerades: the a-muntshol-nga-tsho, a serpentlike being identified with water,…

  • Tshombe, Moise (African politician)

    Moise Tshombe, politician, president of the secessionist African state of Katanga, and premier of the united Congo Republic (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) who took advantage of an armed mutiny to announce the secession of mineral-rich Katanga province in July 1960. With covert military

  • Tshombe, Moise-Kapenda (African politician)

    Moise Tshombe, politician, president of the secessionist African state of Katanga, and premier of the united Congo Republic (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) who took advantage of an armed mutiny to announce the secession of mineral-rich Katanga province in July 1960. With covert military

  • Tshukudu, Adelaide Frances (South African political activist)

    Adelaide Tambo, (Adelaide Frances Tshukudu), South African political activist (born July 18, 1929 , near Vereeniging, S.Af.—died Jan. 31, 2007 , Johannesburg, S.Af.), was a prominent figure in the struggle against apartheid in South Africa. As a teenager she joined the black nationalist African

  • Tshwane (national administrative capital, South Africa)

    Pretoria, city in Gauteng province and administrative capital of the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria stretches along both sides of the Apies River and extends into the western foothills of the Magaliesberg on the east. Founded in 1855 by Marthinus, son of Andries Pretorius, the Boer statesman

  • Tshwete, Stephen Vukile (South African politician and activist)

    Stephen Vukile Tshwete, South African activist and politician (born Nov. 12, 1938, Springs, S.Af.—died April 26, 2002, Pretoria, S.Af.), was political commissioner of Umkhonto we Sizwe (“Spear of the Nation”), the military wing of the antiapartheid African National Congress, and a member of the A

  • tsi-tog (flower)

    Tibet: Plant and animal life: …lotuses, wild pansies, oleanders, orchids, tsi-tog (light pink flowers that grow at high elevations), shang-drils (bell-shaped flowers, either white, yellow, or maroon, that also grow at high elevations), and ogchu (red flowers that grow in sandy regions).

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