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  • tronie (painting)

    Rembrandt van Rijn: The Leiden period (1625–31): …to small-scale history paintings and tronies (single figures in historicizing, Oriental, or imaginary costumes that connote old age, piety, soldierly bravery, the Orient, transience, and so on). Tronies were not meant to be portraits, although individuals must have posed for them (among them Rembrandt himself, in the mirror). Also during…

  • Tronto (river, Italy)

    Abruzzi: The principal rivers (the Tronto, Pescara, Sangro, and Trigno) drain to the Adriatic, providing irrigation in their lower courses. The course of these streams is irregular, and, because of massive deforestation on the upper slopes, floods and landslides occur frequently during the spring and fall rains.

  • Troodon (dinosaur)

    dinosaur: Tetanurae: troodontids. Dromaeosaurs were medium-size predators with long, grasping arms and hands, moderately long legs, and a specialized stiffened tail that could be used for active balance control. Their feet bore large talons on one toe that were evidently used for raking and slicing prey. A…

  • Troodos Mountains (mountain range, Cyprus)

    Troodos Mountains, mountain range in southern Cyprus, beginning immediately inland from Cape Arnauti. It rises to its highest point at Mount Olympus, or Khionistra (6,401 feet [1,951 metres]), about 35 miles (56 km) southwest of Nicosia, and gradually descends to narrow coastal strips on the south

  • Troodos, Mount (mountain, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Relief: The range’s summit, Mount Olympus (also called Mount Troodos), reaches an elevation of 6,401 feet (1,951 metres) and is the island’s highest point.

  • troop (animal behaviour)

    macaque: Macaques live in troops of varying size. The males dominate the troop and live within a clear but shifting dominance rank order. The ranking of females is longer-lasting and depends on their genealogical position. Macaques are somewhat more arboreal than baboons but are equally at home on the…

  • Trooper Peter Halketh of Mashonaland (work by Schreiner)

    Olive Schreiner: …Cecil Rhodes and his associates, Trooper Peter Halkett of Mashonaland (1897), and a widely acclaimed “bible” of the Women’s Movement, Woman and Labour (1911).

  • Trooping the Colour (British military tradition)

    Trooping the Colour, traditional observance of the British monarch’s official birthday with a military ceremony and parade in London. Irrespective of the actual day upon which the sovereign was born, a Saturday in June is annually set aside to celebrate the monarch’s birth with pomp, pageantry, and

  • Tropaeolaceae (plant family)

    Brassicales: Akaniaceae and Tropaeolaceae: Akaniaceae and Tropaeolaceae both have large zygomorphic flowers with eight stamens and an ovary with three compartments, with the ovules at the apex of each. Geographically and morphologically they might otherwise seem an unlikely pair.

  • Tropaeolum (plant, Tropaeolum genus)

    Nasturtium, any of various annual plants of the genus Tropaeolum, in the family Tropaeolaceae, native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America and introduced into other regions as cultivated garden plants. Nasturtium is also a genus of aquatic herbs of the family Cruciferae (see

  • Tropaeolum majus (plant)

    nasturtium: Tropaeolum majus, the common nasturtium, is also known as Indian cress. The young flower buds and fruit are sometimes used as seasoning. The plant grows 2.4–3.6 metres (8–12 feet) tall, and the flowers are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes. T. minus, the dwarf nasturtium, has flowers…

  • Tropaeolum minus (plant)

    nasturtium: minus, the dwarf nasturtium, has flowers 3 cm (1.2 inches) across or less. T. peltophorum, the shield nasturtium, is a climbing plant with orange-red flowers about 2.5 cm (1 inch) long. T. peregrinum is commonly known as the canary creeper.

  • Tropaeolum peltophorum (plant)

    nasturtium: peltophorum, the shield nasturtium, is a climbing plant with orange-red flowers about 2.5 cm (1 inch) long. T. peregrinum is commonly known as the canary creeper.

  • Tropaeolum peregrinum (plant)

    Canary creeper, (species Tropaeolum peregrinum), annual climbing herb, of the family Tropaeolaceae, native to northwestern South America and introduced to other regions as a cultivated garden plant. It grows to a height of 1.8–3 m (6–10 feet). The leaves are round and deeply five-lobed. The

  • Tropaeum Trajani (monument, Romania)

    Western sculpture: Age of Trajan: …frieze of a great, circular Tropaeum Trajani, set up in the Dobruja (Romania) to commemorate victories over the Dacians, contains a series of metopes (a decoration in a Doric frieze) carved with figure scenes in a na?ve, flat, linear style that suggests the hands of army artists of provincial origin.

  • tropaion (ancient Greek memorial)

    Trophy, (from Greek tropaion, from tropē, “rout”), in ancient Greece, memorial of victory set up on the field of battle at the spot where the enemy had been routed. It consisted of captured arms and standards hung upon a tree or stake in the semblance of a man and was inscribed with details of the

  • troparion (vocal music)

    Troparion, short hymn or stanza sung in Greek Orthodox religious services. The word probably derives from a diminutive of the Greek tropos (“something repeated,” “manner,” “fashion”), with a possible analogy to the Italian ritornello (“refrain”; diminutive of ritorno, “return”). Since the 5th

  • trope (music)

    Trope, in medieval church music, melody, explicatory text, or both added to a plainchant melody. Tropes are of two general types: those adding a new text to a melisma (section of music having one syllable extended over many notes); and those inserting new music, usually with words, between

  • trope (rhetoric)

    figure of speech: …simile, and irony, are called tropes.

  • trope (philosophy)

    epistemology: Ancient Skepticism: …issue, are known as “tropes.” The judgment that a tower is round when seen at a distance, for example, is contradicted by the judgment that the tower is square when seen up close. The judgment that Providence cares for all things, which is supported by the orderliness of the…

  • trope nominalism (philosophy)

    universal: Trope nominalism: Other nominalists, so-called “trope” nominalists, follow the American philosopher Donald Cary Williams in positing an extra kind of part for things. Williams held that a round red disk, for example, has parts in addition to its concrete spatial parts, such as its upper…

  • Tropenmuseum (museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    museum: History museums: …Museum in London, and the Tropenmuseum (Museum of the Royal Tropical Institute) in Amsterdam. Restructuring of such collections in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, however, suggested efforts to move away from the self-other dichotomy of colonialism. Specialized ethnography museums are also to be found in provincial cities. Normally,…

  • trophallaxis (zoology)

    hymenopteran: General features: Trophallaxis, or the mutual exchange of food between larvae and adults of bees, ants, and wasps, has been of special interest to hymenopterists. Hyperparasitism—the parasitic habit of one species upon another parasitic species—has also attracted attention. Polyembryony, the development of many individuals (as many as…

  • Trophées, Les (work by Heredia)

    José Maria de Heredia: …longer pieces were published as Les Trophées (1893). These poems capture in verse a fugitive moment of history (usually classical or Renaissance) or else some objet d’art (a vase, a coin, an ornate book binding), usually in one startling image. A selection of his poems in English translation was published…

  • trophic cascade (ecology)

    Trophic cascade, an ecological phenomenon triggered by the addition or removal of top predators and involving reciprocal changes in the relative populations of predator and prey through a food chain, which often results in dramatic changes in ecosystem structure and nutrient cycling. In a

  • trophic factor (biochemistry)

    human nervous system: Neuronal development: …a target cell releases a trophic factor (e.g., nerve growth factor) that is essential for the survival of the neuron synapsing with it. Physical guidance cues are involved in contact guidance, or the migration of immature neurons along a scaffold of glial fibres.

  • trophic hormone (endocrinology)

    hormone: Hormones of the pituitary gland: The action of such tropic hormones can be understood only in the light of the mode of function of the endocrine glands they regulate.

  • trophic level (ecology)

    Trophic level, step in a nutritive series, or food chain, of an ecosystem. The organisms of a chain are classified into these levels on the basis of their feeding behaviour. The first and lowest level contains the producers, green plants. The plants or their products are consumed by the

  • trophic pyramid (ecology)

    Trophic pyramid, the basic structure of interaction in all biological communities characterized by the manner in which food energy is passed from one trophic level to the next along the food chain. The base of the pyramid is composed of species called autotrophs, the primary producers of the

  • trophism (biology)

    human disease: Health versus disease: …(the process is known as hypertrophy). This occurs in certain forms of heart disease, especially in those involving long-standing high blood pressure or structural defects of the heart valves. A large heart, therefore, may be a sign of disease. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for athletes to…

  • trophoblast (embryology)

    blastocyst: …now referred to as the trophoblast. It does not contribute directly to the formation of the embryo but rather serves to establish a connection with the maternal uterus. It is a precursor of the placenta.

  • trophogenic zone (ecology)

    inland water ecosystem: Population and community development and structure: …photosynthesis occurs, also called the trophogenic zone. In this zone the production of biochemical energy through photosynthesis is greater than its consumption through respiration and decomposition. Animals and decomposers are found in both the photic and aphotic zones. In the aphotic zone, also called the tropholytic zone, the consumption of…

  • trophy (ancient Greek memorial)

    Trophy, (from Greek tropaion, from tropē, “rout”), in ancient Greece, memorial of victory set up on the field of battle at the spot where the enemy had been routed. It consisted of captured arms and standards hung upon a tree or stake in the semblance of a man and was inscribed with details of the

  • tropic bird

    Tropic bird, any member of three seabird species that constitute the family Phaethontidae (order Pelecaniformes or Phaethontiformes). Tropic birds are characterized by pairs of streaming central tail feathers, which may be as long as the bird’s body. Sailors call them marlin-spikes and bosun birds.

  • tropic hormone (endocrinology)

    hormone: Hormones of the pituitary gland: The action of such tropic hormones can be understood only in the light of the mode of function of the endocrine glands they regulate.

  • Tropic of Cancer (novel by Miller)

    Tropic of Cancer, autobiographical novel by Henry Miller, published in France in 1934 and, because of censorship, not published in the United States until 1961. Written in the tradition of Walt Whitman and Henry David Thoreau, it relates Miller’s picaresque life as an impoverished expatriate in

  • Tropic of Cancer (film by Strick [1970])

    Ellen Burstyn: …1970 she also starred in Tropic of Cancer, an adaptation of Henry Miller’s autobiographical novel in which she played Miller’s wife. She received an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actress for The Last Picture Show (1971), about life in a small Texas town. In The Exorcist (1973), Burstyn played…

  • Tropic of Cancer Monument (Chia-i, Taiwan)

    Chia-i: …(a forested vacation area), the Tropic of Cancer Monument, Wu-feng (Wufeng) Temple, and Mei-shan (Meishan) Park. Each leap year, a festival “temple meeting” is held at Chia-i city, which is connected by air to Taipei special municipality in the north and the P’eng-hu (Penghu) Islands in the west. Pu-tai (Budai)…

  • Tropic Thunder (film by Stiller [2008])

    Tom Cruise: …movie executive in the comedy Tropic Thunder, and he portrayed the historical figure Col. Claus von Stauffenberg, a German army officer who organized an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, in Valkyrie.

  • tropical agriculture

    agricultural technology: Tropical farming: The area of the world bounded roughly on the north by the Tropic of Cancer and on the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, a vast land that embraces large parts of Latin America, Africa, India, Australia, and Southeast Asia, contains climates less…

  • tropical air mass (atmospheric science)

    air mass: The maritime Tropical (mT) is the most important moisture-bearing and rain-producing air mass throughout the year. In winter it moves poleward and is cooled by the ground surface. Consequently, it is characterized by fog or low stratus or stratocumulus clouds, with drizzle and poor visibility. A steep lapse…

  • tropical almond (plant)

    Terminalia: catappa, the Indian, or tropical, almond, is commonly cultivated for ornament, particularly along streets in the tropics.

  • tropical American false vampire bat (mammal)

    bat: General features: …spectrum), also known as the tropical American false vampire bat, with a wingspan of over 60 cm (24 inches). The tiny hog-nosed, or bumblebee, bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai) of Thailand is one of the smallest mammals. It has a wingspan of barely 15 cm (6 inches) and weighs about 2 grams…

  • tropical and subtropical desert climate

    Tropical and subtropical desert climate, major climate type of the K?ppen classification dominated in all months by the subtropical anticyclone (or subtropical high), with its descending air, elevated inversions, and clear skies. Such an atmospheric environment inhibits precipitation. Most of

  • tropical and subtropical steppe climate

    Tropical and subtropical steppe climate, major climate type of the K?ppen classification that occurs primarily on the periphery of the true deserts in low-latitude semiarid steppe regions. Such regions are denoted by the abbreviation BSh in the K?ppen-Geiger-Pohl system. It is transitional to the

  • Tropical Botanical Forest Park (national park, Taiwan)

    P'ing-tung: The Tropical Botanical Forest Park at Heng-ch’un covers an area of 100 acres (40 hectares) and has one of the largest experimental forests in Southeast Asia. A 126-square-mile (326-square-km) area in the Heng-ch’un (Hengchun) Peninsula was designated in 1982 as Taiwan’s first national park (K’enting National…

  • tropical boubou (bird)

    shrike: …with red-tinged underparts, is the tropical boubou (L. aethiopicus). Black above and bright red below are the black-headed, or Abyssinian, gonolek (L. erythrogaster) and the Barbary shrike (L. barbarus).

  • Tropical continental air mass (meteorology)

    air mass: The continental Tropical (cT) air mass originates in arid or desert regions in the middle or lower latitudes, principally during the summer season. It is strongly heated in general, but its moisture content is so low that the intense dry convection normally fails to reach the condensation level.…

  • tropical cyclone (meteorology)

    Tropical cyclone, an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain. Drawing energy from the sea surface and maintaining its strength as long as it remains over warm water, a tropical cyclone generates

  • tropical deciduous forest (ecology)

    Monsoon forest, open woodland in tropical areas that have a long dry season followed by a season of heavy rainfall. The trees in a monsoon forest usually shed their leaves during the dry season and come into leaf at the start of the rainy season. Many lianas (woody vines) and herbaceous epiphytes

  • tropical depression (meteorology)

    Indian monsoon: Peak period: Fully developed depressions appear once or twice per month. They travel from east to west more or less concurrently with high-level easterly waves and bursts of speed from the easterly jet, causing a local strengthening of the low-level monsoonal flow. The rainfall consequently increases and is much…

  • tropical disease

    Tropical disease, any disease that is indigenous to tropical or subtropical areas of the world or that occurs principally in those areas. Examples of tropical diseases include malaria, cholera, Chagas disease, yellow fever, and dengue. Diseases of the tropics and subtropics have been known since

  • tropical easterly jet stream (meteorology)

    jet stream: This tropical jet stream affects the formation and duration of Indian and African summer monsoons.

  • tropical fish (zoology)

    Tropical fish, Any of various small fishes of tropical origin often kept in aquariums. They are interesting for their behaviour or showiness or both. Popular varieties include the angelfish, guppy, kissing gourami, sea horse, Siamese fighting fish, and

  • tropical food poisoning (pathology)

    algae: Toxicity: Ciguatera is a disease of humans caused by consumption of tropical fish that have fed on the alga Gambierdiscus or Ostreopsis. Unlike many other algal toxins, ciguatoxin and maitotoxin are concentrated in finfish rather than shellfish. Levels as low as one part per billion in…

  • tropical forest

    Status of the World's Tropical Forests: As recently as the 19th century tropical forests covered approximately 20 percent of the dry land area on Earth. By the end of the 20th century this figure had dropped to less than 7 percent. The factors contributing to deforestation are numerous, complex, and often…

  • tropical fruit

    angiosperm: Significance to humans: Tropical fruits tend to be grown on evergreen plants and can survive temperatures only above freezing. Subtropical plants are either deciduous or tropical and are not as susceptible to temperatures slightly below freezing. Citrus (Rutaceae), avocados (Persea americana; Lauraceae), olives (Olea; Oleaceae),

  • tropical grassland (geography)

    grassland: Origin: …classified into two broad categories: tropical grasslands, which generally lie between the belts of tropical forest and desert; and temperate grasslands, which generally lie between deserts and temperate forests. Tropical grasslands occur in the same regions as savannas, and the distinction between these two vegetation types is rather arbitrary, depending…

  • tropical greenhouse (horticulture)

    greenhouse: In a tropical greenhouse, or hothouse, which has nighttime temperatures of 16–21 °C (60–70 °F), caladiums, philodendrons, gardenias, poinsettias, bougainvilleas,

  • tropical humid climate

    K?ppen climate classification: Type A climates: K?ppen’s A climates are found in a nearly unbroken belt around the Earth at low latitudes, mostly within 15° N and S. Their location within a region in which available net solar radiation is large and relatively constant from month to month…

  • Tropical Malady (film by Weerasethakul [2004])

    Apichatpong Weerasethakul: … in reverse, Sud pralad (2004; Tropical Malady; “Strange Animal”) is also a two-part feature. The first part examines the attraction between two young men, and the second part, set in a jungle, portrays the psychological aspects of this relationship as an unseen menace. Weerasethakul’s next film, Sang sattawat (Syndromes and…

  • tropical medicine

    Tropical medicine, medical science applied to diseases that occur primarily in countries with tropical or subtropical climates. Tropical medicine arose during the 19th century when physicians charged with the medical care of colonists and soldiers first encountered infectious diseases unknown in

  • tropical mockingbird (bird)

    mockingbird: …Mexico—or to Brazil, if the tropical mockingbird (M. gilvus) is considered a race rather than a separate species—and has been introduced into Hawaii. It thrives in suburban areas. This bird sings from high perches and vigorously defends its territory; it may even sing at night.

  • tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate (meteorology)

    Tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate, major climate type of the K?ppen classification characterized by small annual temperature ranges, high temperatures, and plentiful precipitation (often more than wet equatorial, or Af, climates in annual total). Despite their resemblance to wet

  • tropical monsoon climate (meteorology)

    tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate: …to wet equatorial climates, tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climates exhibit a short dry season, usually in the low-sun (“winter”) season, and the highest temperatures generally occur at the end of this clear spell. These climates are found primarily in southern and southeastern Asia and have the combined abbreviation Am…

  • tropical montane forest (ecology)

    Cloud forest, vegetation of tropical mountainous regions in which the rainfall is often heavy and persistent condensation occurs because of cooling of moisture-laden air currents deflected upward by the mountains. The trees in a cloud forest are typically short and crooked. Mosses, climbing ferns,

  • tropical month (chronology)

    month: The tropical month, 27.321582 days (i.e., 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes 5 seconds), only 7 seconds shorter than the sidereal month, is the time between passages of the Moon through the same celestial longitude. The draconic, or nodical, month of 27.212220 days (i.e., 27 days…

  • tropical pitcher plant (plant genus)

    Nepenthes, genus of carnivorous pitcher plants that make up the only genus in the family Nepenthaceae (order Caryophyllales). About 140 species are known, mostly native to Madagascar, Southeast Asia, and Australia. (The North American pitcher plants are in the family Sarraceniaceae.) Nepenthes

  • Tropical Race 4 (plant disease strain)

    banana: Cultivation and disease susceptibility: …of Panama disease known as Tropical Race (TR) 4 has been a threat to the Cavendish since the 1990s, and many scientists worry that the Cavendish too will eventually go extinct.

  • tropical rain forest

    Tropical rainforest, luxuriant forest found in wet tropical uplands and lowlands around the Equator. Tropical rainforests, which worldwide make up one of Earth’s largest biomes (major life zones), are dominated by broad-leaved trees that form a dense upper canopy (layer of foliage) and contain a

  • tropical rainforest

    Tropical rainforest, luxuriant forest found in wet tropical uplands and lowlands around the Equator. Tropical rainforests, which worldwide make up one of Earth’s largest biomes (major life zones), are dominated by broad-leaved trees that form a dense upper canopy (layer of foliage) and contain a

  • tropical red earth (soil)

    Africa: Red tropical soils and laterites: The majority of tropical soils have shades of colour varying from yellow and brown to red. The reddish colour reflects the presence of iron oxides that form as a result of chemical weathering. At one time all tropical red earths…

  • tropical red loam (soil)

    Africa: Red tropical soils and laterites: The majority of tropical soils have shades of colour varying from yellow and brown to red. The reddish colour reflects the presence of iron oxides that form as a result of chemical weathering. At one time all tropical red earths…

  • tropical splenomegaly (pathology)

    Kala-azar, infectious disease that is a type of leishmaniasis

  • tropical sprue (disease)

    Tropical sprue, an acquired disease characterized by the small intestine’s impaired absorption of fats, vitamins, and minerals. Its cause is unknown; infection, parasite infestation, vitamin deficiency, and food toxins have been suggested as possible causes. It is found primarily in the Caribbean,

  • tropical storm

    Tropical storm, organized centre of low pressure that originates over warm tropical oceans. The maximum sustained surface winds of tropical storms range from 63 to 118 km (39 to 73 miles) per hour. These storms represent an intermediate stage between loosely organized tropical depressions and more

  • tropical upper tropospheric trough (meteorology)

    tropical cyclone: Favourable wind systems: …is these features, known as tropical upper tropospheric troughs, or TUTTs, that are responsible for the large number of tropical cyclones in the western Pacific.

  • Tropical Vegetation (painting by Gauguin)

    Paul Gauguin: Beginnings: …painted on Martinique, such as Tropical Vegetation (1887) and By the Sea (1887), reveal his increasing departure from Impressionist technique during this period, as he was now working with blocks of colour in large, unmodulated planes. Upon his return to France late in 1887, Gauguin affected an exotic identity, pointing…

  • tropical weasel (mammal)

    weasel: …South America it is the tropical weasel (M. africana). Both measure 25–30 cm (about 10–12 inches), excluding the 10–20-cm (4–8-inch) tail; weight is 85–350 grams (3–12.3 ounces). With most weasels, males are usually twice the size of females.

  • tropical wet-dry climate (meteorology)

    Tropical wet-dry climate, major climate type of the K?ppen classification characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, with most of the precipitation occurring in the high-sun (“summer”) season. The dry season is longer than in tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral (Am) climates and becomes

  • tropical white morning glory (plant, Ipomoea alba)

    Ipomoea: Major species: …the largest-flowering ipomoeas is the moonflower (tropical white morning glory; I. alba), a rampant perennial climber with 15-cm (6-inch) white, fragrant, night-blooming flowers. It contains a milky juice used for coagulating Castilla rubber.

  • tropical yam (plant)

    Yam, any of several plant species of the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) grown for their edible tubers. Yams are native to warmer regions of both hemispheres, and several species are cultivated as staple food crops in the tropics. In certain tropical cultures, notably in West Africa and New

  • tropical year (chronology)

    year: The solar year (365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds), also called tropical year, or year of the seasons, is the time between two successive occurrences of the vernal equinox (the moment when the Sun apparently crosses the celestial equator moving north). Because of the…

  • tropical zone

    Australia: Vegetation: The Tropical Zone, which arcs east and west across the northern margin of the continent and extends halfway down the eastern seaboard, has a mainly dry monsoonal climate, with some wet regions. The Temperate Zone, with a cool-to-warm (temperate-to-subtropical) climate and precipitation mostly in winter, is…

  • Tropicália (musical movement)

    Brazilian literature: Resistance literature during military rule, 1964–85: …movement known as Tropicalismo (Tropicália), which staged rock shows, concerts, and poetry readings accompanied by imported electronic instruments, lasted from 1967 to 1968 and was launched by the songwriters and singers Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil, who “cannibalized” foreign music to produce original musical expression. Many years later, in…

  • Tropicalismo (musical movement)

    Brazilian literature: Resistance literature during military rule, 1964–85: …movement known as Tropicalismo (Tropicália), which staged rock shows, concerts, and poetry readings accompanied by imported electronic instruments, lasted from 1967 to 1968 and was launched by the songwriters and singers Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil, who “cannibalized” foreign music to produce original musical expression. Many years later, in…

  • tropics

    Australia: Vegetation: The Tropical Zone, which arcs east and west across the northern margin of the continent and extends halfway down the eastern seaboard, has a mainly dry monsoonal climate, with some wet regions. The Temperate Zone, with a cool-to-warm (temperate-to-subtropical) climate and precipitation mostly in winter, is…

  • Tropidacris (insect genus)

    grasshopper: , Tropidacris of South America).

  • Tropidoleptus (fossil brachiopod genus)

    Tropidoleptus, genus of extinct brachiopods (lamp shells) found as fossils only in marine rocks of the Devonian Period (416 million to 359 million years ago); this temporal restriction makes it a useful guide, or index, fossil, allowing correlation of widely separated rocks. The shell is roughly

  • Tropidophiidae (reptile)

    boa: …24 dwarf boas of family Tropidophiidae bear live young and live in the West Indies, Central America, and northern South America. They are predominantly terrestrial, occasionally foraging in low trees and bushes to hunt small vertebrates, especially amphibians and lizards.

  • Tropidophorus (reptile)

    skink: Keeled skinks (Tropidophorus), which are semiaquatic, are found from Southeast Asia to northern Australia. Mabuyas (Mabuya), with about 105 species, are ground dwellers and are distributed worldwide in the tropics. Sand skinks (Scincus), also called sandfish, run across and “swim” through windblown sand aided by…

  • Tropilaelaps clareae (mite)

    honeybee: Diseases of honeybees: …nonnative parasites Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae. Colony collapse disorder (CCD), which was first reported in 2006 in the United States, caused massive colony losses and presented significant challenges for crop pollination, a major service of the beekeeping industry in North America. The detection of CCD also heightened previous concerns…

  • tropism (biology)

    Tropism, response or orientation of a plant or certain lower animals to a stimulus that acts with greater intensity from one direction than another. It may be achieved by active movement or by structural alteration. Forms of tropism include phototropism (response to light), geotropism (response to

  • tropisme (French literature)

    novel: Antinovel: …French antinovel are chosisme and tropisme. The first, with which Robbe-Grillet is chiefly associated, relates to the novelist’s concern with things in themselves, not things as human symbols or metaphors. The second, which provided a title for Nathalie Sarraute’s early novel, denotes the response of the human mind to external…

  • Tropismes (work by Sarraute)

    Nathalie Sarraute: …in Tropismes (1939 and 1957; Tropisms), her first collection of sketches. In this work she introduced the notion of “tropisms,” a term borrowed from botany and meaning elemental impulses alternately attracted and repelled by each other. Sarraute described these impulses as imperceptible motions at the origin of our attitudes and…

  • Tropisms (work by Sarraute)

    Nathalie Sarraute: …in Tropismes (1939 and 1957; Tropisms), her first collection of sketches. In this work she introduced the notion of “tropisms,” a term borrowed from botany and meaning elemental impulses alternately attracted and repelled by each other. Sarraute described these impulses as imperceptible motions at the origin of our attitudes and…

  • Tropites (fossil cephalopod genus)

    Tropites, genus of extinct cephalopods (animals similar to the modern squid and octopus but with an external shell) found as fossils in marine rocks of the Late Triassic Period (from 230 to 208 million years ago). Because of its narrow time range, Tropites is a good index fossil (useful for

  • tropocollagen (biology)

    aging: Changes in structural tissues: …fragile and soluble form (tropocollagen). In time this soluble collagen changes to a more stable, insoluble form that can persist in tissues for most of an animal’s life. The rate of collagen synthesis is high in youth and declines throughout life, so that the ratio of insoluble to soluble…

  • tropological interpretation (hermeneutics)

    Christianity: Scriptural traditions: …made use of the allegorical-tropological (figurative) method, Luther appealed ever more strongly to the unequivocal “clarity” of the letter of the Scriptures, which contains the “clarity” of the “subject” expressed by it. His exegesis is thus also a dogmatic one. The struggle between historical and tropological exegesis was emphasized…

  • tropomyosin (protein)

    muscle: Thin filament proteins: Tropomyosin is a rod-shaped molecule about 40 nm long. Two strands of tropomyosin molecules run diametrically opposed along the actin filaments. Tropomyosin has a structure similar to that of the myosin tail, being a coiled unit of two protein chains. Each tropomyosin molecule is in…

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