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  • trauma reexposure (psychology)

    post-traumatic stress disorder: …treatments are antidepressant medication and trauma reexposure. Trauma reexposure is a form of directive psychotherapy that involves encouraging the victim to recount the trauma and, through gradual reexposure to the trauma in memory, change his or her emotional reactions in an effort to come to a new understanding of the…

  • trauma surgery

    therapeutics: Trauma surgery: Trauma is one of the leading causes of loss of potential years of life. The explosion in the development of medical instrumentation and technology has made it possible for surgeons to save more lives than ever before thought possible. The intensive care unit…

  • traumatic amnesia (medicine)

    memory abnormality: Traumatic amnesia: On recovery of consciousness after trauma, a person who has been knocked out by a blow on the head at first typically is dazed, confused, and imperfectly aware of his whereabouts and circumstances. This so-called posttraumatic confusional state may last for an hour…

  • traumatic automatism (medicine)

    memory abnormality: Traumatic automatism: Posttraumatic amnesia is sometimes observed after mild head injury without loss of consciousness and with no apparent change in ordinary behaviour. A football player who is dazed but not knocked out by a blow on the head, for example, may continue to play…

  • traumatic brain injury (medical condition)

    Traumatic brain injury, any damage to the brain from an applied force. The forces involved can be from direct contact, as in a blunt or penetrating head injury; from a gravitational source such as fierce shaking; or from rotational energy that produces shear stress between the brain and the skull.

  • traumatic pneumothorax (pathology)

    pneumothorax: Traumatic pneumothorax is the accumulation of air caused by penetrating chest wounds (e.g, knife stabbing, gunshot) or other injuries to the chest wall, after which air is sucked through the opening and into the pleural sac. Similar injury can be caused by invasive medical procedures,…

  • traumatic stress (psychology and biology)

    stress: Types of stress and effects: Traumatic stress is characterized by the occurrence of a life-threatening event that evokes fear and helplessness. Tornadoes, fires, and wars are examples of events capable of causing traumatic stress; these events sometimes lead to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  • traumatotropism (biology)

    tropism: …thigmotropism (response to mechanical stimulation), traumatotropism (response to wound lesion), and galvanotropism, or electrotropism (response to electric current). Most tropic movements are orthotropic; i.e., they are directed toward the source of the stimulus. Plagiotropic movements are oblique to the direction of stimulus. Diatropic movements are at right angles to the…

  • Traumdeutung, Die (work by Freud)

    Sigmund Freud: The interpretation of dreams: …to emphasize its epochal character; The Interpretation of Dreams), he presented his findings. Interspersing evidence from his own dreams with evidence from those recounted in his clinical practice, Freud contended that dreams played a fundamental role in the psychic economy. The mind’s energy—which Freud called libido and identified principally, but…

  • Tr?ume eines Geistersehers erl?utert durch Tr?ume der Metaphysik (essay by Kant)

    Immanuel Kant: Critic of Leibnizian rationalism: …durch Tr?ume der Metaphysik (1766; Dreams of a Spirit-Seer, Illustrated by Dreams of Metaphysics). This work is an examination of the whole notion of a world of spirits, in the context of an inquiry into the spiritualist claims of Emanuel Swedenborg, a scientist and biblical scholar. Kant’s position at first…

  • Traumnovelle (novella by Schnitzler)

    Stanley Kubrick: Last films: …on Arthur Schnitzler’s 1926 novella Traumnovelle (“Dream Story”), it became yet another controversial entry in Kubrick’s oeuvre. Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman, then married to each other offscreen, played a modern-day New York City couple whose marriage is tested by a sequence of intense, erotically charged encounters with others. The…

  • Traun (Austria)

    Traun, town, north-central Austria. It lies along the Traun River, just south of Linz. First mentioned in 612, it became the seat of the countship of Traun, which became Abensperg-Traun in the late 16th century. Traditionally an agricultural community with fishing, milling, and brewing

  • Traun, Otto Ferdinand, Graf von Abensperg und (Austrian field marshal)

    Otto Ferdinand, count von Abensperg und Traun, Austrian field marshal who was one of the ablest military commanders in the wars of the Polish (1733–38) and Austrian Successions (1740–48). Traun was a member of a Protestant noble family, but he converted to Catholicism and entered the Austrian Army

  • Trauner, Alexander (French set designer)

    Alexandre Trauner, Hungarian-born French motion-picture art director whose studio-built sets—the fairground in Quai des brumes (1938; Port of Shadows), the St. Martin Canal in Hotel du Nord (1938), the metro station in Les Portes de la nuit (1946; Gates of Night)—formed the moviegoing public’s

  • Trauner, Alexandre (French set designer)

    Alexandre Trauner, Hungarian-born French motion-picture art director whose studio-built sets—the fairground in Quai des brumes (1938; Port of Shadows), the St. Martin Canal in Hotel du Nord (1938), the metro station in Les Portes de la nuit (1946; Gates of Night)—formed the moviegoing public’s

  • Trausti, Jón (Icelandic author)

    Icelandic literature: Prose: …stark life of rural Iceland: Jón Trausti (Guemundur Magnússon), who wrote the cycle Heiearbylie (4 vol., 1908–11; “The Mountain Cot”); Gunnar Gunnarsson, whose Kirken p? bjerget (1923–28; “The Church on the Mountain”) was written in Danish; and Guemundur G. Hagalín, known for such novels as Kristrún í

  • trautonium (musical instrument)

    Trautonium, electronic musical instrument whose tone is generated by oscillating radio tubes that produce an electronic pulse that is converted into sound by a loudspeaker. A neon light generates weaker frequencies that, controlled by a set of push buttons, affect the upper harmonics (component

  • Trauttmansdorff, Maximilian, Graf von (Austrian statesman and diplomat)

    Maximilian, count von Trauttmansdorff, Austrian statesman, confidant of the emperors Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III, chief imperial plenipotentiary during the negotiations of the Peace of Westphalia, and one of the foremost political figures of early 17th-century Europe. After participating in the

  • Trautwein, Friedrich (German inventor)

    trautonium: The instrument was invented by Friedrich Trautwein in Germany in 1930. The German composer Paul Hindemith, who played the trautonium, wrote a Concertino for Trautonium and Strings (1931).

  • Travagliante, Lawrence J. (American disc jockey)

    WMMS: …success of WMMS was deejay Kid Leo (Lawrence J. Travagliante), who ultimately became the station’s program director. By the time Kid Leo joined WMMS in 1973 (after graduating from Cleveland State University), the station had been rocking for five years. By 1976 he had helped take the station to the…

  • Travail, Le (French political journal)

    Georges Clemenceau: Early life: …some friends, founded a journal, Le Travail (“Work”), which set forth the views that were to characterize his future political action. It was seized by the police, and, because of an advertisement inviting the workers of Paris to commemorate the 14th anniversary of the Revolution of 1848, Clemenceau was imprisoned…

  • Travail, Théatre du (Algerian theatre)

    Albert Camus: Camus’s literary career: …(Workers’ Theatre, later named the Théatre de l’équipe), which aimed to bring outstanding plays to working-class audiences. He maintained a deep love of the theatre until his death. Ironically, his plays are the least-admired part of his literary output, although Le Malentendu (Cross Purpose) and Caligula, first produced in 1944…

  • Travailleurs Catholiques du Canada, Confédération des (Canadian labour organization)

    organized labour: Origins of craft unionism: …vigorous French Catholic movement, the Confédération des Travailleurs Catholiques du Canada, which stands as a unique instance of confessional unionism in North America. Only after World War II did Quebec unionism shed its links to the church and evolve into a secular movement.

  • Travancore (historical state, India)

    Travancore, former princely state in southwestern India, now part of Kerala state. Travancore was in the kingdom of Kerala, or Chera, in the early centuries ce and traded with distant parts of the world. In the 11th century the region fell under the Chola empire. The Hindu kings of the Vijayanagar

  • Travanti, Daniel J. (American actor)

    Hill Street Blues: …award-winning ensemble cast that included Daniel J. Travanti, Betty Thomas, Robert Prosky, and Ed Marinaro and an innovative and edgy style, overseen by producer Steven Bochco (who later repeated his success with other series, most notably, L.A. Law [1986–94] and NYPD Blue [1993–2005]). The show employed handheld cameras that lent…

  • travel

    cultural globalization: Travel: Since the mid-1960s, the cost of international flights has declined, and foreign travel has become a routine experience for millions of middle- and working-class people. Diplomats, businesspeople, and ordinary tourists can feel “at home” in any city, anywhere in the world. Foreign travel no…

  • travel agency (business)

    automation: Transportation: With these systems, ticket agents at widely dispersed locations can obtain information about the availability of seats on any flight in a matter of seconds. The reservation systems compare requests for space with the status of each flight, grant space when available, and automatically update the reservation status…

  • Travel Diary of a Philosopher, The (work by Keyserling)

    Hermann Alexander, Graf von Keyserling: …Das Reisetagebuch eines Philosophen (1919; The Travel Diary of a Philosopher). Keyserling’s approach to philosophy was essentially nonacademic, and his ideas, which centred on the theme of spiritual regeneration, were often platitudinous or obscure. His other works include: Unsterblichkeit (1907; Immortality), Sch?pferische Erkenntnis (1922; Creative Understanding), Wiedergeburt (1927; The Recovery…

  • travel guide (travel)

    Oregon Trail: Guidebooks and other practicalities: Travel guidebooks became available to the emigrants shortly after use of the trail became widespread. One of the earliest and most popular of these was Landsford Hastings’s The Emigrant’s Guide to Oregon and California (1845). For Mormons, there was The Latter-day…

  • travel literature

    nonfictional prose: Travel and epistolary literature: The literature of travel has declined in quality in the age when travel has become most common—the present. In this nonfictional prose form, the traveller himself has always counted for more than the places he visited, and in the past, he…

  • travel time

    mass transit: Service quality and quantity: …important service quality attribute is travel time from origin to destination. Several factors contribute to travel time. The first is the average speed of the vehicles, determined in part by their rate of acceleration and maximum speed but strongly influenced by the distance between stops and the dwell time at…

  • travelator

    escalator: …ramps or sidewalks, sometimes called travelators, are specialized forms of escalators developed to carry people and materials horizontally or along slight inclines. Ramps may have either solid or jointed treads or a continuous belt. Ramps can move at any angle of up to 15°; beyond this incline the slope becomes…

  • Traveler from Altruria (work by Howells)

    American literature: Critics of the gilded age: Howells’s Traveler from Altruria (1894) pleaded for an equalitarian state in which the government regimented men’s lives. The year 1906 saw the publication of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, first of many works by him that criticized U.S. economic and political life and urged socialism as the…

  • traveler’s check (banking)

    American Express Company: The company’s travel-related offerings include traveler’s checks, credit cards, corporate and personal travel planning services, tour packages, and agencies for hotel and car-rental reservations. By the early 21st century, American Express operated in more than 40 countries. The company also had a publishing division, which produced such magazines as Travel…

  • traveler’s diarrhea (pathology)

    gastroenteritis: include food poisoning, cholera, and traveler’s diarrhea, which develops within a few days after traveling to a country or region that has unsanitary water or food. Traveler’s diarrhea is caused by exposure to enterotoxin-producing strains of the common intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli.

  • traveler’s tree (plant)

    Traveler’s tree, (species Ravenala madagascariensis), plant of the family Strelitziaceae, so named because the water it accumulates in its leaf bases has been used in emergencies for drinking. This, the only Ravenala species, is native in Madagascar and cultivated around the world. The trunk

  • Traveler, The (film by Kiarostami [1974])

    Abbas Kiarostami: His first feature, Mosāfer (1974; The Traveler), about a rebellious village boy determined to go to Tehrān and watch a football (soccer) match, is an indelible portrait of a troubled adolescent. In the 1980s Kiarostami’s documentaries Avalihā (1984; First Graders) and Mashq-e shab (1989; Homework) offered further insight…

  • Travelers Among Mountains and Streams (painting by Fan Kuan)

    Chinese painting: Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: ” A tall landscape scroll, Travelers Among Mountains and Streams (National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan), bearing his hidden signature, depicts peasants and pack mules emerging from thick woodland at the foot of a towering cliff that dwarfs them to insignificance. The composition is monumental, the detail is realistic, and the…

  • Travelers Group Inc. (American corporation)

    Travelers Insurance, leading American insurance company with a history of mergers, acquisitions, and spin-offs, largely in the insurance and financial services industries. The Travelers Insurance Company was founded in 1864 by James Batterson, a stonecutter. That year it sold the first accident

  • Travelers Insurance (American corporation)

    Travelers Insurance, leading American insurance company with a history of mergers, acquisitions, and spin-offs, largely in the insurance and financial services industries. The Travelers Insurance Company was founded in 1864 by James Batterson, a stonecutter. That year it sold the first accident

  • Travelers’ Aid Society (American organization)

    Grace Hoadley Dodge: …also organized the New York Travelers’ Aid Society in 1907—a group devoted to the protection of migrant and immigrant women, and in 1912 she led efforts to organize the National Travelers’ Aid Society; she contributed as well to the growth of the international travelers’ aid movement.

  • Travelers’ Green Book, The (travel guide)

    The Green Book, travel guide published (1936–67) during the segregation era in the United States that identified businesses that would accept African American customers. Compiled by Victor Hugo Green (1892–1960), a black postman who lived in the Harlem section of New York City, the Green Book

  • Travelgate (United States history)

    Hillary Clinton: First lady of the United States: …White House travel office (“Travelgate”) and her involvement in legal maneuvering by the White House during the Whitewater investigation. As the 1996 election approached, she was less visible and played a more traditional role as first lady. Her first book, It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach…

  • traveling (basketball)

    basketball: Traveling (walking with the ball): Progressing in any direction in excess of the prescribed limits, normally two steps, while holding the ball.

  • traveling clinic (medicine)

    clinic: Public health clinics: …tendency toward the establishment of traveling clinics, such as dental clinics for schoolchildren. Often, no charge is made for service in public health clinics, and for many medical conditions no income restrictions are imposed. A few are operated in connection with hospitals, but most such clinics use public buildings or…

  • traveling crane (machinery)

    crane: A traveling jib crane is one in which the pulley system is suspended from a trolley, or wheeled carriage, moving along the length of the jib, as illustrated in Figure 2. Such traveling cranes usually have lifting capacities of from 5 to 250 tons. A potentially…

  • Traveling in Autumn Mountains (painting by Liu)

    Liu Songnian: …of the Four Seasons and Traveling in Autumn Mountains. Even though the figures in these works are small, the idea of a human in harmony with nature is clear. Landscapes of the Four Seasons, which was remounted as a hand scroll, echoes the new development of bird’s-eye view composition exemplified…

  • traveling jib crane (machinery)

    crane: A traveling jib crane is one in which the pulley system is suspended from a trolley, or wheeled carriage, moving along the length of the jib, as illustrated in Figure 2. Such traveling cranes usually have lifting capacities of from 5 to 250 tons. A potentially…

  • traveling library

    Bookmobile, shelf-lined motor van or other vehicle that carries books to rural and urban areas, establishes library service in areas that are too small to justify the creation of a stable branch, and acts as a demonstration model for communities that can afford library service and may choose to

  • Traveling Man (television film by Kershner [1989])

    Irvin Kershner: Star Wars, James Bond, and RoboCop: …until the 1989 made-for-TV movie Traveling Man, with John Lithgow as a traveling salesman undermined by a young competitor. He closed his directing career with the violent RoboCop 2 (1990), a sequel to Paul Verhoeven’s hugely successful original.

  • traveling matte (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Special effects: To create a traveling matte shot, it is necessary to obtain an opaque image of the foreground actors or objects against a transparent background. This is done by exploiting film’s special sensitivity to blue light. In a traditional blue-screen process the actor is posed before a primary blue background,…

  • Traveling Miles (album by Wilson)

    Cassandra Wilson: …later Wilson released the album Traveling Miles, a tribute to jazz great Miles Davis. For the album she wrote six new songs inspired by his work and invented lyrics to three of his originals. Wilson’s later albums included Belly of the Sun (2002); Thunderbird (2006); Loverly (2008), which won the…

  • traveling post-office system

    postal system: United States: A traveling post-office system, in which mail could be sorted in transit, was introduced experimentally in 1862, and it made railway mail service the dominant form of mail conveyance well into the 20th century. The gradual reduction of passenger train services during the 1930s led to…

  • Traveling Salesman (painting by Fierro)

    Pancho Fierro: …paintings were sympathetic, as in Traveling Salesman, a portrait of a stooped salesman leaning on a walking stick as he carries a heavy bag, while others were sardonic, such as Friar Tomato, whose face Fierro distorts in caricature. Song of the Devils (c. 1830) reflects Fierro’s interest in Peru’s folklore…

  • traveling salesman problem (mathematics)

    Traveling salesman problem, an optimization problem in graph theory in which the nodes (cities) of a graph are connected by directed edges (routes), where the weight of an edge indicates the distance between two cities. The problem is to find a path that visits each city once, returns to the

  • traveling shot (cinematography)

    history of the motion picture: D.W. Griffith: …he would prominently employ the tracking, or traveling, shot, in which the camera—and therefore the audience—participates in the dramatic action by moving with it. In California, Griffith discovered that camera angle could be used to comment upon the content of a shot or to heighten its dramatic emphasis in a…

  • Traveling Through the Dark (poetry by Stafford)

    William Stafford: In Traveling Through the Dark (1962), a volume of restrained and introspective verse , Stafford revealed his fascination with self-searching and discovery; it received the National Book Award for Poetry in 1962. Later collections include Allegiances (1970), A Glass Face in the Rain (1982), and An…

  • traveling wave (meteorology)

    wind: …hundred kilometres in wavelength) called traveling waves. Such traveling waves form the upper parts of near-surface cyclones and anticyclones to which they are linked, thus guiding their movement and development.

  • traveling wave (physics)

    standing wave: …same direction, interference produces a travelling wave; for oppositely moving waves, interference produces an oscillating wave fixed in space. A vibrating rope tied at one end will produce a standing wave, as shown in the Figure; the wave train (line B), after arriving at the fixed end of the rope,…

  • Traveling Wilburys (British-American rock group)

    Bob Dylan: …Hall of Fame, and the Traveling Wilburys (Dylan, Petty, Harrison, Jeff Lynne, and Roy Orbison) formed at his house in Malibu and released their first album.

  • traveling-grate machine (metallurgy)

    iron processing: Sintering: For this purpose, a traveling-grate machine is used, and the burning of fine coke (known as coke breeze) within the ore generates the necessary heat. Before being delivered to the sinter machine, the ore mixture is moistened to cause fine particles to stick to larger ones, and then the…

  • traveling-wave linear accelerator

    particle accelerator: Linear electron accelerators: The force that acts on electrons in a traveling-wave accelerator is provided by an electromagnetic field with a frequency near 3,000 MHz (1 MHz = 1,000,000 Hertz, or 1,000,000 cycles per second)—a microwave. The acceleration chamber is an evacuated cylindrical pipe that…

  • traveling-wave maser (device)

    maser: Solid-state and traveling-wave masers: …easier tunability are obtained with traveling-wave masers. In these, a rod of a suitable crystal, such as ruby, is positioned inside a wave-guide structure that is designed to cause the wave to travel relatively slowly through the crystal.

  • traveling-wave tube (electronics)

    electron tube: Traveling-wave tubes: These are generally used to amplify microwave signals over broad bandwidths. The main elements of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) are (1) an electron gun, (2) a focusing structure that keeps the electrons in a linear path, (3) an RF circuit that causes RF…

  • Traveller (novel by Adams)

    Richard Adams: …different approach to anthropomorphism with Traveller (1988), told from the perspective of Robert E. Lee’s horse. He returned to his intrepid lagomorphs with Tales from Watership Down in 1996. Daniel (2006) concerns a former slave who becomes an abolitionist.

  • Traveller of the East, The (novel by Mofolo)

    Thomas Mokopu Mofolo: …novel, Moeti oa Bochabela (1907; The Traveller of the East), is an allegory in which a young African in search of truth and virtue journeys to a land where white men help bring him to Christian salvation. Mofolo’s second novel, Pitseng (1910), is also a Christian fable, but in this…

  • Traveller, The (poem by Goldsmith)

    Oliver Goldsmith: Life: …reputation as a poet with The Traveller, the first work to which he put his name. It embodied both his memories of tramping through Europe and his political ideas. In 1770 he confirmed that reputation with the more famous Deserted Village, which contains charming vignettes of rural life while denouncing…

  • Travelling Lady, The (play by Foote)

    Horton Foote: His 1954 play The Travelling Lady, with his screenplay, became the film Baby, the Rain Must Fall in 1965. Foote also wrote an acclaimed series of nine plays about rural Texas, The Orphans’ Home Cycle; these include Valentine’s Day (1980), 1918 (1982), and The Widow Claire (1986). His…

  • travelling wave (meteorology)

    wind: …hundred kilometres in wavelength) called traveling waves. Such traveling waves form the upper parts of near-surface cyclones and anticyclones to which they are linked, thus guiding their movement and development.

  • travelogue (film)

    motion picture: Travelogues and ethnographic films: One sort of film that has had continuous appeal, albeit for a specialized audience, has been the travel film. Much of the attraction of such films—from the crude pictures cranked out by Lumière cameramen in Japan, Africa, and the Arctic, to…

  • Travels (work by Ibn Battuta)

    Travels, classic travel account by Ibn Ba??ū?ah of his journeys through virtually all Muslim countries and many adjacent lands. The full title means “The Gift of the Beholders on the Peculiarities of the Regions and the Marvels of Journeys.” The narrative was dictated in 1353 to Ibn Juzayy, who

  • Travels Amongst the Great Andes of Ecuador (work by Whymper)

    Edward Whymper: He published Travels Amongst the Great Andes of Ecuador (1892), which contained much valuable information for geographers, geologists, and mountaineers. He also compiled two handbooks on the climbing of Chamonix (1896) and Zermatt (1897; both reprinted 1974). Whymper’s last journeys were in the Canadian Rockies (1901–05).

  • Travels and Adventures of Benjamin the Third, The (work by Mendele Moykher Sefarim)

    Mendele Moykher Sforim: …Kitsur massous Binyomin hashlishi (1875; The Travels and Adventures of Benjamin the Third), is a kind of Jewish Don Quixote. After living from 1869 to 1881 in Zhitomir (where he was trained as a rabbi), he became head of a traditional school for boys (Talmud Torah) at Odessa and was…

  • Travels from St. Petersburg in Russia to Various Parts of Asia (work by Bell)

    John Bell: … as a model for his Travels from St. Petersburg in Russia to Various Parts of Asia (1763). The book went through a number of editions and was translated into French.

  • Travels in Africa, Egypt and Syria (work by Browne)

    William George Browne: …account of the event in Travels in Africa, Egypt and Syria (1799, enlarged ed. 1806). In 1812 he began a journey from England to the city of Samarkand, now in Uzbekistan, and was murdered by robbers on the road through Iran from Tabrīz to Tehrān. Browne’s works were notable for…

  • Travels in Arabia Deserta (work by Doughty)

    Arabian Desert: Study and exploration: …on the geography of Arabia, Travels in Arabia Deserta (1888), was written by English traveler Charles M. Doughty. At the turn of the 20th century, Czech explorer Alois Musil traveled through northern Hejaz and Najd, mapping topography as he went. In 1917 H. St. John Philby, an official of the

  • Travels in Icaria (work by Cabet)

    socialism: Utopian socialism: …novel Voyage en Icarie (1840; Travels in Icaria), by the French socialist étienne Cabet. Icaria was to be a self-sufficient community, combining industry with farming, of about one million people. In practice, however, the Icaria that Cabet founded in Illinois in the 1850s was about the size of a Fourierist…

  • Travels in Iceland (work by ólafsson)

    Eggert ólafsson: …work Reise igiennem Island (1772; Travels in Iceland) records a scientific and cultural survey he carried out in 1752–57. Travels in Iceland gives a comprehensive description of the country and its people.

  • Travels in Lower and Upper Egypt (work by Denon)

    Dominique Vivant, Baron Denon: …results were published in his Travels in Lower and Upper Egypt (1802). In 1804 Napoleon made Denon director general of museums, a post he retained until 1815. In this capacity he accompanied the emperor on his expeditions to Austria, Spain, and Poland and advised him in his choice of works…

  • Travels in Northern Greece (work by Leake)

    William Martin Leake: …in the Morea (1830) and Travels in Northern Greece (1835), which, in addition to their archaeological significance, provided a vivid account of the condition of Greece in the last years of Turkish rule. He donated his marble sculptures to the British Museum, London, in 1839; and his coins, bronzes, and…

  • Travels in the Congo (work by Gide)

    André Gide: Great creative period: …published Voyage au Congo (1927; Travels in the Congo), in which he criticized French colonial policies. The compassionate, objective concern for humanity that marks the final phase of Gide’s life found expression in political activities at this time. He became the champion of society’s victims and outcasts, demanding more humane…

  • Travels in the Interior of North America (work by Wied-Neuwied)

    Maximilian, prince zu Wied-Neuwied: (1839–41; Travels in the Interior of North America). An English translation of parts of his field journal was published in People of the First Man: Life Among the Plains Indians in Their Final Days of Glory (1976).

  • Travels in the Morea (work by Leake)

    William Martin Leake: …devoted himself to scholarship, publishing Travels in the Morea (1830) and Travels in Northern Greece (1835), which, in addition to their archaeological significance, provided a vivid account of the condition of Greece in the last years of Turkish rule. He donated his marble sculptures to the British Museum, London, in…

  • Travels in the Scriptorium (novel by Auster)

    Paul Auster: Travels in the Scriptorium (2007) centres on an unidentified man as he attempts to discern his own identity and how he came to be in the room where he sits—all the while receiving a series of characters from earlier works by Auster. Man in the…

  • Travels in Two Democracies (work by Wilson)

    Edmund Wilson: …for it was collected in Travels in Two Democracies (1936), dialogues, essays, and a short story about the Soviet Union and the United States; The Triple Thinkers (1938), which dealt with writers involved in multiple meanings; The Wound and the Bow (1941), about art and neurosis; and The Boys in…

  • Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World (novel by Swift)

    Gulliver’s Travels, four-part satirical work by Anglo-Irish author Jonathan Swift, published anonymously in 1726 as Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. A keystone of English literature, it was one of the books that gave birth to the novel form, though it did not yet have the rules of

  • Travels of Anacharsis the Younger in Greece (work by Barthélemy)

    Jean-Jacques Barthélemy: …siècle avant l’ère vulgaire (1788; Travels of Anacharsis the Younger in Greece), a rambling account by an aged Scythian of a journey through Greece that he had taken as a young man for the sake of his education. Into this book, set in the 4th century bc, Barthélemy poured the…

  • Travels of Ibn Jubayr, The (work by Ibn Jubayr)

    Ibn Jubayr: Broadhurst, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, 1952; French trans. by Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Voyages, 1949–56).

  • Travels of Lao Can, The (work by Liu E)

    Chinese literature: 19th-century native prose and poetry: …E, whose Laocan youji (1904–07; The Travels of Lao Can ), a fictional account of contemporary life, pointed to the problems confronting the tottering Qing dynasty.

  • Travels of Marco Polo (work by Polo)

    Marco Polo: Compilation of Il milione: Soon after his return to Venice, Polo was taken prisoner by the Genoese—great rivals of the Venetians at sea—during a skirmish or battle in the Mediterranean. He was then imprisoned in Genoa, where he had a felicitous encounter with a prisoner from Pisa,…

  • Travels of Mendes Pinto, The (work by Pinto)

    Fern?o Mendes Pinto: The Travels of Mendes Pinto), a literary masterpiece depicting the impression made on a European by Asian civilization, notably that of China, in the 16th century.

  • Travels of Sir John Mandeville, The (work by Mandeville)

    Sir John Mandeville: …tales from around the world, The Voyage and Travels of Sir John Mandeville, Knight, generally known as The Travels of Sir John Mandeville. The tales are selections from the narratives of genuine travelers, embellished with Mandeville’s additions and described as his own adventures.

  • Travels Through France and Italy (work by Smollett)

    Travels Through France and Italy, work by Tobias Smollett, published in 1766. The breakdown of Smollett’s health and the death of his 15-year-old daughter in 1763 precipitated a yearlong journey through France and Italy. He traveled across France to Nice and through Italy, including Genoa and

  • Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida (work by Bartram)

    William Bartram: …their primeval condition in his Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida (1791). The book was influential among the English and French Romantics (see Romanticism). Bartram was also noted for his renderings of plants and animals.

  • Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America in the Years 1766, 1767, 1768 (work by Carver)

    Jonathan Carver: …in 1778 in London as Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America in the Years 1766, 1767, 1768; it was an immediate success and eventually went through more than 30 editions. The book gives a vivid picture of the rich lands and Indian inhabitants of the upper Mississippi River…

  • Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (work by Bruce)

    James Bruce: …of his observations, published in Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790), was questioned in Britain, partly because he had first told the French court of his discoveries. Reports by later travelers, however, confirmed the accuracy of his account.

  • Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes (journal by Stevenson)

    Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes, journal by Robert Louis Stevenson, published in 1879. Recovering on the French Riviera from a respiratory ailment, Stevenson spent 12 days walking 120 miles from the town of Le Monastier to Saint-Jean-du-Gard in the Cévennes mountain range, accompanied only by

  • Travels with Charley: In Search of America (work by Steinbeck)

    John Steinbeck: Steinbeck’s later writings—which include Travels with Charley: In Search of America (1962), about Steinbeck’s experiences as he drove across the United States—were interspersed with three conscientious attempts to reassert his stature as a major novelist: Burning Bright (1950), East of Eden (1952), and The Winter of Our Discontent (1961).…

  • Travels with My Aunt (film by Cukor [1972])

    George Cukor: Last films: …originally intended for Katharine Hepburn, Travels with My Aunt (1972) was unexceptional. Only Love Among the Ruins (1975), a made-for-television romantic comedy shot in England with Hepburn and Laurence Olivier, and The Corn Is Green (1979), also made for television, with Katharine Hepburn in the role of a spinster schoolteacher…

  • Traven, B. (author)

    B. Traven, novelist noted as a writer of adventure stories and as a chronicler of rural life in Mexico. A recluse, Traven refused personal data to publishers; hence many theories have arisen as to his parentage, his nationality, and his general identity. Most of his books were originally written in

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