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  • transorbital lobotomy (surgery)

    Walter Jackson Freeman II: Development of transorbital lobotomy: By 1945 Freeman had begun to lose confidence in the effectiveness of standard lobotomy, and thus he set to work on refining a procedure known as transorbital lobotomy, which was not only less expensive and faster than standard lobotomy but also, Freeman believed,…

  • Transoxania (historical region, Asia)

    Transoxania, (“That Which Lies Beyond the River”), historical region of Turkistan in Central Asia east of the Amu Darya (Oxus River) and west of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes River), roughly corresponding to present-day Uzbekistan and parts of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. A great centre of

  • Transoxiana (historical region, Asia)

    Transoxania, (“That Which Lies Beyond the River”), historical region of Turkistan in Central Asia east of the Amu Darya (Oxus River) and west of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes River), roughly corresponding to present-day Uzbekistan and parts of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. A great centre of

  • Transpacific Race (yachting)

    Transpacific Race, one of the world’s oldest major ocean races for sailing yachts, a 2,225-mile (3,580-kilometre) event run from various California harbours to Honolulu, Hawaii. It was first held in 1906 and made a biennial event in 1939 to alternate with the Bermuda Race. Since 1941 the race has

  • transparency (photography)

    history of photography: Colour photography: Because Autochrome was a colour transparency and could be viewed only by reflected light, however, researchers continued to look for improvements and alternative colour processes.

  • transparency (social science)

    Transparency, capacity of outsiders to obtain valid and timely information about the activities of government or private organizations. While related to political concepts such as accountability, openness, and responsiveness, the concept of transparency originated in the financial world, referring

  • transparency (of matter)

    industrial glass: Transparency, opacity, and colour: Because electrons in glass molecules are confined to particular energy levels, they cannot absorb and reemit photons (the basic units of light energy) by skipping from one energy band to another and back again. As a consequence, light energy travels through…

  • transparency film (photography)

    history of photography: Colour photography: With this reversal (slide) film, colour transparencies could be obtained that were suitable both for projection and for reproduction. A year later the Agfa Company of Germany developed the Agfacolor negative-positive process, but owing to World War II the film did not become available until 1949. Meanwhile,…

  • Transparency International (international organization)

    Transparency International (TI), a nonpartisan, nonprofit nongovernmental organization (NGO) founded in Berlin in 1993 to expose corruption and reduce its harmful effects around the world, especially on the poor and underprivileged. TI consists of a global network of approximately 100 national

  • Transparent (American television series)

    Anjelica Huston: …recurring role on the show Transparent, and during this time she did voice work on the animated children’s series All Hail King Julien and Trollhunter: Tales of Arcadia. In 2019 she made several films, including John Wick: Chapter 3—Parabellum and the animated Arctic Dogs, for which she voiced a reindeer.…

  • Transparente (work by Tomé)

    Churrigueresque: The “Transparente” (completed 1732), designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo, is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory,…

  • transparents (bronze works by Lipchitz)

    Jacques Lipchitz: …sculptures collectively known as “transparents.” In these curvilinear bronzes, he incorporated open space into the design, depicting mass by integrating solid with void. Many of the transparents, such as Harpist (1928), were cast from small, fragile cardboard-and-wax constructions. Lipchitz translated some of these smaller pieces into sculptures on a…

  • Transpeninsular Highway (highway, Mexico)

    Baja California Sur: …completion in 1973 of the Transpeninsular Highway, which connects Tijuana at the U.S.-Mexico border with Cabo San Lucas at the peninsula’s southern tip. Ferry services also link the peninsula to the Mexican mainland. There are more than 20 ports, the most important of which are at San Carlos and Pichilingue…

  • transpersonal psychology

    mysticism: The goal of mysticism: For example, transpersonal psychology, which developed from humanistic psychology in the 1970s, proceeds from the assumption that, because some mystics have demonstrably enjoyed superlative mental health, selected uses of classical mystical techniques may facilitate the therapeutic goal of self-actualization. Westerners who engage in Buddhist forms of meditation…

  • transpiration (botany)

    Transpiration, in botany, a plant’s loss of water, mainly through the stomates of leaves. Stomatal openings are necessary to admit carbon dioxide to the leaf interior and to allow oxygen to escape during photosynthesis, hence transpiration is generally considered to be merely an unavoidable

  • transpiration cohesion hypothesis (botany)

    Cohesion hypothesis, in botany, a generally accepted explanation of the rise of sap in plants by means of intermolecular attractions. Calculation and experiment indicate that the forces of cohesion between water molecules and the forces of adhesion between water molecules and the walls of the

  • transpiration pull (botany)

    cohesion hypothesis: …for by a mechanism, called transpiration pull, that involves the evaporation of water from leaves. Thus, the explanation for the upward movement of sap in trees is also called the transpiration-cohesion hypothesis. It accounts for the observed rise of sap and agrees with observed tensions (pressures below zero, or negative…

  • transpiration, thermal (physics)

    gas: Thermal transpiration: Suppose that two containers of the same gas but at different temperatures are connected by a tiny hole and that the gas is brought to a steady state. If the hole is small enough and the gas density is low enough that only…

  • transplant (surgery)

    Transplant, in medicine, a section of tissue or a complete organ that is removed from its original natural site and transferred to a new position in the same person or in a separate individual. The term, like the synonym graft, was borrowed from horticulture. Both words imply that success will

  • transplant (horticulture)

    Transplant, in horticulture, plant or tree removed from one location and reset in the ground at another. Most small deciduous trees may be moved with no soil attached to their roots. Trees of more than 7.5 cm (3 inches) in trunk diameter, however, are best moved balled and burlapped, that is, with

  • transplantation antigen (biochemistry)

    transplant: Selection of donor and tissue matching: …rejection are called transplantation, or histocompatibility, antigens. If donor and recipient have the same antigens, as do identical twins, there can be no rejection. All cells in the body have transplantation antigens except the red blood cells, which carry their own system of blood-group (ABO) antigens. The main human transplantation…

  • transplantation, tissue (medicine)

    regenerative medicine: Cell and bioartificial tissue transplantation: …and allogeneic cell and bioartificial tissue transplantations have been performed. Examples of autogeneic transplants using differentiated cells include blood transfusion with frozen stores of the patient’s own blood and repair of the articular cartilage of the knee with the patient’s own articular chondrocytes (cartilage cells) that have been expanded in…

  • transplanting (horticulture)

    Transplant, in horticulture, plant or tree removed from one location and reset in the ground at another. Most small deciduous trees may be moved with no soil attached to their roots. Trees of more than 7.5 cm (3 inches) in trunk diameter, however, are best moved balled and burlapped, that is, with

  • Transplants (poetry by Macdonald)

    Cynthia Macdonald: …subjects of her poems in Transplants (1976) in threatening strange environments. (W)holes (1980) also focuses on grotesques and incongruous surroundings. Her later poetic works include Alternate Means of Transport (1985), Living Wills (1991), and I Can’t Remember (1997). She also wrote the libretto for The Rehearsal (1978), an opera by…

  • Transpolar Drift (current)

    sea ice: Pack ice drift and thickness: …North American Arctic) and the Transpolar Drift (the major current flowing into the Atlantic Ocean from the eastern or Eurasian Arctic). The clockwise rotation of the Beaufort Gyre and the movement of the Transpolar Drift, the result of large-scale atmospheric circulation, are dominated by a high-pressure centre over the western…

  • transponder

    satellite communication: How satellites work: …with the use of a transponder—an integrated receiver and transmitter of radio signals. A satellite has to withstand the shock of being accelerated during launch up to the orbital velocity of 28,100 km (17,500 miles) an hour and a hostile space environment where it can be subject to radiation and…

  • transport (biological circulaton)

    angiosperm: Evolution of the transport process: This internal circulation, usually called transport, is present in all vascular plants, even the most primitive ones.

  • Transport Act (United Kingdom [1962])

    carriage of goods: Roads, railways, and inland waterways: …to the railways, and the Transport Act of 1962 enacted that the Railways Board shall not be regarded as a common carrier. Consequently, carriage by railways was regulated by the contract between the British Railways Board and the shipper or other contracting party, as laid down in the Book of…

  • Transport and General Workers’ Union (British trade union)

    Transport and General Workers’ Union (TGWU), labour union that was the largest in Great Britain throughout much of the 20th century. It originated in 1889 with the formation of the Dockers’ Union. In 1922 that union led the merger of 14 unions to form an organization representing more than 300,000

  • transport layer (OSI level)

    computer science: Networking and communication: The network and transport layers break messages into the standard-size packets and route them to their destinations. The session layer supports interactions between applications on two communicating machines. For example, it provides a mechanism with which to insert checkpoints (saving the current status of a task) into a…

  • transport level (OSI level)

    computer science: Networking and communication: The network and transport layers break messages into the standard-size packets and route them to their destinations. The session layer supports interactions between applications on two communicating machines. For example, it provides a mechanism with which to insert checkpoints (saving the current status of a task) into a…

  • transport phenomenon (physics)

    Transport phenomenon, in physics, any of the phenomena involving the movement of various entities, such as mass, momentum, or energy, through a medium, fluid or solid, by virtue of nonuniform conditions existing within the medium. Variations of concentration in a medium, for example, lead to the

  • transport plane (aircraft)

    Airplane, any of a class of fixed-wing aircraft that is heavier than air, propelled by a screw propeller or a high-velocity jet, and supported by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. For an account of the development of the airplane and the advent of civil aviation see history of

  • transport protein (biology)

    angiosperm: Structural basis of transport: …group of enzymelike compounds called permeases. Plasmodesmata may penetrate neighbouring cell walls at areas called primary pit fields. Also, some substances pass out of cells into the apoplast and are transported by energy-requiring processes into the protoplast of another cell.

  • transport unit (engineering)

    canals and inland waterways: Modern waterway engineering: …economics are based on the transport unit (x tons moved y miles in 1 man-hour), waterways must provide larger tonnage units than those possible on road or rail in order to be competitive.

  • transport-limited slope (geology)

    valley: Hillslopes: Transport-limited slopes occur where weathering processes are efficient at producing debris but where transport processes are inefficient at removing it from the slope. Such slopes lack free faces and faceted appearances, and they are generally covered with a soil mantle. The profile of this type…

  • transportation (occultism)

    apport: …human beings is sometimes called transportation. Spiritualists explain apport as a process involving dematerialization and subsequent reintegration of the objects. Although numerous instances of apport have been reported, many have been proven to be fraudulent.

  • transportation (technology)

    Transportation, the movement of goods and persons from place to place and the various means by which such movement is accomplished. The growth of the ability—and the need—to transport large quantities of goods or numbers of people over long distances at high speeds in comfort and safety has been an

  • transportation (punishment)

    parole: …power to pronounce sentences of transportation themselves, usually for a period specified in the sentence, though most sentences of transportation were modified by executive action. England developed a system of “ticket of leave,” in which convicts detained under a sentence of transportation were allowed a measure of freedom or the…

  • Transportation Building (World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Louis Sullivan: Work in association with Adler: …and Sullivan contribution was the Transportation Building, which stood apart and was painted in various strong colours as if in protest. It was a long, low arcaded building with a large polychromed archway entrance (the so-called Golden Door). Not all visitors were impressed by the neo-Roman grandeur of the fair.…

  • transportation economics

    Transportation economics, the study of the allocation of transportation resources in order to meet the needs of a society. In a macroeconomic sense, transportation activities form a portion of a nation’s total economic product and play a role in building or strengthening a national or regional

  • transportation industry

    marketing: Transportation firms: As a product moves from producer to consumer, it must often travel long distances. Many products consumed in the United States have been manufactured in another area of the world, such as Asia or Mexico. In addition, if the channel of distribution includes…

  • transportation law

    transportation economics: Transportation regulation and deregulation: For many years, the economic practices of much of the transportation system in the United States were regulated. Today, interstate pipeline and some interstate railroad traffic is regulated, as is intrastate motor carriage in most states. At one time, nearly all…

  • Transportation Security Administration (United States government)

    Transportation Security Administration (TSA), U.S. agency created following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks that is mandated with developing and implementing policies to ensure the safety of the nation’s transportation systems. It was established by the Aviation and Transportation

  • transportation, history of (technology)

    history of Europe: Economic effects: …production heightened demands on the transportation system to move raw materials and finished products. Massive road and canal building programs were one response, but steam engines also were directly applied as a result of inventions in Britain and the United States. Steam shipping plied major waterways soon after 1800 and…

  • Transportation, U.S. Department of (United States government)

    U.S. Department of Transportation, executive agency of the U.S. federal government responsible for programs and policies relating to transportation. Established in 1966, it controls the Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Highway Administration, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration,

  • transporter bridge (engineering)

    movable bridge: …drawbridge, a vertical-lift bridge, a transporter bridge, or a swing (pivot) bridge. The drawbridge, or bascule, is the best known; it may be single- or double-leafed. It originated in medieval Europe, probably Normandy, as a defensive feature of castles and towns. It was operated by a counterweight and winch. The…

  • transporter terminal (airport)

    airport: Transporter designs: In the early 1960s the transporter concept originated as a method of reducing aircraft maneuvering on the apron and of eliminating the need for passengers to climb up and down stairways in order to enter or exit the aircraft. In a concept derived…

  • Transportes Aéreos de Portugal (Portuguese company)

    Mozambique: Transportation and telecommunications: …but after World War II Portugal’s national airline opened a route between Beira and Maputo. Eventually colonial Mozambique developed its own airline. It was replaced in 1980 by Mozambique Airlines (Linhas Aéreas de Mo?ambique; LAM), the national carrier, which also provides international service. Mozambique has a number of domestic airports…

  • transposable element (genetics)

    Transposon, class of genetic elements that can “jump” to different locations within a genome. Although these elements are frequently called “jumping genes,” they are always maintained in an integrated site in the genome. In addition, most transposons eventually become inactive and no longer move.

  • transposase (enzyme)

    nucleic acid: Site-specific recombination: …transposons encode an enzyme called transposase that acts much like λ-integrase by cleaving the ends of the transposon as well as its target site. Transposons differ from bacteriophage λ in that they do not have a separate existence outside of the chromosome but rather are always maintained in an integrated…

  • transposing musical instrument

    Transposing musical instrument, instrument that produces a higher or lower pitch than indicated in music written for it. Examples include clarinets, the English horn, and saxophones. Musical notation written for transposing instruments shows the relative pitches, rather than the exact pitches,

  • transposition (learning)

    animal learning: Discrimination of relational and abstract stimuli: The phenomenon of transposition, first studied in chicks by the Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang K?hler, suggests that animals may solve even simple discriminations in ways more complex than the experimenter had imagined. K?hler trained his chicks to perform simple discriminations—say, to choose a large white circle (five centimetres in…

  • transposition cipher (cryptology)

    Transposition cipher, simple data encryption scheme in which plaintext characters are shifted in some regular pattern to form ciphertext. In manual systems transpositions are generally carried out with the aid of an easily remembered mnemonic. For example, a popular schoolboy cipher is the “rail

  • transposition of the great arteries (pathology)

    congenital heart disease: …the complex abnormality known as transposition of the great arteries, the aorta, the great conduit of blood to the organs and tissues of the body, rises from the right ventricle, which under normal anatomic configurations pumps blood to the lungs; at the same time, the pulmonary artery, the conduit of…

  • transposition, law of (logic)

    formal logic: Logical manipulations in LPC: …follow from these by the law of transposition; e.g., since (a) ? (b) is valid, so is ~(b) ? ~(a). The quantification of wffs containing three, four, etc., variables can be dealt with by the same rules.

  • transposon (genetics)

    Transposon, class of genetic elements that can “jump” to different locations within a genome. Although these elements are frequently called “jumping genes,” they are always maintained in an integrated site in the genome. In addition, most transposons eventually become inactive and no longer move.

  • Transrapid (train)

    railroad: Maglev: The German system, known as Transrapid, achieves levitation by magnetic attraction; deep skirtings on its vehicles, wrapping around the outer rims of the guideway, contain levitation and guidance electromagnets which, when energized, are attracted to ferromagnetic armature rails at the guideway’s extremities and lift the vehicle. The Japanese technology is…

  • Transsexual Phenomenon, The (work by Benjamin)

    Harry Benjamin: In 1966 he published The Transsexual Phenomenon, which drew on his work with clients who had a variety of “sexual disorders.” He argued that transsexuals were a group distinct from transvestites (heterosexual men who derived sexual pleasure from dressing in women’s clothing but who did not wish to become…

  • transsexuality

    Transsexuality, variant of gender identity in which the affected person believes that he or she should belong to the opposite sex. The transsexual male, for example, was born with normal female genitalia and other secondary characteristics of the feminine sex; very early in life, however, he

  • Transsibirskaya Zheleznodorozhnaya Magistral (railway, Russia)

    Trans-Siberian Railroad, (“Trans-Siberian Main Railroad”), the longest single rail system in Russia, stretching from Moscow 5,778 miles (9,198 km) east to Vladivostok or (beyond Vladivostok) 5,867 miles (9,441 km) to the port station of Nakhodka. It had great importance in the economic, military,

  • transsignification (theology)

    transubstantiation: …meaning, they coined the terms transsignification and transfinalization to be used in preference to transubstantiation. But, in his encyclical Mysterium fidei in 1965, Pope Paul VI called for a retention of the dogma of real presence together with the terminology of transubstantiation in which it had been expressed.

  • transthyretin (gene)

    amyloidosis: …mutations in a gene designated TTR (transthyretin). Transthyretin protein, produced by the TTR gene, normally circulates in the blood and plays an important role in the transport and tissue delivery of thyroid hormone and retinol. FAP primarily affects the nervous system, resulting in abnormal nerve sensation, pain, and limb weakness.…

  • Transtisza (region, Hungary)

    Hungary: Traditional regions: …Danube and Tisza rivers, and Transtisza (Tiszántúl), the region east of the Tisza. Kiskunság consists primarily of a mosaic of small landscape elements—sand dunes, loess plains, and floodplains. Kecskemét is the market centre for the region, which is also noted for its isolated farmsteads, known as tanyák. Several interesting groups…

  • Transtr?mer, Tomas (Swedish poet)

    Tomas Transtr?mer, Swedish lyrical poet noted for his spare but resonant language, particularly his unusual metaphors—more transformative than substitutive—which have been associated with a literary surrealism. His verse was at once revelatory and mysterious. Transtr?mer was awarded the Nobel Prize

  • Transtr?mer, Tomas G?sta (Swedish poet)

    Tomas Transtr?mer, Swedish lyrical poet noted for his spare but resonant language, particularly his unusual metaphors—more transformative than substitutive—which have been associated with a literary surrealism. His verse was at once revelatory and mysterious. Transtr?mer was awarded the Nobel Prize

  • Transtsendentnye i algebraicheskie chisla (work by Gelfond)

    Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond: …Transtsendentnye i algebraicheskie chisla (1952; Transcendental and Algebraic Numbers). In Ischislenie konechnykh raznostey (1952; “Calculus of Finite Differences”), he summarized his approximation and interpolation studies.

  • transubstantiation (theology)

    Transubstantiation, in Christianity, the change by which the substance (though not the appearance) of the bread and wine in the Eucharist becomes Christ’s real presence—that is, his body and blood. In Roman Catholicism and some other Christian churches, the doctrine, which was first called

  • transumpt

    diplomatics: Types of documents: In documents known as transumpts, which recited earlier documents or charters as part of their text, it often happened that the earlier document was forged, but, being included in the new, it received validation. The original documents and copies considered above were issued at the request of the recipient…

  • transuranic element (chemical element group)

    Transuranium element, any of the chemical elements that lie beyond uranium in the periodic table—i.e., those with atomic numbers greater than 92. Twenty-six of these elements have been discovered and named or are awaiting confirmation of their discovery. Eleven of them, from neptunium through

  • transuranium element (chemical element group)

    Transuranium element, any of the chemical elements that lie beyond uranium in the periodic table—i.e., those with atomic numbers greater than 92. Twenty-six of these elements have been discovered and named or are awaiting confirmation of their discovery. Eleven of them, from neptunium through

  • transurethral resection of the prostate (medicine)

    prostate cancer: Treatment: A second surgical procedure, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), is used to relieve symptoms but does not remove all of the cancer. TURP is often used in men who cannot have a radical prostectomy because of advanced age or illness or in men who have a noncancerous enlargement…

  • Transvaal (historical province, South Africa)

    Transvaal, former province of South Africa. It occupied the northeastern part of the country. The Limpopo River marked its border with Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north, while the Vaal River marked its boundary with Orange Free State province to the south. It was bounded by Mozambique and

  • Transvaal Basin (geological feature, South Africa)

    mineral deposit: Iron deposits: …dos Carajas in Brazil, the Transvaal Basin deposits of South Africa, and the Hamersley Basin of Australia.

  • Transvaal Drakensberg (mountains, Africa)

    Great Escarpment, plateau edge of southern Africa that separates the region’s highland interior plateau from the fairly narrow coastal strip. It lies predominantly within the Republic of South Africa and Lesotho but extends northeastward into eastern Zimbabwe (where it separates much of that

  • Transvaal jade (gem)

    grossular: …the name South African, or Transvaal, jade in an attempt to increase its selling price. Nearly all grossular used for faceted gems is orange to reddish brown. The reddish brown material is called cinnamon stone, or hessonite. Grossular typically exhibits internal swirls, which help to distinguish it from spessartine, which…

  • Transvaal Ndebele (South African people)

    Ndebele, any of several Bantu-speaking African peoples who live primarily in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces in South Africa. The Ndebele are ancient offshoots of the main Nguni-speaking peoples and began migrations to the Transvaal region in the 17th century. The main group of Transvaal

  • Transvaal Sotho (people)

    Pedi, a Bantu-speaking people inhabiting Limpopo province, South Africa, and constituting the major group of the Northern Sotho ethnolinguistic cluster of peoples, who numbered about 3,700,000 in the late 20th century. Their traditional territory, which is known as Bopedi, is located between the

  • Transvaal, the (South African history)

    South African Republic (SAR), 19th-century Boer state formed by Voortrekkers (Boer migrants from the British Cape Colony) in what is now northern South Africa. Its internationally recognized existence began with the Sand River Convention in 1852, when the British withdrew from the Southern African

  • transvection (occultism)

    levitation: …figures of folklore is called transvection and is said to involve the rubbing of “flying ointment” on their bodies before flying to the sabbath (see witches’ sabbath). The levitation of saints is usually directly upward, whereas that of witches has the dynamic purpose of transportation. Theologians long debated whether transvection…

  • transverse acceleration stress (physics)

    acceleration stress: Transverse acceleration stress: Transverse acceleration stress occurs when the direction of acceleration is sideways with relation to the long axis of the body. The effects of transverse acceleration are not as great as those of equivalent forces in the previous two cases. Thus, the position…

  • transverse axis

    symmetry: …sagittal, or median vertical-longitudinal, and transverse, or cross, axes. Such an animal therefore not only has two ends but also has two pairs of symmetrical sides. There are but two planes of symmetry in a biradial animal, one passing through the anteroposterior and sagittal axes and the other through the…

  • transverse canyon

    river: Formation of canyons and gorges: …activity permit the development of transverse canyons. Transverse canyons, gorges, or water gaps are most easily explained in terms of accelerated headward erosion of rivers along faults cutting across the trend of resistant ridges. In such cases, the fault zone allows rivers to preferentially expand through an already existing ridge…

  • transverse carpal ligament (anatomy)

    carpal tunnel syndrome: …of fibrous tissue called the transverse carpal ligament. Through the tunnel run the median nerve, several blood vessels, and nine finger flexor tendons. The tendons are rodlike structures that transmit forces from muscles in the forearm to the fingers and enable the fingers to close, as when making a fist.

  • transverse colon (anatomy)

    human digestive system: Anatomy: The transverse colon is variable in position, depending largely on the distention of the stomach, but usually is located in the subcostal plane—that is, at the level of the 10th rib. On the left side of the abdomen, it ascends to the bend called the splenic…

  • transverse crevasse (glaciology)

    crevasse: …in areas of compressive stress; transverse crevasses, which develop in areas of tensile stress and are generally curved downstream; marginal crevasses, which develop when the central area of the glacier moves considerably faster than the outer edges; and bergschrund crevasses, which form between the cirque and glacier head. At the…

  • transverse electromagnetic mode (physics)

    radiation: The field concept: …of light in the so-called transverse electromagnetic mode—one in which the directions of the electric field, the magnetic field, and the propagation of the wave are mutually perpendicular. They constitute a right-handed coordinate system; i.e., with the thumb and first two fingers of the right hand perpendicular to each other,…

  • transverse fissure (anatomy)

    cerebrum: …parietal and occipital lobes; the transverse fissure, which divides the cerebrum from the cerebellum; and the longitudinal fissure, which divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres.

  • transverse flute (musical instrument)

    flute: In transverse, or cross, flutes (i.e., horizontally held and side blown), the stream of breath strikes the opposite rim of a lateral mouth hole. Vertical flutes such as the recorder, in which an internal flue or duct directs the air against a hole cut in the side of…

  • transverse fracture (pathology)

    fracture: …configuration on the bone: a transverse fracture is perpendicular to the axis of the bone, while an oblique fracture crosses the bone axis at approximately a 45 degree angle. A spiral fracture, characterized by a helical break, commonly results from a twisting injury.

  • transverse frame (ship part)

    ship: Structural integrity: …structure consists of a keel, transverse frames, and cross-ship deck beams that join the frame ends—all supporting a relatively thin shell of deck, sides, and bottom. This structural scheme, which became prevalent with European ships during the Middle Ages, has continued into the age of steel shipbuilding. However, it has…

  • transverse isotropy (physics)

    mechanics of solids: Anisotropy: …to that direction, are called transversely isotropic; they have five independent elastic constants. Examples are provided by fibre-reinforced composite materials, with fibres that are randomly emplaced but aligned in a single direction in an isotropic or transversely isotropic matrix, and by single crystals of hexagonal close packing such as zinc.

  • transverse magnification (optics)

    magnification: Linear (sometimes called lateral or transverse) magnification refers to the ratio of image length to object length measured in planes that are perpendicular to the optical axis. A negative value of linear magnification denotes an inverted image. Longitudinal magnification denotes the factor by which an…

  • Transverse Mercator Projection (cartography)

    map: Geographic and plane coordinate systems: …long in north–south dimension, the Transverse Mercator is generally used, while for those long in east–west direction, the Lambert conformal (intersecting cone) projection is usually employed. In the case of large regions, two or more zones may be established to limit distortions. Positions of geodetic control points have been computed…

  • transverse presentation (childbirth)

    presentation: Face presentation and transverse (cross) presentation are rare.

  • Transverse Ranges (mountains, North America)

    Pacific mountain system: Physiography: …of the H, while the Transverse Ranges bend eastward from the California Coast Ranges to form the closed base of the H. Inside the H north of the Klamath Mountains are the drowned inside passage of British Columbia, the Puget Sound Lowland of Washington, and the Willamette River valley of…

  • transverse reaction (biology)

    stereotyped response: Taxes: Dorsal (or ventral) transverse reaction is demonstrated when the impact of the stimulus is kept at right angles to both longitudinal and transverse axes of the body. Locomotion need not occur. This reaction is given to light by various aquatic crustaceans—Argulus, the fish louse, and Artemia, the brine…

  • transverse stream (geology)

    valley: Drainage patterns: In contrast, transverse streams cut across structural trends. Streams flowing down the tilted sediments of the cuesta are called dip streams because they parallel the structural dip of the strata. Streams draining the cuesta scarp into longitudinal valleys flowing opposite to the structural dip are called antidip…

  • transverse tubule (anatomy)

    muscle: The myofibril: These channels are called the transverse tubules (T tubules) because they run across the fibre. The transverse tubular system is a network of interconnecting rings, each of which surrounds a myofibril. It provides an important communication pathway between the outside of the fibre and the myofibrils, some of which are…

  • transverse unit

    video tape recorder: …of video tape units: the transverse, or quad, and the helical.

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