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  • Transdniestria (separatist enclave, Moldova)

    Transdniestria, separatist enclave in Moldova, located on the east bank of the Dniester River. Loosely occupying some 1,350 square miles (3,500 square km), the self-proclaimed (1990) Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Republic is not recognized by any state. It has a national bank, national currency (the

  • transducer (physiology)

    cell cycle: growth factor receptors, signal transducers, and nuclear regulatory proteins (transcription factors). For a stimulatory signal to reach the nucleus and “turn on” cell division, four main steps must occur. First, a growth factor must bind to its receptor on the cell membrane. Second, the receptor must become temporarily activated…

  • transducer (electronics)

    Transducer, device that converts input energy into output energy, the latter usually differing in kind but bearing a known relation to input. Originally, the term referred to a device that converted mechanical stimuli into electrical output, but it has been broadened to include devices that sense

  • transducin (protein)

    rod: …activates a small protein called transducin. The association of opsin with transducin couples the external stimulus of light to an internal biochemical pathway that ultimately alters the release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic region of the cell. This changes the firing of the intermediate retinal neurons and affects the electrical…

  • transduction (microbiology)

    Transduction, a process of genetic recombination in bacteria in which genes from a host cell (a bacterium) are incorporated into the genome of a bacterial virus (bacteriophage) and then carried to another host cell when the bacteriophage initiates another cycle of infection. In general

  • transduction (nervous system)

    senses: Mechanical senses: …in cells is known as transduction. An example of mechanical transduction, worked out in studies of fruit fly receptors, consists of channels in the membrane that are triggered to open by stretch, which allows cations to enter the cell.

  • transection glacier

    glacier: Classification of mountain glaciers: Other types include transection glaciers or ice fields, which fill systems of valleys, and glaciers in special situations, such as summit glaciers, hanging glaciers, ice aprons, crater glaciers, and regenerated or reconstituted glaciers. Glaciers that spread out at the foot of mountain ranges are called piedmont glaciers. Outlet…

  • transection ice field

    glacier: Classification of mountain glaciers: Other types include transection glaciers or ice fields, which fill systems of valleys, and glaciers in special situations, such as summit glaciers, hanging glaciers, ice aprons, crater glaciers, and regenerated or reconstituted glaciers. Glaciers that spread out at the foot of mountain ranges are called piedmont glaciers. Outlet…

  • transept (architecture)

    Transept, the area of a cruciform church lying at right angles to the principal axis. The bay at which the transept intersects the main body of the church is called the crossing. The transept itself is sometimes simply called the cross. The nave of a church with a cruciform plan usually extends

  • transexualism

    Transsexuality, variant of gender identity in which the affected person believes that he or she should belong to the opposite sex. The transsexual male, for example, was born with normal female genitalia and other secondary characteristics of the feminine sex; very early in life, however, he

  • transfection (biology)

    Transfection, technique used to insert foreign nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) into a cell, typically with the intention of altering the properties of the cell. The introduction of nucleic acid from a different cell type can be accomplished using various biological, chemical, or physical methods.

  • transfer (property law)

    property law: Contract and conveyance: Any legal system that distinguishes between property and obligation (as do all Western systems) will distinguish between a promise to alienate property and the alienation itself. The promise may be fully enforceable between the parties; it may even affect the rights of third parties,…

  • transfer (art)

    art conservation and restoration: Paintings on wood: …the process known as “transfer.” This was accomplished by temporarily adhering a substantial support of paper and, possibly, canvas to the front surface and then cutting away the wood on the back. An entirely new support, of either panel or canvas, was then adhered to the back, and the…

  • transfer cell (plant anatomy)

    phloem: Phloem parenchyma cells, called transfer cells and border parenchyma cells, are located near the finest branches and terminations of sieve tubes in leaf veinlets, where they also function in the transport of foods. Phloem fibres are flexible long cells that make up the soft fibres (e.g., flax and hemp)…

  • transfer factor (biology)

    Transfer factor, small polypeptide that is produced by a type of white blood cell called a T cell and that when passed from one person to another produces cellular hypersensitivity. It was discovered in 1949 by American immunologist Henry Sherwood Lawrence at New York University. Transfer factor is

  • transfer line (technology)

    automation: Automated production lines: …taking place on an automated transfer line must all be sequenced and coordinated properly for the line to operate efficiently. Modern automated lines are controlled by programmable logic controllers, which are special computers that facilitate connections with industrial equipment (such as automated production lines) and can perform the kinds of…

  • transfer lithography

    lithography: Fine-art lithography: …use of the process called transfer lithography, by which the tusche drawing is made on paper instead of on the lithographic stone. The drawing is then transferred to the stone and printed in the usual way. This method, which is more convenient than working on stone, retains the paper’s texture…

  • transfer machine (technology)

    automation: Automated production lines: …taking place on an automated transfer line must all be sequenced and coordinated properly for the line to operate efficiently. Modern automated lines are controlled by programmable logic controllers, which are special computers that facilitate connections with industrial equipment (such as automated production lines) and can perform the kinds of…

  • transfer molding (technology)

    rubber: Shaping: In transfer and injection molds, the rubber mix is forced through channels into a mold chamber of the required shape, where it is cured under pressure. Tires are made of several components: bead wire, sidewall compound, inner liner, cord plies, belt package, and tread; these are…

  • Transfer of Functions Act (United Kingdom [1946])

    order in council: …by Parliament; for example, the Ministers of the Crown (Transfer of Functions) Act, 1946, arranged for the redistribution of ministerial functions and the dissolution of government departments to be effected by order in council, confirmed by a resolution of both houses of Parliament.

  • transfer orbit

    Hohmann orbit, most economical path (though not the shortest or fastest) for a spacecraft to take from one planet to another. The German engineer Walter Hohmann showed in 1925 that elliptical orbits tangent to the orbits of both the planet of departure and the target planet require the least fuel a

  • transfer payment (government finance)

    government budget: Composition of public expenditure: …of social security and other transfers to individuals and the payment of subsidies to industrial and commercial companies. Both types are usually labeled “public expenditure,” and in many countries attention usually focuses on the aggregate of the two. This obscures important differences in the economic significance of the two items,…

  • transfer printing

    Transfer printing, method of decorating pottery by using an inked, engraved copperplate to make a print on paper that, while still wet, is pressed against a glazed pottery surface, leaving behind an impression, or transfer, of the engraving. Sometimes these monochrome transfer prints were

  • transfer ribonucleic acid (chemical compound)

    Transfer RNA (tRNA), small molecule in cells that carries amino acids to organelles called ribosomes, where they are linked into proteins. In addition to tRNA there are two other major types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). By 1960 the involvement of tRNAs in the assembly of

  • transfer RNA (chemical compound)

    Transfer RNA (tRNA), small molecule in cells that carries amino acids to organelles called ribosomes, where they are linked into proteins. In addition to tRNA there are two other major types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). By 1960 the involvement of tRNAs in the assembly of

  • transfer station (waste management)

    solid-waste management: Transfer stations: If the final destination of the refuse is not near the community in which it is generated, one or more transfer stations may be necessary. A transfer station is a central facility where refuse from many collection vehicles is combined into a larger…

  • transfer vehicle (aviation)

    airport: Cargo facilities: …and maintenance, are known as transfer vehicles (TVs) and elevating transfer vehicles (ETVs).

  • transferase (enzyme)

    Transferase, any one of a class of more than 450 enzymes that catalyze the transfer of various chemical groups (other than hydrogen) from one compound to another. Transaminases, for example, catalyze the transfer of an amino group (―NH2) from an amino acid to an a-keto acid. Phosphate, methyl

  • transference (psychology)

    Sigmund Freud: Sexuality and development: …pervasive phenomenon, which he called transference (or in the case of the analyst’s desire for the patient, counter-transference). Produced by the projection of feelings, transference, he reasoned, is the reenactment of childhood urges cathected (invested) on a new object. As such, it is the essential tool in the analytic cure,…

  • transferred intent (law)

    homicide: This includes “transferred intent”—as when one who intends to kill another kills a third person by mistake—and intent that may be inferred from the extreme recklessness or dangerousness of the act. Indian law requires that offenders know of the danger they might cause and thus rules out…

  • transferrin (chemical compound)

    Transferrin, protein (beta1 globulin) in blood plasma that transports iron from the tissues and bloodstream to the bone marrow, where it is reused in the formation of hemoglobin. Found fixed to the surface of developing red blood cells, transferrin frees iron directly into the cell. Human beings h

  • Transfiguration (play by Toller)

    German literature: Expressionism: Die Wandlung (1919; Transfiguration), a play by Ernst Toller, depicts this kind of transformation in a young man who turns his horrific war experience into a new awareness of the brotherhood of man; his play Masse-Mensch (1920; Man and the Masses) presents the tragic attempt of a woman…

  • Transfiguration (work by Raphael)

    Raphael: Last years in Rome: Raphael’s last masterpiece is the Transfiguration (commissioned by Giulio Cardinal de’ Medici in 1517), an enormous altarpiece that was unfinished at his death and completed by his assistant Giulio Romano. The Transfiguration is a complex work that combines extreme formal polish and elegance of execution with an atmosphere of tension…

  • Transfiguration (Christianity)

    Feast of the Transfiguration: …Elijah appeared and Jesus was transfigured, his face and clothes becoming dazzlingly bright (Mark 9:2–13; Matthew 17:1–13; Luke 9:28–36). The festival celebrates the revelation of the eternal glory of the Second Person of the Trinity, which was normally veiled during Christ’s life on earth. According to tradition, the event took…

  • Transfiguration, Church of the (church, Kizhi Island, Russia)

    Kizhi Island: The Preobranzhenskaya (Transfiguration) Church (1714), 121 feet (37 m) in height, with its three tiers and 22 cupolas, is often compared to St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow’s Red Square. The Preobranzhenskaya houses a collection of iconostases (each a screen or partition with doors and tiers of…

  • Transfiguration, Feast of the (Christianity)

    Feast of the Transfiguration, Christian commemoration of the occasion upon which Jesus Christ took three of his disciples, Peter, James, and John, up on a mountain, where Moses and Elijah appeared and Jesus was transfigured, his face and clothes becoming dazzlingly bright (Mark 9:2–13; Matthew

  • Transfigured Night (work by Schoenberg)

    Verkl?rte Nacht, Op. 4, (English: “Transfigured Night”) string sextet for two violins, two violas, and two cellos by Austrian-born American composer Arnold Schoenberg that dates to 1899, before he adopted the 12-tone method of composition that became his signature. It is a highly romantic piece

  • transfinalization (theology)

    transubstantiation: …coined the terms transsignification and transfinalization to be used in preference to transubstantiation. But, in his encyclical Mysterium fidei in 1965, Pope Paul VI called for a retention of the dogma of real presence together with the terminology of transubstantiation in which it had been expressed.

  • transfinite induction (mathematics)

    mathematical induction: Transfinite induction: A generalization of mathematical induction applicable to any well-ordered class or domain D, in place of the domain of positive integers, is the method of proof by transfinite induction. The domain D is said to be well ordered if the elements (numbers or…

  • transfinite number (mathematics)

    Transfinite number, denotation of the size of an infinite collection of objects. Comparison of certain infinite collections suggests that they have different sizes even though they are all infinite. For example, the sets of integers, rational numbers, and real numbers are all infinite; but each is

  • transform fault (geology)

    Transform fault, in geology and oceanography, a type of fault in which two tectonic plates slide past one another. A transform fault may occur in the portion of a fracture zone that exists between different offset spreading centres or that connects spreading centres to deep-sea trenches in

  • transform plate boundary (geology)

    Earth: The outer shell: …type of plate boundary, the transform variety, two plates slide parallel to one another in opposite directions. These areas are often associated with high seismicity, as stresses that build up in the sliding crustal slabs are released at intervals to generate earthquakes. The San Andreas Fault in California is an…

  • transform, integral (mathematics)

    Integral transform, mathematical operator that produces a new function f(y) by integrating the product of an existing function F(x) and a so-called kernel function K(x, y) between suitable limits. The process, which is called transformation, is symbolized by the equation f(y) = ∫K(x, y)F(x)dx.

  • transformation (mineralogy)

    clay mineral: Formation in nature: …mineral formation mechanisms, neoformation and transformation, are induced by weathering and hydrothermal and diagenetic actions.

  • transformation (mathematics)

    trigonometry: Transformation of coordinates: A transformation of coordinates in a plane is a change from one coordinate system to another. Thus, a point in the plane will have two sets of coordinates giving its position with respect to the two coordinate systems used, and a transformation will express the relationship…

  • transformation (biology)

    Transformation, in biology, one of several processes by which genetic material in the form of “naked” deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is transferred between microbial cells. Its discovery and elucidation constitutes one of the significant cornerstones of molecular genetics. The term also refers to the

  • Transformation Ministries (Protestant movement)

    American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A.: …congregations formed a new movement, Transformation Ministries. Those remaining within the denomination formed a new regional organization, American Baptist Congregations of the Southwest and Hawaii, in 2007.

  • Transformation of Nature in Art, The (work by Coomaraswamy)

    Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy: The Transformation of Nature in Art (1934) and Figures of Speech or Figures of Thought (1946) are collections of essays expressing his views on the relationship of art to life, traditional art, and the ideological parallels between the arts of the East and the pre-Renaissance…

  • transformation of themes (music)

    Franz Liszt: Legacy: …and the method of “transformation of themes,” by which one or two themes in different forms can provide the basis for an entire work—a principle from which Wagner derived his system of so-called leitmotifs in his operas.

  • transformation optics

    metamaterial: …a new field known as transformation optics. In transformation optics, a metamaterial with varying values of permittivity and permeability is constructed such that light takes a specific desired path. One of the most remarkable designs in transformation optics is the invisibility cloak. Light smoothly wraps around the cloak without introducing…

  • transformation rule (logic)

    formal logic: Axiomatization of PC: Such rules are called transformation rules. Sometimes the word “theorem” is used to cover axioms as well as theorems; the word “thesis” is also used for this purpose.

  • transformation theory (physics)

    P.A.M. Dirac: …interpretation into a general scheme—transformation theory—that was the first complete mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. Along the way, Dirac also developed the Fermi-Dirac statistics (which had been suggested somewhat earlier by Enrico Fermi).

  • transformation toughening (mechanics)

    advanced structural ceramics: Transformation toughening: The most promising toughening mechanism for ceramic materials involves a phase transformation; the method is referred to as transformation toughening and is illustrated in Figure 1. Although other materials such as alumina can be transformation-toughened, zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) is the prototype material…

  • Transformation, equivalence (logic)

    formal logic: Validity in PC: …is said to make an equivalence transformation.

  • Transformation, The (story by Kafka)

    The Metamorphosis, symbolic story by Austrian writer Franz Kafka, published in German as Die Verwandlung in 1915. The opening sentence of The Metamorphosis has become one of the most famous in Western literature: “As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in

  • transformation-toughened zirconia (ceramics)

    advanced structural ceramics: Transformation toughening: Ceramics such as transformation-toughened zirconia (TTZ) are often referred to as ceramic steel because the strain, or change in dimension, in response to stress behaviour resembles that of steel instead of a brittle ceramic. Also, the underlying phase transformation is called martensitic, after a similar transformation in rapidly…

  • transformational grammar

    Transformational grammar, a system of language analysis that recognizes the relationship among the various elements of a sentence and among the possible sentences of a language and uses processes or rules (some of which are called transformations) to express these relationships. For example,

  • transformational rule

    linguistics: Chomsky’s grammar: …Chomsky) includes both phrase-structure and transformational rules (as well as morphophonemic rules). The transformational rules depend upon the prior application of the phrase-structure rules and have the effect of converting, or transforming, one phrase marker into another. What is meant by this statement may be clarified first with reference to…

  • transformational-generative grammar

    Transformational grammar, a system of language analysis that recognizes the relationship among the various elements of a sentence and among the possible sentences of a language and uses processes or rules (some of which are called transformations) to express these relationships. For example,

  • Transformed Man, The (album by Shatner)

    William Shatner: Other work: …he released the widely mocked The Transformed Man (1968), an album of spoken-word renderings of popular tunes. He cowrote the memoirs Star Trek Memories (1993), Star Trek Movie Memories (1994), and Up Till Now (2008). The volume Get a Life! (1999) was an exploration of the rabid cultural obsession with…

  • transformer (electronics)

    Transformer, device that transfers electric energy from one alternating-current circuit to one or more other circuits, either increasing (stepping up) or reducing (stepping down) the voltage. Transformers are employed for widely varying purposes; e.g., to reduce the voltage of conventional power

  • transformer (biology)

    carbon cycle: …as CO2 by decay, or decomposer, organisms (chiefly bacteria and fungi) in a series of microbial transformations.

  • Transformer (album by Reed)

    the Velvet Underground: …in 1972 with the album Transformer; coproduced by Velvets admirer David Bowie, it featured “Walk on the Wild Side,” which reached number 16 on the American pop chart. He then established himself as a punk-godfather figure with releases such as the lavish song suite Berlin (1973), the feedback oratorio Metal…

  • Transformers (film by Bay [2007])

    Jon Voight: …movies National Treasure (2004) and Transformers (2007). In 2017 he appeared as the gruff father of an art dealer who befriends a homeless man in Same Kind of Different As Me, which was based on the best-selling memoir of the same name. His movie credits from 2018 included the family…

  • Transformers: Dark of the Moon (film by Bay [2011])

    Leonard Nimoy: …and as Sentinel Prime in Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011). He narrated numerous documentaries, among them Titanica (1992) and A Life Apart: Hasidism in America (1997). In later years he turned increasingly toward photography (which he had studied at the University of California, Los Angeles, decades earlier). Collections of…

  • Transformers: The Last Knight (film by Bay [2017])

    Anthony Hopkins: Later movie and television roles: …villainous characters, Hopkins appeared in Transformers: The Last Knight in 2017. Hopkins later portrayed the eponymous hero in a televised adaptation (2018) of Shakespeare’s King Lear. He then starred as Benedict XVI in the Netflix film The Two Popes (2019), about the friendship between Benedict and the future Pope Francis.

  • Transformers: The Movie (film by Shin [1986])

    Leonard Nimoy: …memorable effect as Galvatron in Transformers: The Movie (1986) and as Sentinel Prime in Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011). He narrated numerous documentaries, among them Titanica (1992) and A Life Apart: Hasidism in America (1997). In later years he turned increasingly toward photography (which he had studied at the…

  • Transforming Traditional Agriculture (work by Schultz)

    Theodore William Schultz: In Transforming Traditional Agriculture (1964), Schultz challenged the prevailing view, held by development economists, that farmers in developing countries were irrational in their unwillingness to innovate. He argued that, to the contrary, the farmers were making rational responses to high taxes and artificially low crop prices…

  • transformism (Italian political history)

    Italy: Politics and the political system, 1870–87: Trasformismo (“transformism”) became the normal way of conducting parliamentary business, for there were few serious disputes among the leading politicians. Virtually all of them accepted the constitutional settlement of 1861, and few disputed foreign and colonial policy, which, in any case, was conducted by foreign…

  • transfusion (medical procedure)

    Blood transfusion, the transfer of blood into the vein of a human or animal recipient. The blood either is taken directly from a donor or is obtained from a blood bank. Blood transfusions are a therapeutic measure used to restore blood or plasma volume after extensive hemorrhage, burns, or trauma;

  • transfusion-induced immune reaction (medicine)

    blood transfusion: Transfusion-induced immune reactions: Undesirable reactions to transfusion are not uncommon and may occur for many reasons, such as allergy, sensitivity to donor leukocytes, or undetected red-cell incompatibility. Unexplained reactions are also fairly common. Rare causes of transfusion reaction include contaminated blood, air bubbles in the…

  • transfusion-related acute lung injury (pathology)

    blood transfusion: Transfusion-induced immune reactions: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) can occur as a complication of transfusion therapy; it can cause severe pulmonary edema and is a life-threatening complication if the patient is not given immediate respiratory support. While the etiology of TRALI remains unclear, it may result from leukocyte…

  • Transgabon Railroad (railway, Gabon)

    Gabon: Transportation: …were used to construct the Transgabon (Transgabonais) Railroad to move such products and to prepare for the time when Gabon’s petroleum reserves would be depleted. With loans and aid from France, West Germany, and international organizations, work began in 1974. The first section, from Owendo to Ndjolé, opened in 1979;…

  • Transgabonais (railway, Gabon)

    Gabon: Transportation: …were used to construct the Transgabon (Transgabonais) Railroad to move such products and to prepare for the time when Gabon’s petroleum reserves would be depleted. With loans and aid from France, West Germany, and international organizations, work began in 1974. The first section, from Owendo to Ndjolé, opened in 1979;…

  • transgender (gender identity)

    Transgender, term self-applied by persons whose gender identity varies from that traditionally associated with their apparent biological sex at birth. In its original and narrower sense, transgender referred to males and females who respectively gender-identify as females and males. In a later and

  • transgene (genetics)

    recombinant DNA: Genetically modified organisms: …added gene is called a transgene. The transgene inserts itself into a chromosome and is passed to the progeny as a new component of the genome. The resulting organism carrying the transgene is called a transgenic organism or a genetically modified organism (GMO). In this way, a “designer organism” is…

  • transgenic art

    Eduardo Kac: …endeavours “bio art” or “transgenic art.”

  • transgenic organism (biology)

    plant disease: The use of genetic engineering in developing disease-resistant plants: …an organism’s genes) are called transgenic. The production of pathogen-resistant transgenic plants has been achieved by this method; certain genes are inserted into the plant’s genome that confer resistance to such pathogens as viruses, fungi, and insects. Transgenic plants that are tolerant to herbicides and that show improvements in other…

  • Transglobe Expedition (Fiennes expedition, 1972)

    Sir Ranulph Fiennes: …came to be called the Transglobe Expedition began in 1972 and occupied much of Fiennes’s and Ginny’s time during the rest of the decade. The trekking team, led by Fiennes and including fellow Britons Charles Burton and Oliver Shepard, had a support crew of some three dozen people, including Ginny.…

  • transglutaminase (enzyme)

    celiac disease: Causes of celiac disease: …human body naturally produces a transglutaminase enzyme that is similar to microbial transglutaminase and is known to simulate the generation of autoantibodies.

  • transhumance (pastoral society)

    Transhumance, form of pastoralism or nomadism organized around the migration of livestock between mountain pastures in warm seasons and lower altitudes the rest of the year. The seasonal migration may also occur between lower and upper latitudes (as in the movement of Siberian reindeer between the

  • transhumanism (social and philosophical movement)

    Transhumanism, social and philosophical movement devoted to promoting the research and development of robust human-enhancement technologies. Such technologies would augment or increase human sensory reception, emotive ability, or cognitive capacity as well as radically improve human health and

  • transhydrogenase (enzyme)

    metabolism: The nature of the respiratory chain: …a reaction catalyzed by a transhydrogenase enzyme, with the products being reduced NADH + H+ and NADP+. A few substrates (e.g., acyl coenzyme A and succinate; reactions [22] and [44]) bypass this reaction and instead undergo immediate dehydrogenation by specific membrane-bound dehydrogenase enzymes. During the reaction, the coenzyme FAD accepts…

  • transient beta oscillation (physiology)

    neural oscillation: Types of brain rhythms: …the absence of movement, while transient beta oscillations (or sleep spindles) are present in the thalamocortical system during the early stages of sleep. Gamma oscillations (30–120 Hz) are present in nearly all structures and all brain states, although they dominate in the aroused, attentive brain. The transient ripple pattern (130–200…

  • transient dipole (physics)

    chemical bonding: Dispersion interaction: …and give rise to a transient dipole. This transient dipole can induce a dipole in the neighbouring molecule, which then interacts with the original transient dipole. Although the latter continuously flickers from one direction to another (with an average of zero dipole overall), the induced dipole follows it, and the…

  • transient global amnesia (psychology)

    memory abnormality: Transient global amnesia: Apparently first described in 1964, transient global amnesia consists of an abrupt loss of memory lasting from a few seconds to a few hours, without loss of consciousness or other evidence of impairment. The individual is virtually unable to store new experience,…

  • transient hotel

    hotel: …main categories of hotels are transient, resort, and residential. Hotels are classed as “mainly transient” when at least 75 percent of their guests are not permanent residents. The guest in a typical transient hotel can expect a room with private bath, telephone, radio, and television, in addition to such customer…

  • transient ischemic attack (pathology)

    nervous system disease: Occlusive strokes: …divided into four groups: (1) Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are the mildest occlusive strokes; symptoms last for minutes or hours. TIAs are usually caused by small emboli, such as fragments composed of blood cells or cholesterol, that are swept into the circulation of the brain from the arteries of the…

  • transient jurisdiction (law)

    conflict of laws: Differences between civil-law and common-law countries in the absence of a choice by the parties: …or while in transit (“transient jurisdiction”). The United Kingdom and Ireland also exercise jurisdiction on this basis. U.S. law also provides for jurisdiction over a company when it has been connected in some ongoing way with the state, even if the particular dispute does not arise out of that…

  • transient polycythemia (pathology)

    polycythemia: Types of polycythemia: , after blood plasma loss), transient (as when a large number of red blood cells suddenly enter the circulation from storage), or absolute (i.e., reflecting an increase in actual mass of red cells in the body). Relative polycythemia may be the consequence of abnormally lowered fluid intake or of marked…

  • transient prominence (astronomy)

    solar prominence: …are of two main types, active and quiescent. Active prominences erupt quickly and have lifetimes lasting from several minutes to a few hours. They are associated with sunspot groups and, like these, are correlated in numbers and activity with the solar cycle. Quiescent prominences tend to emerge smoothly and subside…

  • transient receptor potential channel (biology)

    Transient receptor potential channel, superfamily of ion channels occurring in cell membranes that are involved in various types of sensory reception, including thermoreception, chemoreception, mechanoreception, and photoreception. TRP channels were discovered in the late 1970s and early 1980s on

  • transient receptor potential melastatin (biochemistry)

    thermoreception: Study of thermoreceptors: For example, channels known as TRPM (melastatin), TRPA (subfamily A), and TRPV (vanilloid) can respond to changes in temperature, with TRPM and TRPA known to respond to cold and TRPV known to respond to warmth, noxious heat, and protons. TRPV channels have been identified on sensory neurons and on epithelial…

  • transient receptor potential subfamily A (biochemistry)

    thermoreception: Study of thermoreceptors: …channels known as TRPM (melastatin), TRPA (subfamily A), and TRPV (vanilloid) can respond to changes in temperature, with TRPM and TRPA known to respond to cold and TRPV known to respond to warmth, noxious heat, and protons. TRPV channels have been identified on sensory neurons and on epithelial cells, and…

  • transient receptor potential vanilloid (biochemistry)

    thermoreception: Study of thermoreceptors: …(melastatin), TRPA (subfamily A), and TRPV (vanilloid) can respond to changes in temperature, with TRPM and TRPA known to respond to cold and TRPV known to respond to warmth, noxious heat, and protons. TRPV channels have been identified on sensory neurons and on epithelial cells, and TRPM channels are primarily…

  • transient response (electronics)

    electricity: Transient response: Consider a circuit consisting of a capacitor and a resistor that are connected as shown in Figure 19. What will be the voltage at point b if the voltage at a is increased suddenly from Va = 0 to Va = +50 volts?…

  • transient seed bank (botany)

    soil seed bank: The role of seed dormancy: Transient seed banks are composed of species that produce seeds with a brief or no period of dormancy. Such seeds generally germinate prior to the next round of seed production, and the seed bank is thus continually depleted and reestablished. Transient seed banks are typical…

  • transient solar prominence (astronomy)

    solar prominence: …are of two main types, active and quiescent. Active prominences erupt quickly and have lifetimes lasting from several minutes to a few hours. They are associated with sunspot groups and, like these, are correlated in numbers and activity with the solar cycle. Quiescent prominences tend to emerge smoothly and subside…

  • transient time (acoustics)

    sound: Variations in air pressure: …steady-state oscillation is called the transient time of the instrument. The human ear is extremely sensitive to transients in musical tones, and such transients are crucial to the identification of various musical instruments whose spectra are similar.

  • transient transfection (biology)

    transfection: …experimental conditions, transfection may be transient, such that the cell expresses the foreign genetic information only temporarily, without replication of the nucleic acid. In transient transfection, the effects within the cell last only a short amount of time. In other cases, transfection may be stable, resulting in the integration of…

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