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  • Trans World Airlines, Inc. (American corporation)

    Trans World Airlines, Inc. (TWA), former American airline that maintained extensive routes in the United States and to Europe, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. TWA was absorbed by American Airlines in 2001. TWA was formed on July 16, 1930, in the amalgamation of divisions of Western Air Express

  • Trans World Airlines, Inc. v. Hardison (law case)

    Ansonia Board of Education v. Philbrook: Majority opinion: …endorsed its earlier finding in Trans World Airlines, Inc. v. Hardison (1977) that an accommodation causes undue hardship for an employer if the cost of making it is more than “de minimis” (trifling).

  • trans-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane (chemical compound)

    isomerism: Cis and trans forms: For example, cis- and trans-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane are stereoisomers. (In the figure below, “bp” stands for “boiling point.”)

  • trans-1,4 polyisoprene (chemical compound)

    polyisoprene: Trans-1,4 polyisoprene: Trans-1,4 polyisoprene is the dominant isomer in gutta-percha and balata, two materials that, like natural rubber, are derived from the milky exudate of certain trees. Unlike the cis-1,4 polymer, however, the trans-1,4 polymer is highly crystalline, so balata and gutta-percha are tough, hard,…

  • trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane (chemical compound)

    isomerism: Cis and trans forms: …possible isomers of cis- and trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane. If one methyl group is in the lower-energy equatorial position, then the cis compound, with both methyl groups on the same side of the ring, can be made only by placing the second methyl group in the higher-energy axial position. In constructing the trans…

  • trans-2-butene (chemical compound)

    isomerism: Cis and trans forms: …are traditionally called cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene or, in slightly more modern terms, (Z)- and (E)-2-butene. The Z and E stand for the German words for “together” (zusammen) and “apart” (entgegen). In principle, cis- and trans-2-butene are conformational isomers; in theory, they could be interconverted by a simple rotation about the…

  • trans-9-oxy-2-decenoic acid (entomology)

    chemoreception: Primer pheromones: Queen honeybees secrete “queen substance” from their mandibular glands. When an unfertilized queen leaves the colony, queen substance acts as an olfactory attractant for males. The same compound within the colony modifies the behaviour of workers, preventing them from rearing more queens, and also affects their physiology, disrupting…

  • Trans-Alai Range (mountain range, Central Asia)

    Trans-Alai Range, mountain range on the frontier between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. It is the most northerly range of the Pamirs and extends for about 150 miles (240 km) east-west in an unbroken chain of snow-covered peaks between the lush summer pastures of the broad Alai Valley between the Trans

  • Trans-Alai subzone (geological feature, Asia)

    Pamirs: Geology: It is separated from the Trans-Alai subzone by the Karakul fracture, through which flows the Kyzylsu-Surkhob-Vakhsh river system. The Trans-Alai subzone is highly complex. Its western part is a fan-shaped anticline in the centre of which emerge Jurassic deposits; radiating outward are more recent, dislocated rocks of the Early Cretaceous…

  • Trans-Alaska Pipeline (pipeline, Alaska, United States)

    Trans-Alaska Pipeline, pipeline that connects the oil fields of Prudhoe Bay in northern Alaska, U.S., with the harbour at Valdez, 800 miles (1,300 km) to the south. The discovery of oil on Alaska’s North Slope in 1968 spurred the creation of a safe and efficient way to bring those reserves to

  • Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (pipeline, Alaska, United States)

    Trans-Alaska Pipeline, pipeline that connects the oil fields of Prudhoe Bay in northern Alaska, U.S., with the harbour at Valdez, 800 miles (1,300 km) to the south. The discovery of oil on Alaska’s North Slope in 1968 spurred the creation of a safe and efficient way to bring those reserves to

  • Trans-Alay Range (mountain range, Central Asia)

    Trans-Alai Range, mountain range on the frontier between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. It is the most northerly range of the Pamirs and extends for about 150 miles (240 km) east-west in an unbroken chain of snow-covered peaks between the lush summer pastures of the broad Alai Valley between the Trans

  • Trans-Altai Gobi (region, Mongolia)

    Gobi: Physiography: The Trans-Altai Gobi is situated between the eastern spurs of the Mongolian Altai and Gobi Altai mountains to the north and east, respectively, and the Bei Mountains to the south. The plain is elevated, sharp, and rugged. Alongside the plains and the isolated group of low,…

  • Trans-Amazonian cycle (geology)

    South America: The Trans-Amazonian cycle: Trans-Amazonian rocks can be subdivided into three distinct groups: orogenic belts, such as the Maroni-Itacaiúnas belt of the Amazonia craton or the Salvador-Juazeiro belt of the S?o Francisco; stable cover rocks, such as the Chapada Diamantina formation in Bahia or the Carajás and…

  • Trans-Arabian Pipeline (pipeline, Asia)

    Trans-Arabian Pipeline, crude oil pipeline in southwestern Asia. It extended 1,069 miles (1,720 km) from Al-Dammām on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia to Sidon, Lebanon, on the Mediterranean Sea. The pipeline was built by a subsidiary of the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco) and began

  • trans-butenedioic acid (chemical compound)

    Fumaric acid, organic compound related to maleic acid

  • Trans-Canada Air Lines (Canadian airline)

    Air Canada, airline established by the Canadian Parliament in the Trans-Canada Air Lines Act of April 10, 1937. Known for almost 28 years as Trans-Canada Air Lines, it assumed its current name on January 1, 1965. Air Canada’s headquarters are in Montreal. Initially flying a scheduled route between

  • Trans-Canada Highway (highway, Canada)

    Trans-Canada Highway, principal highway of Canada and the world’s longest national road. The road extends west-east between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts across the breadth of the country for 4,860 miles (7,821 km), between Victoria (Vancouver Island, British Columbia) and St. John’s

  • Trans-Chaco Highway (highway, South America)

    Paraguay: Roads: …bridge links Asunción to the Trans-Chaco Highway, which runs about 470 miles (760 km) northwest to the Bolivian border. Although the highway was completely paved by 2008, large sections of it were subject to rapid deterioration.

  • Trans-Channel Tunnel (tunnel, Europe)

    Channel Tunnel, rail tunnel between England and France that runs beneath the English Channel. The Channel Tunnel, 31 miles (50 km) long, consists of three tunnels: two for rail traffic and a central tunnel for services and security. The tunnel runs between Folkestone, England, and Sangatte (near

  • Trans-fixed (performance piece by Burden)

    Chris Burden: For Trans-fixed, perhaps his best-known work, he had his hands nailed to the back of a Volkswagen Beetle, as if he were reenacting the crucifixion of Jesus. From 1978 through 2004, Burden taught art at the University of California, Los Angeles.

  • Trans-Himalayas (mountains, China)

    Trans-Himalayas, eastward continuation of the most northerly ranges of the Himalayas in the southern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It consists of an ill-defined mountain area about 600 miles (1,000 km) long and 140 miles (225 km) wide in the centre, narrowing to a 20-mile (32-km)

  • Trans-Hudson orogenic belt (geology)

    North America: 2.0 to 1.8 billion years ago: …province to form the bowlike Trans-Hudson orogenic belt, the crest of which underlies Hudson Bay. The zonation of the Trans-Hudson belt is typical of collision zones: granitic rocks representing the eroded roots of a continental volcanic arc occur along the Churchill province margin, the medial zone comprises relics of oceanic…

  • Trans-Ili Range (mountains, Asia)

    Tien Shan: Physiography: To the south the Ile Alataū (Trans-Ili) Range rises abruptly above the Ili depression to a height of 16,315 feet (4,973 metres). The successive transition of climatic zones, determined by elevation, from arid and dry steppe at lower levels to glacial at the summit, is evident on the northern…

  • Trans-Indus plains (region, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The submontane plateau: …plateau has four distinct divisions—the Trans-Indus plains, the Potwar Plateau, the Salt Range, and the Sialkot region.

  • Trans-Labrador Highway (highway, Canada)

    Newfoundland and Labrador: Transportation and telecommunications: The Trans-Labrador Highway, completed in 2009, connects southern, central, and western Labrador to the road network of Quebec.

  • Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (international exposition, 1898)

    Nebraska: Statehood and growth: …the site to host the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898, an event that was meant to revive the country’s economy and alleviate the financial panic of the 1890s. The exposition attracted more than two million people to Omaha over a four-month period. Prosperity returned by 1900 and continued for…

  • Trans-Mongolian Railway (railway, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: Transportation and telecommunications: …important transportation artery is the Trans-Mongolian Railway (officially, the Ulaanbaatar Railway), which runs north-south through the central part of the country. It links Mongolia to Russia and China and provides the shortest overland route between Moscow and Beijing. The railway, built as a Mongolian-Soviet joint venture, utilizes the Russian broad-gauge…

  • trans-Neptunian object (astronomy)

    Kuiper belt: …may represent the transition from Kuiper belt objects [KBOs] to short-period comets.) Although its existence had been assumed for decades, the Kuiper belt remained undetected until the 1990s, when the prerequisite large telescopes and sensitive light detectors became available.

  • Trans-Niger Pipeline (pipeline, Africa)

    Nun River: In 1965 the Trans-Niger Pipeline was completed, and oil from the Nun River fields was piped to Rumuekpe, where there is a link with the Trans-Niger line. At the turn of the 21st century, however, control of Nigeria’s oil wealth at the Nun River and elsewhere was an…

  • Trans-Pacific Partnership (international trade agreement)

    Stephen Harper: Majority government: …that Canada would join the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a series of talks designed to create a huge Asia-Pacific free-trade zone that would include Australia, Brunei, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States, among others.

  • Trans-Siberian Railroad (railway, Russia)

    Trans-Siberian Railroad, (“Trans-Siberian Main Railroad”), the longest single rail system in Russia, stretching from Moscow 5,778 miles (9,198 km) east to Vladivostok or (beyond Vladivostok) 5,867 miles (9,441 km) to the port station of Nakhodka. It had great importance in the economic, military,

  • Trans-Unguz Karakum (desert, Turkmenistan)

    Karakum Desert: Physiography: …three parts: the elevated northern Trans-Unguz Karakum; the low-lying Central Karakum; and the southeastern Karakum, through which runs a chain of salt marshes. Along the border of the Trans-Unguz and Central Karakum runs the Unguz chain of saline, isolated, eolian (wind-formed) hollows.

  • transactinoid element (chemistry)

    transuranium element: …are referred to as the transactinoids. All the transuranium elements are unstable, decaying radioactively, with half-lives that range from tens of millions of years to mere fractions of a second.

  • transaction (economics)

    Commercial transaction, in law, the core of the legal rules governing business dealings. The most common types of commercial transactions, involving such specialized areas of the law and legal instruments as sale of goods and documents of title, are discussed below. Despite variations of detail,

  • transaction (information processing)

    computer science: Information management: …of data integrity is the transaction, defined as an indivisible operation that transforms the database from one state into another. To illustrate, consider an electronic transfer of funds of $5 from bank account A to account B. The operation that deducts $5 from account A leaves the database without integrity…

  • transaction cost (economics)

    Transaction cost, economic losses that can result from arranging market relationships on a contractual basis. In the field of economics, the study of transaction costs originated from the use of aggregative social modeling and its underlying assumption of individuals operating under competitive

  • transaction processing (computing)

    information system: Operational support and enterprise systems: Transaction processing systems support the operations through which products are designed, marketed, produced, and delivered. In larger organizations, transaction processing is frequently accomplished with large integrated systems known as enterprise systems. In this case, the information systems that support various functional units—sales and marketing, production,…

  • transactional analysis (psychology)

    humanistic psychology: …is the technique known as transactional analysis, developed by Eric Berne. Its goal is to build a strong state of maturity by learning to recognize the “child” and “parent” aspects of personality in oneself and others.

  • transactional immunity (law)

    immunity: …two types of criminal immunity—transactional immunity and use immunity. A person granted transactional immunity may not be prosecuted for any crime about which that person testifies as a result of the immunity grant. The testimony of a person granted use immunity may not be used against that person, but…

  • transactionalism (psychology)

    rationalism: Types and expressions of rationalism: Similarly, rationalism is opposed to transactionalism, a point of view in psychology according to which human perceptual skills are achievements, accomplished through actions performed in response to an active environment. On this view, the experimental claim is made that perception is conditioned by probability judgments formed on the basis of…

  • transactions approach (accounting)

    accounting: Net income: …might be called a “transactions approach” to income measurement. Ideally they recognize as income only those increases in wealth that can be substantiated from data pertaining to actual transactions that have taken place with persons outside the company. In such systems, income is measured when work is performed for…

  • transactions tax

    Transactions tax, multistage sales tax imposed on all business transactions, including the exchange of tangible and intangible economic goods and financial transfers such as bank deposits. It was first adopted in its modern form by Germany in 1918 when a tax levied only on commodity transfers did

  • TransAfrica (international organization)

    Randall Robinson: …(1977) the TransAfrica Forum (now TransAfrica), an organization established to influence U.S. policies toward Africa and the Caribbean. Robinson notably called for the United States to make reparations to African Americans for the institution of slavery. He was not the first person to call for financial reparations for African Americans.…

  • TransAfrica Forum (international organization)

    Randall Robinson: …(1977) the TransAfrica Forum (now TransAfrica), an organization established to influence U.S. policies toward Africa and the Caribbean. Robinson notably called for the United States to make reparations to African Americans for the institution of slavery. He was not the first person to call for financial reparations for African Americans.…

  • Transalpine Gaul (Roman province, Europe)

    Transalpine Gaul, in Roman antiquity, the land bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees, the Atlantic, and the Rhine. It embraced what is now France and Belgium, along with parts of Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The Romans first ventured into Transalpine Gaul in 121 bce to

  • Transamazonian highway (highway, Brazil)

    Transamazonian highway, system of paved and unpaved roads in Brazil that is designed to facilitate settlement and exploitation of the vast underpopulated Amazon River Basin. The system consists of several major parts. A 3,400-mile (5,100-kilometre) east-west segment extends from Recife, on the

  • Transamerica Corporation (American corporation)

    Transamerica Corporation, major American diversified financial-services corporation. Headquarters are in the Transamerica Pyramid building in San Francisco. In July 1999 Transamerica was acquired by Aegon NV, an insurance company in the Netherlands. The company, incorporated in 1928, originated as

  • Transamerica Pyramid (building, San Francisco, California, United States)

    San Francisco: City layout: …Bank of America building), the Transamerica Pyramid (which rises to an elongated point), and the Le Méridien San Francisco hotel (formerly the Park Hyatt). The Hyatt Regency is part of the massive Embarcadero Center complex—designed by John Portman in the 1970s—which encompasses six city blocks and houses numerous shops, hotels,…

  • transaminase (enzyme)

    Transaminase, any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the amino group (―NH2) of an amino acid to a carbonyl compound, commonly an a-keto acid (an acid with the general formula RCOCOOH). The liver, for example, contains specific transaminases for the transfer of an amino group from

  • Transantarctic Mountains (mountains, Antarctica)

    Transantarctic Mountains, mountain system subdividing the Antarctic continent into an eastern (East Antarctica) and a western (West Antarctica) region. The Transantarctic Mountains stretch for more than 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from Victoria Land to the shores of the Weddell Sea. Rising to 14,856

  • Transatlantic (film by Howard [1931])
  • transatlantic cable (communications)

    telephone: Undersea cable: The first transatlantic cable was laid in 1956 between Canada and Scotland—specifically, between Clarenville, Newfoundland, Canada, and Oban, Scotland, a distance of 3,584 km (2,226 miles). This system made use of two coaxial cables, one for each direction, and used analog FDM to carry 36 two-way voice…

  • Transatlantic Pictures (film production company)

    Alfred Hitchcock: The Hollywood years: Rebecca to Dial M for Murder: …formed his own production company, Transatlantic Pictures, which would make films in America and England. Its first film was also his first colour film, Rope (1948), which was based on the sensational 1924 Leopold-Loeb murder case. Jimmy Stewart starred as the vainglorious protagonist, a former professor whose dangerously amoral philosophizing…

  • Transatlantic Sketches (work by James)

    Henry James: Career—first phase: …his art and his passions; Transatlantic Sketches, his first collection of travel writings; and a collection of tales. With these three substantial books, he inaugurated a career that saw about 100 volumes through the press during the next 40 years.

  • transatlantic slave trade (slavery)

    Transatlantic slave trade, segment of the global slave trade that transported between 10 million and 12 million enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas from the 16th to the 19th century. It was the second of three stages of the so-called triangular trade, in which arms,

  • Transatlanticism (album by Death Cab for Cutie)

    Death Cab for Cutie: …Cab for Cutie’s next album, Transatlanticism (2003), refers to the distances that had separated the band members during the album’s preparation. The success of Transatlanticism, songs from which were featured on the 2003–07 television series The O.C., led the band to sign with Atlantic Records in 2005. Plans, the group’s…

  • transaxillary approach (surgery)

    thoracic outlet syndrome: The other is the transaxillary approach, which is made by an incision in the armpit. Transaxillary operations are ideal for operating near the lower brachial plexus. Surgery for TOS is controversial, in part because of the high potential for complications such as nerve or vascular injury. Even after surgical…

  • Transbaikal Territory (territory, Russia)

    Zabaykalye, kray (territory) in Siberia, Russia. The territory was created in 2008 by the merger of the former oblast (region) of Chita with the former autonomous okrug (district) of Agin Buryat. The name of the territory means “east of Lake Baikal.” Although Zabaykalye and Lake Baikal are not

  • Transcarpathia (historical and geographical region, Eastern Europe)

    Ukraine: Transcarpathia: Lying south of the Carpathian Mountains, Transcarpathia was long isolated, both geographically and politically, from other ethnically Ukrainian lands. A domain of Kyivan Rus, after 1015 Transcarpathia was absorbed by Hungary, of which it remained a part for almost a millennium. With Hungary, it…

  • Transcaspian oblast (Russian history)

    Turkmenistan: Turkmen tribes and Russian invasion: …1881 this district became the Transcaspian province, which in 1899 was made part of the governorate-general of Turkistan. There was fierce resistance to Russian encroachment, but this was finally broken by Gen. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Skobelev at the Battle of G?k-Tepe (now G?kdepe) in 1881. The Turkmens took an active part…

  • Transcaspian Turkmen (people)

    Turkmen: These groups are called the Transcaspian Turkmen. Pockets of Turkmen are found in northern Iraq and Syria. Smaller groups live in central Turkey, where they have experienced minority discrimination, especially after 1958.

  • Transcaucasia (region, Eurasia)

    Transcaucasia, a small but densely populated region to the south of the Caucasus Mountains. It includes three independent states: Georgia in the northwest, Azerbaijan in the east, and Armenia, situated largely on a high mountainous plateau south of Georgia and west of Azerbaijan. Together these

  • Transcaucasia, history of

    History of Transcaucasia, history of the region from prehistoric times to the present. Food-gathering cultures of Mesolithic type, as represented by discoveries near Nalchik (Russia) in the central Caucasus, continued in this region until quite late. They were replaced in the later part of the 3rd

  • transcendence (religion)

    religious experience: The self and the other: …interpretation of the divine are transcendence and immanence; each is meant to express the relation between the divine and finite realities. Transcendence means going beyond a limit or surpassing a boundary; immanence means remaining within or existing within the confines of a limit. The divine is said to transcend humanity…

  • Transcendent Man (film by Ptolemy [2009])

    Ray Kurzweil: Transcendent Man (2009), a documentary, chronicles Kurzweil’s life and features interviews with both supporters and detractors of his predictions.

  • Transcendental and Algebraic Numbers (work by Gelfond)

    Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond: …Transtsendentnye i algebraicheskie chisla (1952; Transcendental and Algebraic Numbers). In Ischislenie konechnykh raznostey (1952; “Calculus of Finite Differences”), he summarized his approximation and interpolation studies.

  • transcendental argument (philosophy)

    Transcendental argument, in philosophy, a form of argument that is supposed to proceed from a fact to the necessary conditions of its possibility. A transcendental argument is simply a form of deduction, with the typical pattern: q is true only if p is true; q is true; therefore, p is true. As this

  • transcendental curve (geometry)
  • transcendental ego (philosophy)

    Transcendental ego, the self that is necessary in order for there to be a unified empirical self-consciousness. For Immanuel Kant, it synthesizes sensations according to the categories of the understanding. Nothing can be known of this self, because it is a condition, not an object, of knowledge.

  • transcendental equation (mathematics)

    mathematics: Newton and Leibniz: …of his calculus to investigate transcendental curves, the very class of “mechanical” objects Descartes had believed lay beyond the power of analysis, and derived a simple analytic formula for the cycloid.

  • Transcendental études (work by Liszt)

    Transcendental études, series of 12 musical études by Franz Liszt, published in their final form in the early 1850s. They are highly varied and technically demanding, and they exhibit little of the sense of overall structure that someone such as Beethoven would have employed. These energetic études

  • transcendental function (mathematics)

    Transcendental function, In mathematics, a function not expressible as a finite combination of the algebraic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, and extracting a root. Examples include the functions log x, sin x, cos x, ex and any functions containing

  • transcendental idealism (philosophy)

    Transcendental idealism, term applied to the epistemology of the 18th-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant, who held that the human self, or transcendental ego, constructs knowledge out of sense impressions and from universal concepts called categories that it imposes upon them. Kant’s

  • Transcendental Meditation

    Transcendental Meditation, technique of meditation in which practitioners mentally repeat a special Sanskrit word or phrase (mantra) with the aim of achieving a state of inner peacefulness and bodily calm. The technique was taught by the Hindu monk Swami Brahmananda Saraswati, also known as Guru

  • transcendental method

    Western philosophy: Critical examination of reason in Kant: …Kant called this the “transcendental method,” but more often the “critical method.” His purpose was to reject the dogmatic assumptions of the rationalist school, and his wish was to return to the semiskeptical position with which Descartes had begun before his dogmatic pretensions to certainty took hold. Kant’s method…

  • transcendental number (mathematics)

    Transcendental number, Number that is not algebraic, in the sense that it is not the solution of an algebraic equation with rational-number coefficients. The numbers e and π, as well as any algebraic number raised to the power of an irrational number, are transcendental

  • transcendental reduction (philosophy)

    epistemology: Continental epistemology: …of a series of so-called transcendental reductions that Husserl proposed in order to ensure that he was not presupposing anything. One of those reductions supposedly gave one access to “the transcendental ego,” or “pure consciousness.” Although one might expect phenomenology then to describe the experience or contents of this ego,…

  • transcendental self (philosophy)

    Transcendental ego, the self that is necessary in order for there to be a unified empirical self-consciousness. For Immanuel Kant, it synthesizes sensations according to the categories of the understanding. Nothing can be known of this self, because it is a condition, not an object, of knowledge.

  • transcendentalism (philosophy)

    dualism: Nature and significance: …identified with the doctrine of transcendence—that there is a separate realm or being above and beyond the world—as opposed to monism, which holds that the ultimate principle is inside the world (immanent). In the disciplines concerned with the study of religions, however, religious dualism refers not to the distinction or…

  • Transcendentalism (American movement)

    Transcendentalism, 19th-century movement of writers and philosophers in New England who were loosely bound together by adherence to an idealistic system of thought based on a belief in the essential unity of all creation, the innate goodness of humanity, and the supremacy of insight over logic and

  • Transcontinental Air Transport (American company)

    Trans World Airlines, Inc.: …Air Express (founded 1925) and Transcontinental Air Transport (founded 1928). Western Air Express had flown both mail and passengers in its first year of service between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City, Utah (1926), and in 1930 TWA inaugurated coast-to-coast service—Newark, New Jersey, to Los Angeles in 36 hours with…

  • transcontinental rail line

    Canada: The transcontinental railway: With the addition of British Columbia, Canada extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific. To maintain that vast area and to ensure its independence from the United States, it was necessary to build a railway to the west coast. In 1872 an effort…

  • transcontinental railroad

    Canada: The transcontinental railway: With the addition of British Columbia, Canada extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific. To maintain that vast area and to ensure its independence from the United States, it was necessary to build a railway to the west coast. In 1872 an effort…

  • Transcontinental Treaty (Spain-United States [1819])

    Transcontinental Treaty, (1819) accord between the United States and Spain that divided their North American claims along a line from the southwestern corner of what is now Louisiana, north and west to what is now Wyoming, and thence west along the latitude 42° N to the Pacific. Thus, Spain ceded

  • transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), technique based on electromagnetic induction that is used to stimulate neurons in the brain cortex (the outer layer of brain tissue, or gray matter). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was introduced by English medical physicist Anthony Barker in 1985

  • transcriptase (enzyme)

    virus: The nucleic acid: …an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (transcriptase), which must first catalyze the synthesis of complementary mRNA from the virion genomic RNA before viral protein synthesis can occur. These variations in the nucleic acids of viruses form one central criterion for classification of all viruses.

  • transcription (music)

    Arrangement, in music, traditionally, any adaptation of a composition to fit a medium other than that for which it was originally written, while at the same time retaining the general character of the original. The word was frequently used interchangeably with transcription, although the latter

  • Transcription (novel by Atkinson)

    Kate Atkinson: In Transcription (2018) a woman must confront her past as a worker at MI5 during World War II.

  • transcription (broadcasting)

    broadcasting: Monitoring and transcriptions: Transcriptions (recordings) of programs produced in either the domestic or the external services of one country can be acceptable for broadcast in others. Radio broadcasts of an educational nature can be used in different countries speaking the same language. Although many radio transcriptions are supplied…

  • transcription (genetics)

    Transcription, the synthesis of RNA from DNA. Genetic information flows from DNA into protein, the substance that gives an organism its form. This flow of information occurs through the sequential processes of transcription (DNA to RNA) and translation (RNA to protein). Transcription occurs when

  • transcription (linguistics)

    phonetics: Phonetic transcription: There are many different kinds of phonetic transcription. In some circumstances a phonetic symbol can be simply an abbreviation for a phonetic description. The symbol [s] may then be regarded as exactly equivalent to the phrase “voiceless, alveolar, fricative.” When a linguist tries to…

  • transcription factor (biology)

    Transcription factor, molecule that controls the activity of a gene by determining whether the gene’s DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid). The enzyme RNA polymerase catalyzes the chemical reactions that synthesize RNA, using the gene’s DNA as a template.

  • transcriptomics (genetics)

    bioinformatics: The data of bioinformatics: Additional “-omics” data streams include: transcriptomics, the pattern of RNA synthesis from DNA; proteomics, the distribution of proteins in cells; interactomics, the patterns of protein-protein and protein–nucleic acid interactions; and metabolomics, the nature and traffic patterns of transformations of small molecules by the biochemical pathways active in

  • transcrystalline (crystallography)

    ice: Mechanical properties: It involves two processes: intracrystalline gliding, in which the layers within an ice crystal shear parallel to each other without destroying the continuity of the crystal lattice, and recrystallization, in which crystal boundaries change in size or shape depending on the orientation of the adjacent crystals and the stresses…

  • transcurrent fault (geology)

    fault: Strike-slip (also called transcurrent, wrench, or lateral) faults are similarly caused by horizontal compression, but they release their energy by rock displacement in a horizontal direction almost parallel to the compressional force. The fault plane is essentially vertical, and the relative slip is lateral along…

  • Transdanubia (region, Hungary)

    Transdanubia, region, that part of Hungary lying west of the Danube River, which flows north-south across the middle of the country. Both the English and the Hungarian versions of the name mean “land beyond the Danube.” Transdanubia is not uniform as a region, and it consists essentially of a

  • transdermal drug (medicine)

    drug: Dermatologic drugs: The transdermal application of drugs can also achieve a systemic rather than local effect. The administration of a drug through the skin not only minimizes the metabolism of the drug before it reaches the rest of the body but also eliminates the high and low blood…

  • transdermal estrogen (medicine)

    menopause: Estrogen therapy: …applied to the skin (transdermal estrogen) or to the vagina. Estrogen that is applied to the skin is absorbed into the circulation and has effects throughout the body, though it is less active in the liver than oral estrogen and therefore has fewer effects on serum lipids, hormone-binding proteins,…

  • transdifferentiation (biology)

    Transdifferentiation, conversion of one differentiated (mature) cell type into another cell type. Transdifferentiation occurs naturally in only a few instances of regeneration. A celebrated example is the Wolffian regeneration of the lens in newts, where removal of the lens of the eye provokes the

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