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  • Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (British historian)

    Arnold Toynbee, English historian whose 12-volume A Study of History (1934–61) put forward a philosophy of history, based on an analysis of the cyclical development and decline of civilizations, that provoked much discussion. Toynbee was a nephew of the 19th-century economist Arnold Toynbee. He was

  • Toynbee, Philip (British writer)

    Philip Toynbee, English writer and editor best known for novels that experiment with time and symbolical elements. Philip Toynbee was the son of the historian Arnold Toynbee and grandson of the classical scholar Gilbert Murray. He was educated at Rugby School and the University of Oxford. In

  • Toynbee, Theodore Philip (British writer)

    Philip Toynbee, English writer and editor best known for novels that experiment with time and symbolical elements. Philip Toynbee was the son of the historian Arnold Toynbee and grandson of the classical scholar Gilbert Murray. He was educated at Rugby School and the University of Oxford. In

  • Tōyō (Japanese artist)

    Sesshū, artist of the Muromachi period, one of the greatest masters of the Japanese art of sumi-e, or monochrome ink painting. Sesshū adapted Chinese models to Japanese artistic ideals and aesthetic sensibilities. He painted landscapes, Zen Buddhist pictures, and screens decorated with flowers and

  • Tōyō jiyū shimbun (Japanese newspaper)

    Saionji Kimmochi: …in 1881 and founded the Tōyō jiyū shimbun (“Oriental Free Press”), a newspaper dedicated to popularizing democratic ideas. But journalism was considered a scandalous profession for a court noble. Hence, his colleagues prevailed on the emperor to force Saionji to leave the newspaper and join government service, in which he…

  • Tōyō Kōgyō Company (Japanese corporation)

    Mazda Motor Corporation, Japanese automotive manufacturer, maker of Mazda passenger cars, trucks, and buses. The company is affiliated with the Sumitomo group. It is headquartered at Hiroshima. Founded in 1920 as a cork plant, the company acquired its Tōyō Kōgyō name in 1927. In 1931 it began

  • Toyoda, Eiji (Japanese businessman)

    Eiji Toyoda, Japanese businessman (born Sept. 12, 1913, Nagoya, Japan—died Sept. 17, 2013, Toyota City, Japan), transformed his family’s car-manufacturing business into the world’s largest producer of automobiles as the long-serving president (1967–82) of Toyota Motor Co. (later Toyota Motor

  • Toyohara (Russia)

    Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, city and administrative centre of Sakhalin oblast (region), far eastern Russia. It lies in the south of Sakhalin Island on the Susuya River, 26 miles (42 km) north of the port of Korsakov. Originally the Japanese settlement of Toyohara, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk passed to the Soviet

  • Toyohashi (Japan)

    Toyohashi, city, Aichi ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. The city is situated on Atsumi Bay. Formerly called Yoshida, the old castle town was the scene of much fighting during the 16th century, and it changed hands often during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867). After the late 19th century, it became

  • Toyokawa (Japan)

    Toyokawa, city, Aichi ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It is situated along the lower reaches of the Toyo River. The city developed around the Toyokawa Inari Shrine and served as a post town on the Tōkaidō (Eastern Sea Highway) during the Tokugawa era (1603–1867). The city’s munitions industry,

  • Toyokuni (Japanese artist)

    Utagawa Toyokuni, Japanese artist of the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) movement who developed the style of his master, Utagawa Toyoharu, making it one of the most popular of its day. Toyokuni specialized in prints of actors but was also known for his portraits of women. His “Yakusha

  • Toyonaka (Japan)

    Toyonaka, city, ōsaka fu (urban prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It lies just north of ōsaka city. A former rural town set amid rice paddies, it became a residential suburb of ōsaka after the opening of a railway to that city in 1910. ōsaka’s northern industrial zone has extended into Toyonaka, with

  • Toyopet (automobile)

    Toyota Motor Corporation: …year the company released the Toyopet sedan, its first model to be marketed in the United States; it was poorly received because of its high price and lack of horsepower. The Land Cruiser, a 4 × 4 utility vehicle released in 1958, was more successful. In 1965 the Toyopet, completely…

  • Toyota (Japan)

    Toyota, city, Aichi ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It lies along the middle reaches of the Yahagi River. It originated as a castle town, with its commercial quarter serving as a collection and distribution centre for silk cocoons. The head office of the Toyota Motor Company was moved to the city

  • Toyota Center (arena, Houston, Texas, United States)

    Houston: The contemporary city: …of the ballpark is the Toyota Center (opened 2003), a multipurpose arena that is the home of the city’s professional basketball team, the Rockets. To the east of the city, the site of the Battle of San Jacinto is preserved as a state historic site. Space Center Houston at the…

  • Toyota Corolla (automobile)

    Toyota Motor Corporation: …reliable vehicles such as the Corolla, which was released in the United States in 1968.

  • Toyota Corona (automobile)

    automobile: Japanese cars: …any quantity was the Toyota Corona, introduced in 1967. While $100 more expensive than the Volkswagen Beetle, it was slightly larger, better-appointed, and offered an optional automatic transmission.

  • Toyota Jidosha KK (Japanese corporation)

    Toyota Motor Corporation, Japanese parent company of the Toyota Group. It became the largest automobile manufacturer in the world for the first time in 2008. Most of its nearly 600 subsidiary companies are involved in the production of automobiles, automobile parts, and commercial and industrial

  • Toyota Motor Corporation (Japanese corporation)

    Toyota Motor Corporation, Japanese parent company of the Toyota Group. It became the largest automobile manufacturer in the world for the first time in 2008. Most of its nearly 600 subsidiary companies are involved in the production of automobiles, automobile parts, and commercial and industrial

  • Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams (law case [2002])

    Americans with Disabilities Act: …treatment by her employer in Toyota Motor Mfg. v. Williams (2001). The decision, written by Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, noted that “given large potential differences in the severity and duration of the effects of carpal tunnel syndrome, an individual’s carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis, on its own, does not indicate whether…

  • Toyotomi Hidetsugu (Japanese warrior)

    Toyotomi Hidetsugu, nephew and adopted son and heir of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the renowned warrior who in 1590 unified Japan after more than a century of civil war. The eventual disinheritance and murder of Hidetsugu by Hideyoshi left Hideyoshi with no mature heir when he died in 1598. Hidetsugu

  • Toyotomi Hideyori (Japanese ruler)

    Toyotomi Hideyori, son and heir of Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537–98), the great warrior who unified Japan after more than a century of civil unrest. Hideyori’s suicide at 22 removed the last obstacle to Tokugawa Ieyasu’s bid to establish his own family as the preeminent power in Japan. Since Hideyori

  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Japanese leader)

    Toyotomi Hideyoshi, feudal lord and chief Imperial minister (1585–98), who completed the 16th-century unification of Japan begun by Oda Nobunaga. He was the son of a peasant; when he was still a boy, he left home for Tōtōmi province (present-day Shizuoka prefecture) and became page to a retainer of

  • Toyouke ōkami (Shintō god)

    Ukemochi no Kami: …Food”) and is associated with Toyuke (Toyouke) ōkami, the god of food, clothing, and housing, who is enshrined in the Outer Shrine of the Grand Shrine of Ise.

  • Toyouke-daijingū (temple, Ise, Japan)

    Ise Shrine: …the Inner Shrine (Naikū) and Outer Shrine (Gekū), situated about 4 miles (6 km) apart. Ise Shrine is a major destination for pilgrims and for tourists and has millions of visitors annually.

  • Toys in the Attic (play by Hellman)

    Jason Robards: …his work in Lillian Hellman’s Toys in the Attic (1960). He also played leading roles in the original Broadway productions of A Thousand Clowns (1962) and Arthur Miller’s After the Fall (1964) as well as in revivals of Clifford Odets’s The Country Girl (1972), O’Neill’s

  • Toys in the Attic (film by Hill [1963])

    George Roy Hill: Film directing: …Franciosa, and Jim Hutton, and Toys in the Attic (1963; based on Lillian Hellman’s drama) featured the unlikely cast of Dean Martin, Geraldine Page, and Wendy Hiller. In 1964 Hill directed The World of Henry Orient, which was adapted from a novel by Nora Johnson (who wrote the screenplay with…

  • Toyt urteyl (work by Asch)

    Sholem Asch: Judge Not—). These novels describe the cultural and economic conflicts experienced by eastern European Jewish immigrants in America.

  • Toyuke ōkami (Shintō god)

    Ukemochi no Kami: …Food”) and is associated with Toyuke (Toyouke) ōkami, the god of food, clothing, and housing, who is enshrined in the Outer Shrine of the Grand Shrine of Ise.

  • tozama daimyo (Japanese history)

    Tozama daimyo, (Japanese: “outside daimyo”), nonhereditary feudal lord or daimyo in Japan during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867), whose house had been equal to the Tokugawa house before the establishment of the shogunate (hereditary military dictatorship). Despite their lack of hereditary ties to

  • Tozer, E. Timothy (Canadian paleontologist)

    Triassic Period: North American strata: …work of the Canadian paleontologist E. Timothy Tozer, who, with the American paleontologist Norman J. Silberling, provided precisely defined stratotypes for all the recognized North American biozones. The North American zonal scheme is now accepted by most authorities as the standard for Triassic global biostratigraphy and allows Alpine (western Tethyan)…

  • Tozeur (oasis, Tunisia)

    Tozeur, oasis in west-central Tunisia. It is located to the south of Tunisia’s steppe region in the jarīd (palm) country, which displays a colourful landscape marked by numerous chott (or sha??, salty lake) depressions and palm groves. The town is situated on the isthmus that separates the Chotts

  • Tozzer, Alfred M. (American anthropologist)

    Alfred M. Tozzer, U.S. anthropologist and archaeologist who made substantial contributions to knowledge of the culture and language of the Maya Indians of Mexico and Central America. Hoping to find the key to deciphering Maya hieroglyphic writing, Tozzer examined the culture and language of a Maya

  • Tozzer, Alfred Marston (American anthropologist)

    Alfred M. Tozzer, U.S. anthropologist and archaeologist who made substantial contributions to knowledge of the culture and language of the Maya Indians of Mexico and Central America. Hoping to find the key to deciphering Maya hieroglyphic writing, Tozzer examined the culture and language of a Maya

  • Tozzi, Federigo (Italian author)

    Italian literature: The veristi and other narrative writers: …works of the Sienese writer Federigo Tozzi, including Con gli occhi chiusi (1919; “With Closed Eyes”) and Tre croci (1920; Three Crosses). Tozzi, however, belongs psychologically and stylistically to the 20th century.

  • To? Janggut (Malaysian political leader)

    To? Janggut, Malay leader of a peasant rebellion in Malaya in 1915, directed against British colonial rule. Muhammad Hasan, known as To? Janggut because of his long white beard, was a peasant farmer and an itinerant rice trader in the southernmost district of Kelantan, a state that came under

  • TP53 (gene)

    tumour suppressor gene: …tumour suppressor genes (such as TP53, which encodes a protein known as p53) have been identified. The mutated form of TP53 has been implicated in more than 50 percent of all cancers. Mutations in two other tumour suppressor genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are associated with an increased susceptiblity to breast…

  • TPHA (medicine)

    syphilis test: Treponemal tests include the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA; or T. pallidum particle agglutination assay, TPPA); the enzyme immunoassay (EIA); and the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. Treponemal tests are based on the detection of treponemal antibody—the antibody that attacks T. pallidum, the spirochete that causes syphilis—in the…

  • TPLF (Ethiopian organization)

    Tigray: In 1975 the Tigray (Tigrayan) People’s Liberation Front began a protracted rebellion against the military government. The conflict aggravated a disastrous drought and famine between 1984 and 1985, which the government tried to ameliorate by forcibly relocating hundreds of thousands of peasants to well-watered regions in the south…

  • TPP (international trade agreement)

    Stephen Harper: Majority government: …that Canada would join the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a series of talks designed to create a huge Asia-Pacific free-trade zone that would include Australia, Brunei, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States, among others.

  • TPP (political party, Turkey)

    Necmettin Erbakan: A centre-right coalition of the True Path (Do?ru Yol) and Motherland (Anavatan) parties then held power until internal disagreements brought it down in June. Erbakan was again asked to try to form a coalition, and this time, when Tansu ?iller, head of the True Path Party, agreed to join him,…

  • TPP (chemical compound)

    metabolism: The oxidation of pyruvate: …pyruvic acid decarboxylase (enzyme 1), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP); in addition to carbon dioxide a hydroxyethyl–TPP–enzyme complex (“active acetaldehyde”) is formed [34]. Thiamine is vitamin B1; the biological role of TPP was first revealed by the inability of vitamin B1-deficient animals to oxidize pyruvate.

  • TPPA (medicine)

    syphilis test: Treponemal tests include the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA; or T. pallidum particle agglutination assay, TPPA); the enzyme immunoassay (EIA); and the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. Treponemal tests are based on the detection of treponemal antibody—the antibody that attacks T. pallidum, the spirochete that causes syphilis—in the…

  • TQC (production optimizing system)

    Total Quality Control (TQC), System for optimizing production based on ideas developed by Japanese industries from the 1950s on. The system, which blends Western and Eastern ideas, began with the concept of quality circles, in which groups of 10–20 workers were given responsibility for the quality

  • TQM (business management)

    Total Quality Management (TQM), Management practices designed to improve the performance of organizational processes in business and industry. Based on concepts developed by statistician and management theorist W. Edwards Deming, TQM includes techniques for achieving efficiency, solving problems,

  • TR (president of United States)

    Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–09) and a writer, naturalist, and soldier. He expanded the powers of the presidency and of the federal government in support of the public interest in conflicts between big business and labour and steered the nation toward an active role

  • TR 4 (plant disease strain)

    banana: Cultivation and disease susceptibility: …of Panama disease known as Tropical Race (TR) 4 has been a threat to the Cavendish since the 1990s, and many scientists worry that the Cavendish too will eventually go extinct.

  • TR-63 (transistor radio)

    Sony: Rice cookers to transistor radios: …in 1955, it was Sony’s TR-63, an inexpensive shirt-pocket-sized all-transistor radio, that caught consumers’ attention when it was released in 1957. Sony’s pocket radios were a tremendous success and brought international recognition of the company’s brand name.

  • TRA (United States [1986])

    Tax Reform Act of 1986, the most-extensive review and overhaul of the Internal Revenue Code by the U.S. Congress since the inception of the income tax in 1913 (the Sixteenth Amendment). Its purpose was to simplify the tax code, broaden the tax base, and eliminate many tax shelters and preferences.

  • Trab el-Hajra (region, Mauritania)

    Mauritania: Settlement patterns: …Tagant plateaus, known as the Trab el-Hajra (Arabic: “Country of Stone”). There, at the foot of cliffs, are found several oases, among which some—such as Chingue??i, Ouadane, T?ch?t, Tidjikdja, and Atar—were the sites of well-known urban trading centres in the Middle Ages. To the north and the east extend the…

  • trabaios de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional, Los (work by Cervantes)

    Miguel de Cervantes: Publication of Don Quixote: …1617, was his last romance, Los trabaios de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional (“The Labours of Persiles and Sigismunda: A Northern Story”). In it Cervantes sought to renovate the heroic romance of adventure and love in the manner of the Aethiopica of Heliodorus. It was an intellectually prestigious genre destined…

  • Trabajadores Cubanos, Confederación de

    Cuba: Labour and taxation: …recognized labour organization is the Confederation of Cuban Workers, which is designed to support the government, raise the political consciousness of workers, and improve managerial performance and labour discipline.

  • Trabajadores de México, Confederación de (Mexican labour union)

    Mexico: Labour and taxation: …most powerful union is the Confederation of Mexican Workers, which has historically had ties with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).

  • Trabajo del Uruguay, Universidad del (university, Uruguay)

    Montevideo: The Uruguay Workers’ University (1878) provides vocational training through industrial and night schools.

  • trabajos de Urbano y Simona, Los (work by Pérez de Ayala)

    Ramón Pérez de Ayala: …and Gall) and its sequel, Los trabajos de Urbano y Simona (1923; “The Labours of Urbano and Simona”), treat the contrast between idealistic innocence and the realities of mature romantic love. In Tigre Juan (1926; Tiger Juan) and its sequel, El curandero de su honra (1926; “The [Quack] Healer of…

  • trabeated classicism (architectural style)

    Western architecture: France: …striking example of the austere trabeated classicism that was the most popular style for public buildings in the 1930s in many parts of the United States and Europe. It is often known as stripped classicism because features such as columns and pilasters were reduced to a grid and deprived of…

  • trabeation (architecture)

    Post-and-lintel system, in building construction, a system in which two upright members, the posts, hold up a third member, the lintel, laid horizontally across their top surfaces. All structural openings have evolved from this system, which is seen in pure form only in colonnades and in framed

  • trabecula (anatomy)

    bone: Bone morphology: …bone is termed cancellous or trabecular. In mature bone, trabeculae are arranged in an orderly pattern that provides continuous units of bony tissue aligned parallel with the lines of major compressive or tensile force. Trabeculae thus provide a complex series of cross-braced interior struts arranged so as to provide maximal…

  • trabecula carnea (anatomy)

    ventricle: …and bands of muscle, called trabeculae carneae. The papillary muscles project like nipples into the cavities of the ventricles. They are attached by fine strands of tendon to the valves between the atria and ventricles and prevent the valves from opening when the ventricles contract. See also heart.

  • trabecular bone (anatomy)

    Cancellous bone, light, porous bone enclosing numerous large spaces that give a honeycombed or spongy appearance. The bone matrix, or framework, is organized into a three-dimensional latticework of bony processes, called trabeculae, arranged along lines of stress. The spaces between are often

  • trabeculectomy (surgery)

    aqueous humour: Trabeculectomy diverts aqueous humour from the anterior chamber inside the eye to the space under the conjunctiva (the transparent skin that covers the white area, or sclera, of the eye).

  • trabeculoplasty (surgery)

    aqueous humour: …fluid from the eye include trabeculoplasty, a type of laser surgery that increases the permeability of the trabecular meshwork, and trabeculectomy (also called filtering microsurgery). Trabeculectomy diverts aqueous humour from the anterior chamber inside the eye to the space under the conjunctiva (the transparent skin that covers the white area,…

  • Trabutina mannipara (insect)

    homopteran: Importance: …produce food for man, the tamarisk manna scale, Trabutina mannipara, is thought to have produced the biblical manna for the children of Israel. The females produce large quantities of honeydew that solidify in thick layers on plant leaves in arid regions. This sugarlike material, still collected by natives of Arabia…

  • Trabzon (province, Turkey)

    Trabzon: The contemporary city: Trabzon province is well forested and densely populated. The large variety of crops grown include tobacco, fruits, and hazelnuts. Small deposits of copper, lead, and iron are worked.

  • Trabzon (Turkey)

    Trabzon, city, capital of Trabzon il (province), northeastern Turkey. It lies on a wide bay on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea backed by high ranges of the Pontic Mountains, which separate it from the central Anatolian Plateau. Area province, 1,907 square miles (4,938 square km). Pop.

  • TRACE (United States satellite)

    Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), U.S. satellite designed to study the solar corona. It was launched on April 2, 1998, from a Pegasus launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. TRACE carried a 30-cm (12-inch) telescope and observed the Sun in ultraviolet wavelengths.

  • trace (literary criticism)

    deconstruction: Deconstruction in philosophy: …of which contains the “traces” of the meanings on which it depends.

  • trace element (biology)

    Trace element, in biology, any chemical element required by living organisms in minute amounts (that is less than 0.1 percent by volume [1,000 parts per million]), usually as part of a vital enzyme (a cell-produced catalytic protein). Exact needs vary among species, but commonly required plant

  • trace evidence (criminal investigation)

    crime laboratory: Sections of crime laboratories: The trace-evidence unit analyzes evidence such as fibres, fire and explosive residues, glass, soils, paints and coatings, and other materials. Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify the structure of substances such as paint or fibres and allows forensic technicians to match trace evidence from a…

  • trace fossil (paleontology)

    Cambrian Period: Correlation of Cambrian strata: Since roughly the 1980s, trace fossils have been used with limited precision to correlate uppermost Precambrian and basal Cambrian strata. Although the biostratigraphic use of such fossils has many problems, they nevertheless demonstrate progressively more complex and diverse patterns of locomotion and feeding by benthic (bottom-dwelling) marine animals. T.…

  • Trace Gas Orbiter (space probe)

    Mars: Spacecraft exploration: …and consisted of two spacecraft—the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli lander. Schiaparelli ejected its parachute early and crashed into the surface. The TGO mapped the vertical distribution of dust and water vapour in the atmosphere. It did not detect any methane, which conflicted with Curiosity’s detection and suggests…

  • trace mineral (biology)

    Trace element, in biology, any chemical element required by living organisms in minute amounts (that is less than 0.1 percent by volume [1,000 parts per million]), usually as part of a vital enzyme (a cell-produced catalytic protein). Exact needs vary among species, but commonly required plant

  • Tracer (novel by Barthelme)

    Frederick Barthelme: Similarly, his novel Tracer (1985) presents a disheartened male and two women to whom he is attached.

  • tracer (observation)

    Tracer, detectable substance added to a chemical, biological, or physical system to follow its process or to study distribution of the substance in the system. Tracer dyes have long been used to follow the flow of underground streams. Incendiary rounds included at intervals in a belt of

  • tracer bullet (ammunition)

    ammunition: Tracer bullets have a column of pyrotechnic composition in the base that is ignited by the flame of the propellant; this provides a visible pyrotechnic display during the bullet’s flight. Incendiary bullets, intended to ignite flammable materials such as gasoline, contain a charge of chemical…

  • tracer gas meter

    gas meter: A tracer-type gas meter measures flow rate by timing the passage of an injected radioactive material between two fixed detectors.

  • tracer lathe

    machine tool: Tracer techniques: The tool slide on a tracer lathe is guided by a sensitive, hydraulically actuated stylus that follows an accurate template. The template may be an accurate profile on a thin plate or a finish-turned part. Although tracing mechanisms generally are accessory units attached to engine lathes, some lathes are especially…

  • tracery (architecture)

    Tracery, in architecture, bars, or ribs, used decoratively in windows or other openings; the term also applies to similar forms used in relief as wall decoration (sometimes called blind tracery) and hence figuratively, to any intricate line pattern. The term is applicable to the system of window

  • Tracey Ullman Show, The (television program)

    James L. Brooks: …later television production credits included The Tracey Ullman Show (1987–90) and The Simpsons (1989– ).

  • Tracey, Stan (British jazz musician and composer)

    Stan Tracey, (Stanley William Tracey), British jazz musician and composer (born Dec. 30, 1926, London, Eng.—died Dec. 6, 2013, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, Eng.), played piano with a strong touch and a sophisticated sense of harmony and swing, a quality that earned him praise as “one of the true jazz

  • Tracey, Stanley William (British jazz musician and composer)

    Stan Tracey, (Stanley William Tracey), British jazz musician and composer (born Dec. 30, 1926, London, Eng.—died Dec. 6, 2013, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, Eng.), played piano with a strong touch and a sophisticated sense of harmony and swing, a quality that earned him praise as “one of the true jazz

  • trachea (plant anatomy)

    Vessel, in botany, the most specialized and efficient conducting structure of xylem (fluid-conducting tissues). Characteristic of most flowering plants and absent from most gymnosperms and ferns, vessels are thought to have evolved from tracheids (a primitive form of water-conducting cell) by loss

  • trachea (anatomy)

    Trachea, in vertebrates and invertebrates, a tube or system of tubes that carries air. In insects, a few land arachnids, and myriapods, the trachea is an elaborate system of small, branching tubes that carry oxygen to individual body cells; in most land vertebrates, the trachea is the windpipe,

  • tracheal tube (anatomy)

    insect: Respiratory system: …consists of air-filled tubes or tracheae, which open at the surface of the thorax and abdomen through paired spiracles. The muscular valves of the spiracles, closed most of the time, open only to allow the uptake of oxygen and the escape of carbon dioxide. The tracheal tubes are continuous with…

  • tracheid (plant structure)

    Tracheid, in botany, primitive element of xylem (fluid-conducting tissues), consisting of a single elongated cell with pointed ends and a secondary, cellulosic wall thickened with lignin (a chemical binding substance) containing numerous pits but having no perforations in the primary cell wall. At

  • tracheitis (disease)

    Tracheitis, inflammation and infection of the trachea (windpipe). Most conditions that affect the trachea are bacterial or viral infections, although irritants like chlorine gas, sulfur dioxide, and dense smoke can injure the lining of the trachea and increase the likelihood of infections. Acute

  • Trachelium americanum sive cardinalis planta (plant)

    cardinal flower: L. cardinalis and L. splendens, considered to be one species by some authorities, are taller than L. fulgens, the Central American parent species of the garden cardinal flower. The blue cardinal (L. siphilitica) is smaller than the others and has blue or whitish flowers.

  • tracheole (anatomy)

    insect: Respiratory system: …and ending in fine thin-walled tracheoles less than one micron in diameter. The tracheoles insinuate themselves between cells, sometimes appearing to penetrate into them, and push deeply into the plasma membrane.

  • Tracheophyta (plant)

    Tracheophyte, any of the vascular plants, members of the division, or phylum, Tracheophyta, numbering some 260,000 species and including all of the conspicuous flora of the Earth today. Tracheophyte, meaning “tracheid plant,” refers to the water-conducting cells (called tracheids, or tracheary

  • tracheophyte (plant)

    Tracheophyte, any of the vascular plants, members of the division, or phylum, Tracheophyta, numbering some 260,000 species and including all of the conspicuous flora of the Earth today. Tracheophyte, meaning “tracheid plant,” refers to the water-conducting cells (called tracheids, or tracheary

  • tracheostomy (surgery)

    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Diagnosis and treatment: …patients with advanced disease is tracheostomy, in which an opening is created in the trachea in order to enable connection to a ventilator (breathing machine). Patients also may choose to undergo physical therapy involving exercises to maintain muscle strength. In addition, speech therapy and the use of special computers and…

  • Trachiniai (play by Sophocles)

    Trachinian Women, drama of domestic tragedy by Sophocles, performed sometime after 458 bce. The play centres on the efforts of Deianeira to win back the wandering affections of her husband, Heracles, who—although he is away on one of his heroic missions—has sent back his latest concubine, Iole, to

  • Trachinian Women (play by Sophocles)

    Trachinian Women, drama of domestic tragedy by Sophocles, performed sometime after 458 bce. The play centres on the efforts of Deianeira to win back the wandering affections of her husband, Heracles, who—although he is away on one of his heroic missions—has sent back his latest concubine, Iole, to

  • Trachinidae (fish)

    Weever, any of four species of small marine fishes of the family Trachinidae (order Perciformes). Weevers are long-bodied fishes that habitually bury themselves in the sand. They have large, upwardly slanted mouths and eyes near the top of the head. There is a sharp spine on each gill cover; these

  • Trachinotus (fish)

    Pompano, (Trachinotus), any of several marine fishes of the family Carangidae (order Perciformes). Pompanos, some of which are highly prized as food, are deep-bodied, toothless fishes with small scales, a narrow tail base, and a forked tail. They are usually silvery and are found along shores in

  • Trachinotus carolinus (fish)

    pompano: The Florida, or common, pompano (T. carolinus), considered the tastiest, is a valued commercial food fish of the American Atlantic and Gulf coasts and grows to a length of about 45 cm (18 inches) and weight of 1 kg (2 pounds). The blue and silver great pompano (T.…

  • Trachinotus goodei (fish)

    Permit, marine fish, a species of pompano

  • Trachinus draco (fish)

    weever: …greater and lesser weevers (Trachinus draco and T. vipera), of both Europe and the Mediterranean.

  • Trachinus vipera (fish)

    weever: …species include the greater and lesser weevers (Trachinus draco and T. vipera), of both Europe and the Mediterranean.

  • Trachipteras arcticus (fish)

    ribbonfish: The largest of the ribbonfishes, T. arcticus, reaches a length of 2 m (6.5 feet) and is found in cold northern waters.

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