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  • Town, The (novel by Richter)

    The Town, novel by Conrad Richter, published in 1950. The third book in a trilogy that includes The Trees and The Fields, The Town was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1951. The three books were published in a single volume as The Awakening Land in 1966. The trilogy, which is set in the

  • Towne, Laura Matilda (American educator)

    Laura Matilda Towne, American educator known for founding one of the earliest and most successful of the freedmen’s schools for former slaves after the American Civil War. Towne studied homeopathic medicine privately and probably attended the short-lived Penn Medical University for a time; she was

  • Towne, Robert (American writer and screenwriter)

    Roger Corman: …Earth (1960) was written by Robert Towne, who would later become renowned as the writer of Chinatown (1974); Corman also drafted Towne as an actor, but Towne disguised both contributions under the pseudonym Edward Wain.

  • Towneley plays (medieval literature)

    Wakefield plays, a cycle of 32 scriptural plays, or mystery plays, of the early 15th century, which were performed during the European Middle Ages at Wakefield, a town in the north of England, as part of the summertime religious festival of Corpus Christi. The text of the plays has been preserved

  • Townes (album by Earle)

    Steve Earle: …tribute to Van Zandt, titled Townes, earned him another Grammy Award for best contemporary folk album.

  • Townes, Charles Hard (American physicist)

    Charles Hard Townes, American physicist, joint winner (with the Soviet physicists Aleksandr M. Prokhorov and Nikolay G. Basov) of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1964 for his role in the invention of the maser and the laser. Townes studied at Furman University (B.A., B.S., 1935), Duke University

  • Townes, Jeffrey (American musician)

    Will Smith: …alliance with schoolmate and deejay Jeffrey Townes, whom he met in 1981. They began recording as DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince and released their first single, “Girls Ain’t Nothing but Trouble,” in 1986, later followed by the album Rock the House. In 1988 the group released the groundbreaking…

  • Townsend avalanche (physics)

    radiation measurement: Proportional counters: …of electrons is called a Townsend avalanche and is triggered by a single free electron. The total number of electrons produced in the avalanche can easily reach 1,000 or more, and the amount of charge generated in the gas is also multiplied by the same factor. The Townsend avalanche takes…

  • Townsend club (United States history)

    Social Security Act: …the early 1930s joined nationwide Townsend clubs, promoted by Francis E. Townsend to support his program demanding a $200 monthly pension for everyone over the age of 60. In 1934 Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt set up a committee on economic security to consider the matter; after studying its recommendations, Congress…

  • Townsend family (American cabinetmakers)

    Townsend family, American cabinetmakers working in Newport, Rhode Island, during the 17th and 18th centuries and forming with the Goddard family the Goddard-Townsend group, known for case furniture characterized by block fronts and decorative carved shell motifs, frequently in the graceful and

  • Townsend, Christopher (American cabinetmaker)

    Townsend family: …Townsend (1699–1765) and his brother Christopher Townsend (1701–73) were the first generation involved in cabinetmaking. Job’s daughter married John Goddard, then his apprentice and the first of the Goddard family associated with the Townsends. The only known piece bearing Job’s label is a desk-bookcase at the Rhode Island School of…

  • Townsend, Fannie Lou (American civil-rights activist)

    Fannie Lou Hamer, African American civil rights activist who worked to desegregate the Mississippi Democratic Party. The youngest of 20 children, Fannie Lou was working the fields with her sharecropper parents at the age of six. Amid poverty and racial exploitation, she received only a sixth-grade

  • Townsend, Francis E. (American politician)

    United States: The second New Deal and the Supreme Court: Many older people supported Francis E. Townsend’s plan to provide $200 per month for everyone over age 60. At the same time, conservatives, including such groups as the American Liberty League, founded in 1934, attacked the New Deal as a threat to states’ rights, free enterprise, and the open…

  • Townsend, Henry (American musician)

    Henry Townsend, American blues musician (born Oct. 27, 1909, Shelby, Miss.—died Sept. 24, 2006, Grafton, Wis.), was one of the principal figures of the St. Louis blues scene and the last blues musician known to have recorded in the 1920s. Though Townsend moved with his family to Cairo, Ill., he r

  • Townsend, Job (American cabinetmaker)

    Goddard Family: …younger brother James worked for Job Townsend. Shortly after they married Townsend’s daughters, John established his own workshop, and by the 1760s he had become Newport’s leading cabinetmaker, being commissioned by such eminent early Americans as Gov. Stephen Hopkins of Rhode Island and the famous philanthropist Moses Brown. In contrast…

  • Townsend, John (American cabinetmaker)

    Townsend family: Christopher’s son John Townsend (1732–1809), recognized as one of the outstanding craftsmen of the group, was held by the British for several weeks in 1777 and is believed to have worked in Connecticut after his release, returning to Newport in 1782. About nine pieces bearing his label…

  • Townsend, John Rowe (British author)

    children's literature: Contemporary times: Such novels as John Rowe Townsend’s Gumble’s Yard (1961); Widdershins Crescent (1965); Pirate’s Island (1968); Eve Garnett’s Further Adventures of the Family from One End Street (1956); and Leila Berg’s Box for Benny (1958) represented a new realistic school, restrained in England, less so in the United States,…

  • Townsend, Peter (British officer)

    Princess Margaret: Peter Townsend, a war hero who had served as an equerry to her father. Their romance became public knowledge when Margaret was seen brushing lint off Townsend’s jacket at her sister’s coronation in 1953. Although Townsend and Margaret wished to marry, the fact that he…

  • Townsend, Robert Chase (American business executive)

    Robert Chase Townsend, American business executive and writer who, as chairman and president of Avis Rent-a-Car from 1962 to 1965, gained the company its first profitability; his book Up the Organization (1970) was on the New York Times best-seller list for 28 weeks, 7 of them at the number one

  • Townsend, Sir John Sealy (Irish physicist)

    Sir John Sealy Townsend, Irish physicist who pioneered in the study of electrical conduction in gases and made the first direct measurement of the unit electrical charge (e). In 1895 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, becoming a research student at the Cavendish Laboratory under J.J. Thomson.

  • Townsend, Sir John Sealy Edward (Irish physicist)

    Sir John Sealy Townsend, Irish physicist who pioneered in the study of electrical conduction in gases and made the first direct measurement of the unit electrical charge (e). In 1895 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, becoming a research student at the Cavendish Laboratory under J.J. Thomson.

  • Townsend, Sue (British author)

    Sue Townsend, (Susan Elaine Townsend), British author (born April 2, 1946, Leicester, Eng.—died April 10, 2014, Leicester), created one of Britain’s most popular and enduring comic characters, Adrian Albert Mole, whose wry thoughts and self-described misadventures she wrote about in eight fictional

  • Townsend, Susan Elaine (British author)

    Sue Townsend, (Susan Elaine Townsend), British author (born April 2, 1946, Leicester, Eng.—died April 10, 2014, Leicester), created one of Britain’s most popular and enduring comic characters, Adrian Albert Mole, whose wry thoughts and self-described misadventures she wrote about in eight fictional

  • Townshend Acts (Great Britain [1767])

    Townshend Acts, (June 15–July 2, 1767), in colonial U.S. history, series of four acts passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to assert what it considered to be its historic right to exert authority over the colonies through suspension of a recalcitrant representative assembly and through

  • Townshend duties (Great Britain [1767])

    Townshend Acts, (June 15–July 2, 1767), in colonial U.S. history, series of four acts passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to assert what it considered to be its historic right to exert authority over the colonies through suspension of a recalcitrant representative assembly and through

  • Townshend’s shearwater (bird)

    shearwater: Townshend’s shearwater (P. auricularis) and the Balearic shearwater (P. mauretanicus), both also 33 cm in length, are classified as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List. Townshend’s shearwater faces the greatest threat of extinction of all shearwaters, because it breeds in a single location, Socorro…

  • Townshend, Charles (British statesman)

    Charles Townshend, British chancellor of the Exchequer whose measures for the taxation of the British American colonies intensified the hostilities that eventually led to the American Revolution. The second son of the 3rd Viscount Townshend, he was educated at Cambridge and Leyden. In 1747 he was

  • Townshend, Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount (British statesman)

    Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, Whig statesman who directed British foreign policy from 1721 to 1730. He succeeded his father, Horatio Townshend, as viscount in 1687, and in 1714 King George I appointed him a secretary of state. The temperamental Townshend soon came into conflict with

  • Townshend, George (British caricaturist)

    caricature and cartoon: 18th century: …the 1760s by the Englishman George Townshend (later Marquess Townshend), these were comic portraits with punning titles or accessories, intended by disingenuous means to avoid being outright libellous. A flood of imitations followed. Soon Townshend’s cards became comic illustrations in magazines such as The London Magazine, the Political Register, and…

  • Townshend, Pete (British musician)

    the Who: The principal members were Pete Townshend (b. May 19, 1945, London, England), Roger Daltrey (b. March 1, 1944, London), John Entwistle (b. October 9, 1944, London—d. June 27, 2002, Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.), and Keith Moon (b. August 23, 1946, London—d. September 7, 1978, London). Moon was replaced by…

  • Townshend, Peter Wooldridge (British military officer)

    Peter Wooldridge Townshend, British Royal Air Force group captain and royal equerry whose controversial romance with Princess Margaret ended in 1955 when she publicly renounced him because his earlier divorce was not sanctioned by the Church of England (b. Nov. 22, 1914--d. June 19,

  • Townshend, Sir Charles (British general)

    Colmar, baron von der Goltz: …the 143-day siege of General Sir Charles Townshend’s British contingent at Kut (1915–16).

  • township (urban area, South Africa)

    Cape Town: The people: …reservation of certain areas for residence and occupation by specific racial groups within the population. The act brought about many changes in Cape Town’s residential areas; for example, a mixed but predominantly Coloured neighbourhood known as District Six, south of the Castle, was cleared by bulldozers. Special legislation permitted Coloureds…

  • township (United States governmental unit)

    Township, unit of government found primarily in the northeast and north central United States; it is a subdivision of a county and is usually 36 square miles (about 93 square kilometres) in area. The term civil township is sometimes used to distinguish it from the congressional, or survey,

  • township council (Bulgarian government)

    Bulgaria: Local government: Township councils embody state power at the local government level. The members of the township councils are elected by the inhabitants of the township to four-year terms. Executive power at the level of local government lies with the elected mayor of a township. Between the…

  • Township Fever (musical by Ngema)

    Mbongeni Ngema: …Ngema to write the musical Township Fever.

  • Township music (South African music)

    South Africa: Music: Township music, a lively form of music that flourished in the townships during the apartheid era, has also been popular within the country and abroad.

  • Townsville (Queensland, Australia)

    Townsville, city and major port, eastern Queensland, Australia, at the mouth of Ross Creek on Cleveland Bay of the Coral Sea. Founded in 1864 and named after Robert Towns, it was gazetted a town in 1865 and served as a centre for trade with the Pacific Islands. Proclaimed a municipality in 1866, it

  • towpath

    canals and inland waterways: Towpaths: Originally provided for animal haulage, towpaths were adapted on many French canals for mechanical and electrical haulage until the general use of powered craft terminated this service in 1969. But the towpaths are still useful; in addition to providing ways for some local haulage…

  • Towson (unincorporated community, Maryland, United States)

    Towson, unincorporated community, Baltimore county, northern Maryland, U.S. It was named for Ezekiel Towson, who settled the area about 1750, and was made county seat in 1854. It evolved into a northern residential-industrial suburb of Baltimore. It is the seat of Goucher College (1885) and Towson

  • Towton, Battle of (English history)

    Battle of Towton, (March 29, 1461), battle fought on Palm Sunday near the village of Towton, about 10 miles (16 km) southwest of York, now in North Yorkshire, England. The largest and bloodiest battle of the Wars of the Roses, it secured the English throne for Edward IV against his Lancastrian

  • Towy River (river, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Towy River, river, southwest Wales, approximately 65 mi (105 km) long. Rising on the slopes of Esgair Garthen in the district of northwest Brecknockshire (Breconshire) in the county of Powys, it flows southward to Llandovery in a deeply incised valley. Below Llandovery it trends southwest in a

  • toxalbumin (protein)

    poison: Plant poisons (phytotoxins): Toxalbumins are highly toxic protein molecules that are produced by only a small number of plants. Ricin, a toxalbumin from the castor bean (Ricinus communis), is one of the most toxic substances known.

  • Toxandri (people)

    history of the Low Countries: The Roman period: …the islands of Zeeland, the Toxandri to the Campine (Kempenland), the Cugerni to the Xanten district, and the Tungri to part of the area originally inhabited by the Eburones.

  • toxaphene (insecticide)

    Toxaphene, a dense, yellowish, semisolid mixture of organic compounds made by chlorination of camphene (a hydrocarbon obtained from turpentine) and used as an insecticide. Toxaphene, which contains 67–69 percent chlorine, is insoluble in water but highly soluble in several organic solvents; under

  • toxemia of pregnancy (medical disorder)

    Toxemia of pregnancy, term formerly used to describe hypertensive conditions that can be induced by pregnancy. This term, once commonly used, reflected the belief that toxins caused the hypertensive conditions. Research, however, failed to identify any toxins, and the term is now regarded as a

  • toxic accumulation (pathology)

    poison: Frequency of exposure: Toxic accumulation is one of the reasons repetitive exposures of a chemical produce toxicity while a single exposure may not. In a hypothetical case, as depicted in Figure 2, a concentration of more than 100 milligrams per gram in a target tissue is required for…

  • toxic chemical (biochemistry)

    Poison, in biochemistry, a substance, natural or synthetic, that causes damage to living tissues and has an injurious or fatal effect on the body, whether it is ingested, inhaled, or absorbed or injected through the skin. Although poisons have been the subject of practical lore since ancient times,

  • toxic diffuse goitre (pathology)

    Graves disease, endocrine disorder that is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (excess secretion of thyroid hormone) and thyrotoxicosis (effects of excess thyroid hormone action in tissue). In Graves disease the excessive secretion of thyroid hormone is accompanied by diffuse enlargement of

  • toxic epidermal necrolysis (pathology)

    infectious disease: Bacteria: …burns, a condition known as toxic epidermal necrolysis. Streptococcal organisms can cause a severe condition known as necrotizing fasciitis, commonly referred to as flesh-eating disease, which has a fatality rate between 25 and 75 percent. Streptococci can be the cause of the red cellulitis of the skin known as erysipelas.

  • toxic multinodular goitre (pathology)

    Plummer disease, thyroid condition characterized by marked enlargement of the thyroid gland (goitre), firm thyroid nodules, and overproduction of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism). Plummer disease, which usually occurs in older people, is of unknown etiology. Its symptoms resemble those of

  • toxic nodular goitre (pathology)

    Plummer disease, thyroid condition characterized by marked enlargement of the thyroid gland (goitre), firm thyroid nodules, and overproduction of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism). Plummer disease, which usually occurs in older people, is of unknown etiology. Its symptoms resemble those of

  • toxic psychosis (pathology)

    amphetamine: …doses of amphetamines is a toxic psychosis whose symptoms resemble those of paranoid schizophrenia. Amphetamine addiction frequently is associated with similar abuse of barbiturates and alcohol.

  • toxic shock syndrome (pathology)

    Toxic shock syndrome, inflammatory disease characterized by high fever, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, irritability, sore throat, and rash. Abdominal tenderness, severe hypotension, shock, respiratory distress, and renal failure sometimes develop. The condition is caused by an exotoxin—that is, a

  • toxic substance (nuclear physics)

    Poison, in nuclear physics, any material that can easily capture neutrons without subsequently undergoing nuclear fission. Examples of poisons are the naturally occurring elements boron and cadmium and the fission products xenon-135 and samarium-149. In nuclear reactors, poisons act as parasitic

  • Toxic Substances Control Act (United States [1976])

    biomonitoring: Detection of chemicals: …changes mandated by the 1976 Toxic Substance Control Act, which introduced regulations for the use, storage, and disposal of PCBs and other persistent chemicals.

  • toxic tort (law)

    toxic waste: Laws: …the growing numbers of “toxic tort” cases against producers of toxic waste. A toxic tort is personal injury or property damage from exposure to toxic substances due to the fault of another party. Victims can sue for medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering.

  • toxic waste (pollution)

    Toxic waste, chemical waste material capable of causing death or injury to life. Waste is considered toxic if it is poisonous, radioactive, explosive, carcinogenic (causing cancer), mutagenic (causing damage to chromosomes), teratogenic (causing birth defects), or bioaccumulative (that is,

  • toxicity (physiology)

    cnidarian: Importance: …human physiology owing to the toxicity of their nematocysts. Most are not harmful to humans, but some can impart a painful sting—such as Physalia, the Portuguese man-of-war, and sea anemones of the genus Actinodendron. These, and even normally innocuous species, can be deadly in a massive dose or to a…

  • Toxicodendron diversiloba (plant)

    poison oak: Pacific, or western, poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) is found in western North America, ranging from Baja California, Mexico, to British Columbia, Canada. Atlantic poison oak (T. pubescens) is native to the southeastern United States and is commonly confused with poison ivy (T. radicans). These species…

  • Toxicodendron diversilobum (plant)

    poison oak: Pacific, or western, poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) is found in western North America, ranging from Baja California, Mexico, to British Columbia, Canada. Atlantic poison oak (T. pubescens) is native to the southeastern United States and is commonly confused with poison ivy (T. radicans). These species…

  • Toxicodendron radicans (plant)

    Poison ivy, (Toxicodendron radicans), poisonous vine or shrub of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae), native to eastern North America. Nearly all parts of the plant contain urushiol. When the plant is touched, the substance produces in many persons a severe, itchy, and painful inflammation of the

  • Toxicodendron vernicifluum (plant, Toxicodendron vernicifluum)

    lacquer: …the Chinese lacquer tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum, formerly Rhus vernicifera), which, cleaned of impurities, can be used in its natural state. One active constituent of the sap of the lacquer tree is urushiol (from urushi, the Japanese word for lacquer), a substance that can cause contact dermatitis if the lacquer…

  • Toxicodendron vernix (plant)

    Poison sumac, (Toxicodendron vernix), poisonous shrub or small tree of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae), native to swampy acidic soils of eastern North America. The clear sap, which blackens on exposure to air, contains urushiol and is extremely irritating to the skin for many people. The plant is

  • toxicological examination (medicine)

    Toxicological examination, medical inspection of an individual who is, or is suspected of being, poisoned. In most poisoning cases, the toxic agent is known, and the physician’s main concern is to determine the degree of exposure. In cases involving ingestion of unlabelled prescriptions or

  • toxicology

    Toxicology, study of poisons and their effects, particularly on living systems. Because many substances are known to be poisonous to life (whether plant, animal, or microbial), toxicology is a broad field, overlapping biochemistry, histology, pharmacology, pathology, and many other disciplines.

  • toxicology test (medicine)

    Toxicology test, any of a group of laboratory analyses that are used to determine the presence of poisons and other potentially toxic agents in blood, urine, or other bodily substances. Toxicology is the study of poisons—their action, their detection, and the treatment of conditions they produce.

  • toxicyst (biology)

    trichocyst: Toxicysts (in Dileptus and certain other carnivorous protozoans) tend to be localized around the mouth. When discharged, a toxicyst expels a long, nonstriated filament with a rodlike tip, which paralyzes or kills other microorganisms; this filament is used to capture food and, presumably, in defense.

  • toxin (biochemistry)

    Toxin, any substance poisonous to an organism. The term is sometimes restricted to poisons spontaneously produced by living organisms (biotoxins). Besides the poisons produced by such microorganisms as bacteria, dinoflagellates, and algae, there are toxins from fungi (mycotoxins), higher plants

  • toxin-induced parkinsonism (pathology)

    parkinsonism: Toxin-induced parkinsonism is caused by carbon monoxide, manganese, or cyanide poisoning. A neurotoxin known as MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), previously found in contaminated heroin, also causes a form of toxin-induced parkinsonism. The ability of this substance to destroy neurons suggests that an

  • Toxodon (extinct mammal genus)

    Toxodon, extinct genus of mammals of the late Pliocene and the Pleistocene Epoch (about 3.6 million to 11,700 years ago) in South America. The genus is representative of an extinct family of animals, the Toxodontidae. This family was at its most diverse during the Miocene Epoch (23–5.3 million

  • Toxoglossa (mollusk superfamily)

    gastropod: Classification: Superfamily Toxoglossa Auger shells (Terebridae), cone shells (Conidae) and turrid shells (Turridae) are carnivorous marine snails with poison glands attached to highly modified radular teeth; several cone shells have caused human deaths through poisoning and can catch and kill fish. Subclass

  • toxoid

    Toxoid, bacterial poison (toxin) that is no longer active but retains the property of combining with or stimulating the formation of antibodies. In many bacterial diseases the bacteria itself remains sequestered in one part of the body but produces a poison (exotoxin) that causes the disease

  • Toxophilite Society (English organization)

    archery: History: …became the patron of the Toxophilite Society in 1787 and set the prince’s lengths of 100 yards (91 metres), 80 yards (73 metres), and 60 yards (55 metres); these distances are still used in the British men’s championship York round (six dozen, four dozen, and two dozen arrows shot at…

  • Toxophilus, the Schole of Shooting (work by Ascham)

    Roger Ascham: Ascham’s Toxophilus (“Lover of the Bow”), written in the form of a dialogue, was published in 1545 and was the first book on archery in English. In the preface Ascham showed the growing patriotic zeal of the humanists by stating that he was writing “Englishe matter…

  • Toxoplasma (protozoan genus)

    toxoplasmosis: Organisms of the genus Toxoplasma reproduce by fission or internal budding. They move by a gliding motion, lacking either flagella or pseudopodia. Of uncertain taxonomic position, they are considered to be related to the sporozoa and possibly to the fungi. They are generally placed in the sporozoan class Toxoplasmea,…

  • Toxoplasma gondii (protozoan)

    toxoplasmosis: …other organs by a parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection occurs in domestic and wild animals, birds, and humans and is worldwide in distribution. It is estimated that 30 to 50 percent of the world’s human population carries demonstrable antibodies (indicating previous exposure), but overt symptoms are rare in adults. Swollen glands…

  • toxoplasmosis (pathology)

    Toxoplasmosis, infection of tissue cells of the central nervous system, spleen, liver, and other organs by a parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection occurs in domestic and wild animals, birds, and humans and is worldwide in distribution. It is estimated that 30 to 50 percent of the world’s human

  • Toxoptera graminum (insect)

    aphid: Types of aphids: The greenbug (Toxoptera graminum) is one of the most destructive pests of wheat, oats, and other small grains. It appears as patches of yellow on the plant and may wipe out an entire field. Pale green adults have a dark green stripe down the back. Each…

  • Toxostoma rufum (bird)

    Mimidae: The brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) is a good singer but does not mimic as frequently as the mockingbird. The Mimidae belong to the songbird suborder (Passeri).

  • Toxotes jaculator (fish)

    archer fish: …of the best-known species is Toxotes jaculator (or T. jaculatrix), which grows about 18 cm (7 inches) long.

  • Toxotes jaculatrix (fish)

    archer fish: …of the best-known species is Toxotes jaculator (or T. jaculatrix), which grows about 18 cm (7 inches) long.

  • Toxotidae (animal)

    Archer fish, any of seven species of Indo-Pacific fishes of the family Toxotidae (order Perciformes) noted for their ability to knock their insect prey off overhanging vegetation by “shooting” it with drops of water expelled from the fish’s mouth. The insect falls into the water, where it can be

  • toy

    Toy, plaything, usually for an infant or child, and often an instrument used in a game. Toys, playthings, and games survive from the most remote past and from a great variety of cultures. The ball, kite, and yo-yo are assumed to be the oldest objects specifically designed as toys. Toys vary from

  • Toy and Wing (American dance team)

    tap dance: Film: …exceptional Asian American dance team Toy and Wing can be seen as a specialty act in Deviled Ham (1937).

  • toy dog

    Toy dog, Any of several breeds of dogs that were bred to be small, portable, good-natured companions. Toy dogs were traditionally pampered and treasured by aristocracy around the world, and several breeds are ancient. They range from hairless (e.g., the Chinese crested dog) to profusely coated

  • toy Manchester terrier (dog)

    Manchester terrier: …varieties, the standard and the toy. The standard stands 14 to 16 inches (35.5 to 40.5 cm), weighs more than 12 pounds (5 kg) but does not exceed 22 pounds (10 kg), and has erect or folded (button) ears. The toy stands about 6 to 7 inches (15 to 18…

  • toy poodle (dog)

    poodle: varieties—standard, miniature, and toy. All three are judged by the same standard of appearance, which calls for a well-proportioned dog with a long, straight muzzle, heavily haired, hanging ears, a docked pompom tail, and a characteristic springy gait and proud manner of carrying itself. The coat consists of…

  • Toy Story (film by Lasseter [1995])

    John Lasseter: …work on films such as Toy Story (1995), the first fully computer-animated feature, and its sequels (1999, 2010).

  • Toy Story 2 (film by Lasseter [1999])

    John Lasseter: …adventure featuring animated insects, and Toy Story 2 (1999), a sequel featuring further adventures of the toys from the 1995 hit. He codirected Cars (2006), which followed an array of anthropomorphic vehicles. During that time Lasseter also produced such Pixar films as Monsters, Inc. (2001), about the clash between the…

  • Toy Story 3 (film by Unkrich [2010])

    Tom Hanks: Toy Story series (1995, 1999, 2010, and 2019), Hanks provided the voice of the animated cowboy Woody.

  • Toy Story 4 (film by Cooley [2019])

    Mel Brooks: Work as producer and actor: …Brooks in the animated feature Toy Story 4.

  • toy theatre (puppetry)

    Toy theatre, popular 19th-century English children’s toy that provides modern theatre historians with a valuable record of the plays and playhouses of its day. Most scholars believe the juvenile drama to have originated with the engraved sheets that began to be printed in London around 1810 as

  • Toya Maru ferry disaster (maritime disaster, near Hakodate, Japan [1954])

    Toya Maru ferry disaster, deadliest ship disaster in Japanese history. On Sept. 26, 1954, the Toya Maru, a Japanese commercial ferry, sank during a severe typhoon in the Tsugaru Strait, killing an estimated 1,150 to 1,170 passengers and crew members. The typhoon (known as “No. 15” in Japan and

  • Toyama (Japan)

    Toyama: Toyama, the prefectural capital, is an old castle town located at the mouth of the Jinzū River. Since the 17th century it has been the chief centre for the production of patent medicines and drugs. In 1964 Toyama was joined with Takaoka to form the…

  • Toyama (prefecture, Japan)

    Toyama, ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan. It lies along the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and the coastal plain is indented by Toyama Bay. Watered by numerous rivers, including the Shō, Jinzū, and Kurobe, the prefecture is an important rice-producing area. The mountainous interior rises to 9,892

  • Toye, Beryl May Jessie (British dancer, choreographer, and director)

    Wendy Toye, (Beryl May Jessie Toye), British dancer, choreographer, and director (born May 1, 1917, London, Eng.—died Feb. 27, 2010, Hillingdon, London), forged a successful path into the male-dominated profession of film directing in the 1950s during an illustrious and diverse career that spanned

  • Toye, Wendy (British dancer, choreographer, and director)

    Wendy Toye, (Beryl May Jessie Toye), British dancer, choreographer, and director (born May 1, 1917, London, Eng.—died Feb. 27, 2010, Hillingdon, London), forged a successful path into the male-dominated profession of film directing in the 1950s during an illustrious and diverse career that spanned

  • Toynbee Hall (social settlement, London, United Kingdom)

    Toynbee Hall, pioneering social settlement in the East End of London. It was founded on Commercial Street, Whitechapel (now in Tower Hamlets), in 1884 by the canon Samuel Augustus Barnett and named for the 19th-century English social reformer Arnold Toynbee. During his early years at St. Jude’s

  • Toynbee, Arnold (British economist)

    Arnold Toynbee, English economist and social reformer noted for his public service activities on behalf of the working class. Toynbee, the son of a surgeon, graduated from Balliol College, Oxford, in 1878. He was then appointed a tutor at Balliol, where his lectures on the economic history of the

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