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  • Topology (work by Aleksandrov)

    Pavel Sergeevich Aleksandrov: …career, including the landmark textbook Topology (1935), which was the first and only volume of an intended multivolume collaboration with Swiss mathematician Heinz Hopf.

  • topology, algebraic (mathematics)

    Algebraic topology, Field of mathematics that uses algebraic structures to study transformations of geometric objects. It uses functions (often called maps in this context) to represent continuous transformations (see topology). Taken together, a set of maps and objects may form an algebraic group,

  • topology, differential (mathematics)

    topology: Differential topology: Many tools of algebraic topology are well-suited to the study of manifolds. In the field of differential topology an additional structure involving “smoothness,” in the sense of differentiability (see analysis: Formal definition of the derivative), is imposed on manifolds. Since early investigation in…

  • Topoloveni (Romania)

    Arge?: Topoloveni town has a craft cooperative that makes traditional costumes and wood carvings. The 15th-century fortress of Poenari was constructed, overlooking the Arge? River valley, by Vlad III (Vlad ?epe?, or Vlad the Impaler), a prince known for executing his enemies by impalement, who may…

  • toponomastics

    name: Categories of names: …and their study is called toponomastics. In a looser usage, however, the term onomastics is used for personal names and their study, and the term toponymy is used for place-names and their study. The term toponymy itself can be understood in two ways, even in the exact terminology: either it…

  • toponymy

    Toponymy, taxonomic study of place-names, based on etymological, historical, and geographical information. A place-name is a word or words used to indicate, denote, or identify a geographic locality such as a town, river, or mountain. Toponymy divides place-names into two broad categories:

  • Topor, Roland (French artist and author)

    Alejandro Jodorowsky: Early work: …and French artist and author Roland Topor formed a loose avant-garde movement, Panique, named after the Greek god Pan and dedicated to the shocking and the surreal. Jodorowsky’s most-noted work in that period was the four-hour-long performance “Mélodrame sacrementel” (1965; “Sacramental Melodrama”), in which he slit the throats of two…

  • topos (philosophy)

    foundations of mathematics: Intuitionistic logic: …important categories called topoi (singular: topos; see below Topos theory) have associated with them a language that is intuitionistic in general. In consequence of this fact, a theorem about sets proved constructively was immediately seen to be valid not only for sets but also for sheaves, which, however, lie beyond…

  • toposequence (pedology)

    soil: Topography: …of local topography are called toposequences. As a general rule, soil profiles on the convex upper slopes in a toposequence are more shallow and have less distinct subsurface horizons than soils at the summit or on lower, concave-upward slopes. Organic matter content tends to increase from the summit down to…

  • TOPP (marine conservation project)

    Census of Marine Life: Project activities: …respective areas—to the very specific—the Tagging of Pacific Predators (TOPP) project, which focused on 23 species of predators. Among the other initiatives were the Biogeography of Deep-Water Chemosynthetic Ecosystems (ChEss) project, which examined living systems at deep-sea vents, the Census of Marine Zooplankton (CMarZ) and the International Census of Marine…

  • Topper (film by McLeod [1937])

    Norman Z. McLeod: Middle years: …to MGM, McLeod was handed Topper (1937) as his first project. The screwball comedy, which was adapted from the Thorne Smith novel, is widely considered a classic, with Grant and Constance Bennett as a fun-loving society couple who die in a car accident and return as ghosts. Thinking they need…

  • Topper Returns (film by Del Ruth [1941])

    Roy Del Ruth: Middle years: …Wife (1940), Del Ruth directed Topper Returns (1941), a popular sequel to the 1937 classic Topper. He then helmed the musical The Chocolate Soldier (1941), with Nelson Eddy and Rise Stevens, and Maisie Gets Her Man (1942), the fifth installment in the Maisie series starring Sothern. Du Barry Was a…

  • Topper Takes a Trip (film by McLeod [1939])

    Norman Z. McLeod: Middle years: Topper Takes a Trip (1939) was the sequel to McLeod’s earlier success. Although Grant was absent—he appeared only in clips from the original—the film was still popular with moviegoers.

  • topping (engineering)

    magnetohydrodynamic power generator: Coal-fired MHD systems: …generator (a process known as topping) and then on to the turbogenerator of a conventional steam plant (the bottoming phase). An MHD power plant employing such an arrangement is known as an open-cycle, or once-through, system.

  • topping (wine making)

    wine: Postfermentation treatment: …this time on by “topping,” a process performed frequently, as the temperature of the wine, and hence its volume, decreases. During the early stages, topping is necessary every week or two. Later, monthly or bimonthly fillings are adequate.

  • topping refinery (industry)

    petroleum refining: Topping and hydroskimming refineries: The simplest refinery configuration, called a topping refinery, is designed to prepare feedstocks for petrochemical manufacture or for production of industrial fuels in remote oil-production areas. It consists of tankage, a distillation unit, recovery facilities for gases and light hydrocarbons, and…

  • toppling (geology)

    landslide: Types of landslides: …steep slope face is called toppling. This type of movement can subsequently cause the mass to fall or slide.

  • toppling wrestling

    wrestling: Early history: …championships in these games: a toppling event for the best two of three falls; and the pankration (Latin: pancratium), which combined wrestling and boxing and ended in the submission of one contestant. Upright wrestling was also a part of the pentathlon event in the Olympic Games, a bout being fought…

  • Topra Kaleh (ancient fortress, Turkey)

    Toprakkale, ancient Urartian fortress located near modern Van in southeastern Turkey. The walls of Toprakkale, erected in the 8th century bc, were of cyclopean masonry and sloped slightly inward, perhaps as a defense against earthquakes. Excavations at the site, carried out primarily by British a

  • Toprak Kale (Uzbekistan)

    Toprakkala, site of a Khwārezmian walled city near modern Dashhowuz in Uzbekistan. The city was inhabited from about the 1st century bc until the 6th century ad, a period during which Khwārezm was an independent feudal state. A palace at Toprakkala, which may have been the capital of that state,

  • Toprakkala (Uzbekistan)

    Toprakkala, site of a Khwārezmian walled city near modern Dashhowuz in Uzbekistan. The city was inhabited from about the 1st century bc until the 6th century ad, a period during which Khwārezm was an independent feudal state. A palace at Toprakkala, which may have been the capital of that state,

  • Toprakkale (ancient fortress, Turkey)

    Toprakkale, ancient Urartian fortress located near modern Van in southeastern Turkey. The walls of Toprakkale, erected in the 8th century bc, were of cyclopean masonry and sloped slightly inward, perhaps as a defense against earthquakes. Excavations at the site, carried out primarily by British a

  • Topraq-Qal?ah (Uzbekistan)

    Toprakkala, site of a Khwārezmian walled city near modern Dashhowuz in Uzbekistan. The city was inhabited from about the 1st century bc until the 6th century ad, a period during which Khwārezm was an independent feudal state. A palace at Toprakkala, which may have been the capital of that state,

  • tops and bottoms (dice)

    dice: Cheating with dice: Such dice, called busters or tops and bottoms, are used as a rule only by accomplished dice cheats, who introduce them into the game by sleight of hand (“switching”). Since it is impossible to see more than three sides of a cube at any one time, tops and bottoms are…

  • topset bed

    river: Deposits and stratigraphy: Topset beds are a complex of lithologic units deposited in various sub-environments of the subaerial delta plain. Layers in the topset unit are almost horizontal. Foreset deposits accumulate in the subaqueous delta front zone. The deposits are usually coarser at the river mouth and become…

  • Topshop (British company)

    Kate Moss: …first collection for the retailer Topshop appeared in 2007—it reportedly sold out in one day—and in 2010 she debuted a line of handbags for Longchamp. She also launched a perfume line in 2007, and her first lipstick collection for Rimmel hit stores in 2011.

  • topsoil (geology)

    land reclamation: Reclamation of eroded, infertile, and new lands: …area may be denuded of topsoil and interlaced with a dendritic, or branched, system of steep-sided watercourses called gullies. These areas are generally devoid of vegetation, and sediment eroded from them may menace lower-lying lands or water retention structures.

  • Topsy (recording by Cole)

    Cozy Cole: …career was the 1958 hit Topsy, the only recording featuring a drum solo to sell more than one million copies.

  • Topsy (fictional character)

    Topsy, fictional character, a slave child in the antislavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) by Harriet Beecher

  • Topsy-Turvy (film by Leigh [1999])

    Mike Leigh: …roommates, Leigh wrote and directed Topsy-Turvy (1999). In a departure from his work to that point, which typically followed wholly fictional characters in present-day contexts, the film centres on the famous 19th-century partnership of light-opera librettist W.S. Gilbert and composer Arthur Sullivan; it earned him another Oscar screenplay nomination.

  • tOPV (medicine)

    polio: Treatment and vaccination: …are three types of OPV: trivalent (tOPV), which contains all three serotypes of live attenuated polioviruses; bivalent (bOPV), which contains two of the three serotypes; and monovalent (mOPV), which contains one of the three serotypes. Thus, trivalent vaccine is effective against all three serotypes (PV1, PV2, and PV3), bivalent vaccine…

  • toque (music)

    berimbau: …of discrete rhythms known as toques. These toques are built from a combination of three fundamental sounds: a low pitch produced by the open wire; a higher pitch produced by stopping the wire firmly with the dobr?o; and a nonpitched buzz, generated by allowing the dobr?o to rest lightly against…

  • toque (hat)

    Toque, small, round, close-fitting hat, brimless or with a small brim, once worn by both men and women. In the 12th and 13th centuries, women wore embroidered toques, made of velvet, satin, or taffeta, on top of their head-veils. In the late 16th century, brimless, black velvet toques were popular

  • toque macaque (primate)

    macaque: Species: radiata) and the toque macaque (M. sinica), from southern India and Sri Lanka, respectively, have hair on the top of the head that grows from a central whorl, in contrast to the short hair of the forehead and temples.

  • Tor (encryption network)

    WikiLeaks: …from The Onion Router (Tor), an encryption network designed to allow users to transmit data anonymously. A WikiLeaks volunteer mined the data emerging from Tor, eventually collecting more than a million documents and providing the site with its first scoop—a message from a Somali rebel leader encouraging the use…

  • tor (geology)

    Tor, exposed rock mass of jointed and broken blocks. Tors are seldom more than 15 metres (50 feet) high and often occur as residues at the summits of inselbergs and at the highest points of pediments. Tors usually overlie unaltered bedrock and are thought to be formed either by freeze–thaw

  • Tor (Ukraine)

    Slov’yansk, city, eastern Ukraine. It lies at the confluence of the Kazenny Torets and Sukhyy Torets rivers. Founded in 1676 as Tor and renamed Slov’yansk in 1794, it is today the main centre of the northwestern part of the Donets Basin industrial area. The presence of saline and mud springs, rock

  • Tora Bora, Battle of (Afghanistan War)

    Battle of Tora Bora, (December 3–17, 2001), a U.S.-led coalition attack on the cave complex of the White Mountains at Tora Bora, Afghanistan, on the country’s eastern border with Pakistan. One of the most important military engagements of the first phase of the Afghanistan War, it was believed that

  • Tora no o fumu otokotachi (film by Kurosawa)

    Kurosawa Akira: First films: …no o fumu otokotachi (They Who Step on the Tiger’s Tail), a parody of a well-known Kabuki drama. The Allied occupation forces, however, prohibited the release of most films dealing with Japan’s feudal past, and this outstanding comedy was not distributed until 1952.

  • Tora, Tora, Tora! (film [1970])

    Richard Fleischer: Middle years: The big-budget Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970), which Fleischer codirected, was a meticulous look at the events leading up to the Pearl Harbor attack, told from both the Japanese and the American vantage points.

  • Tora-jiro Kuruma (fictional character)

    Atsumi Kiyoshi: …Tora-jiro Kuruma (widely known as Tora-san) in the 48-film series Otoko wa tsurai yo (“It’s Tough Being a Man”). The series ran from 1968 to 1996 and was the longest-running film series in which the same actor portrayed the central character.

  • Tora-san (fictional character)

    Atsumi Kiyoshi: …Tora-jiro Kuruma (widely known as Tora-san) in the 48-film series Otoko wa tsurai yo (“It’s Tough Being a Man”). The series ran from 1968 to 1996 and was the longest-running film series in which the same actor portrayed the central character.

  • Torah (sacred text)

    Torah, in Judaism, in the broadest sense, the substance of divine revelation to Israel, the Jewish people: God’s revealed teaching or guidance for humankind. The meaning of “Torah” is often restricted to signify the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), also called the Law (or the

  • Toraja (people)

    Toraja, group of peoples of central Celebes (Sulawesi), Indonesia. At the turn of the 21st century, they numbered roughly 750,000. Their language, with many dialects, belongs to the Austronesian language family. The Toraja are believed to be descendants of speakers of Austronesian languages who

  • Toramā?a (Hū?a king)

    India: The Guptas: …Huna king in India was Toramana (early 6th century), whose inscriptions have been found as far south as Eran (Madhya Pradesh). His son Mihirakula, a patron of Shaivism, is recorded in Buddhist tradition as uncouth and extremely cruel. The Gupta rulers, together with Yashodharman of Malava, seem to have confronted…

  • toran (Indian temple gateway)

    Torana, Indian gateway, usually of stone, marking the entrance to a Buddhist shrine or stupa or to a Hindu temple. Toranas typically consist of two pillars carrying two or three transverse beams that extend beyond the pillars on either side. Strongly reminiscent of wooden construction, toranas are

  • torana (Indian temple gateway)

    Torana, Indian gateway, usually of stone, marking the entrance to a Buddhist shrine or stupa or to a Hindu temple. Toranas typically consist of two pillars carrying two or three transverse beams that extend beyond the pillars on either side. Strongly reminiscent of wooden construction, toranas are

  • torba (design)

    Salor rug: …of unusually long pieces in torba (storage-bag) form that seem to be intended as decorative trappings. Patches of pink silk are found in some examples, which also show structural differences setting them apart from other Turkmen rugs.

  • torbanite (mineral)

    Torbanite, mineral substance intermediate between oil shale and coal. Whereas destructive distillation of coals produces compounds of carbon and hydrogen with carbon atoms linked in six-membered rings, torbanite produces paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons (compounds with carbon linked in c

  • Torbay (unitary authority, England, United Kingdom)

    Torbay, unitary authority, geographic and historic county of Devon, southwestern England, on the English Channel coast. It comprises three old towns—Torquay, Paignton, and Brixham—grouped around Tor Bay. A village existed at Torre before the foundation of a Premonstratensian abbey in 1196.

  • torbernite (mineral)

    Torbernite, hydrated copper uranate phosphate mineral, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2·8–12H2O, that is one of the principal uranium-bearing minerals. Usually associated with autunite, it occurs as green crystals or micalike masses that are weathering products of uraninite. Torbernite is abundant in Cornwall,

  • Torboultoun, Lord of (English noble [1672-1723])

    Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, son of Charles II of England by his mistress Louise de Kéroualle, duchess of Portsmouth. He was aide-de-camp to William III from 1693 to 1702 and lord of the bedchamber to George I from 1714 to 1723. Charles II awarded a number of peerages (duchies, earldoms,

  • Torboultoun, Lord of (British politician [1735-1806])

    Charles Lennox, 3rd duke of Richmond, one of the most progressive British politicians of the 18th century, being chiefly known for his advanced views on parliamentary reform. Richmond succeeded to the peerage in 1750 (his father, the 2nd duke, having added the Aubigny title to the Richmond and

  • Torcello (Italy)

    Torcello, island-village in the Laguna Veneta (Venice Lagoon) and an eastern environ of Venice, Italy. Founded in ad 452 by refugees from Altino on the mainland, the bishopric of Altino was transferred there in the 7th century. The island, a flourishing city in ancient times, was the head of an

  • torch

    ceremonial object: Lighting devices: Torches have been used throughout history: in ancient Assyria and Babylonia they were used to carry a newly consecrated fire from torch to torch throughout the city three times a month; in ancient Rome they were sometimes placed in a hollow clay or metal shaft;…

  • torch azalea (plant)

    azalea: yedoense); and the torch azalea (R. kaempferi).

  • torch cactus (plant)

    Torch cactus, any of several ribbed cylindrical cacti (family Cactaceae) native to South America. Many are cultivated as ornamentals. Several members of the genus Echinopsis are known as torch cacti. The golden torch (E. spachiana) has erect columnar stems, branching at the base and rising to about

  • torch relay (Olympic ritual)

    Olympic Games: The flame and torch relay: Contrary to popular belief, the torch relay from the temple of Hera in Olympia to the host city has no predecessor or parallel in antiquity. No relay was needed to run the torch from Olympia to Olympia. A perpetual fire was indeed maintained…

  • Torch Song (film by Walters [1953])

    Charles Walters: That year he also made Torch Song, a melodrama with Joan Crawford as a difficult Broadway star who falls for a blind pianist (Michael Wilding). Although Crawford earned praise for her performance, the film was not a success when first released. However, it later developed a cult following as a…

  • Torch Song Trilogy, The (plays by Fierstein)

    Moisés Kaufman: …Square; and a revival of Torch Song (2018–19), which was written by Harvey Fierstein. In 2016 Kaufman received the National Medal of Arts.

  • Torch, Operation (Allied military strategy)

    North Africa campaigns: Operation Torch: The Anglo-U.S. invasion of northwest Africa had its origins at the Arcadia Conference in Washington, D.C., in the winter of 1941–42 and at meetings in London the following July. Under pressure from Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to

  • Torch-Bearers, The (work by Noyes)

    Alfred Noyes: …notable is the epic trilogy The Torch-Bearers (1922–30), which took as its theme the progress of science through the ages. His autobiography, Two Worlds for Memory, appeared in 1953.

  • Torchbearers (Finnish literary group)

    Finnish literature: The early 20th century: …of young writers emerged called Tulenkantajat (“Torchbearers”), who took as their slogan “Open the windows to Europe!” Through them, Finns were introduced to free verse, exotic themes, and urban romanticism. The group’s original ideals were realized in the early verse of Katri Vala; at first a prophet of sensual joys,…

  • Torchbearers, The (work by Kelly)

    George Kelly: …first success on Broadway was The Torchbearers (performed 1922), a satire on the social and aesthetic pretensions of the Little Theatre movement then flourishing in the United States. His next play, The Show-Off (1924), became an American comedy classic, made three times as a film (1926, 1934, 1946) and often…

  • Torchon lace

    Torchon lace, coarse bobbin-made lace (see bobbin lace) made by peasants in most European countries in which simple geometric patterns are carried out. With other simple kinds of lace it was the mainstay of the lace makers of the Austrian Tirol. It is the type of lace on which apprentices

  • torchwood (plant)

    Torchwood, (genus Amyris), any of 40 tropical species of large shrubs or trees found in the Americas that burn well due to the high resin content of its wood. Sea torchwood (A. elemifera) grows along the coasts of Florida, and balsam torchwood (A. balsamifera) is known especially from Cuba. Incense

  • Torcy, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de (French diplomat)

    Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de Torcy, French diplomat and foreign minister who negotiated some of the most important treaties of Louis XIV’s reign. The son of Charles Colbert, minister of foreign affairs, Torcy was a brilliant student, earning a law degree (1683) at so young an age that he

  • Tordesillas, Treaty of (Spain-Portugal [1494])

    Treaty of Tordesillas, (June 7, 1494), agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers. In 1493, after reports of Columbus’s discoveries had reached them, the Spanish rulers

  • toreador (bullfighter)

    bullfighting: Performers: Professional bullfighters, called toreros (they are famously called toreadors in Bizet’s opera Carmen, a word that harkens back to the days of mounted bullfighters), consist of the picadors, the mounted assistants with pike poles who lance the bull in the bullfight’s first act; the banderilleros, the assistants on…

  • T?regene (wife of Ogodei)

    ?g?dei: His widow, T?regene, ruled as regent until 1246 when she handed over the throne to Güyük, her eldest son by ?g?dei. ?g?dei is described in contemporary sources as a stern, energetic man given to drinking and lasciviousness.

  • Torel, William (English metalworker)

    metalwork: England: They are the work of William Torel, goldsmith of London; and it is evident that they are the first English attempt to produce large figures in metal. Torel cast his large figures by the same process (lost-wax) he had employed for small shrines and images.

  • Torellas (mountain, Majorca Island, Spain)

    Majorca: …4,741 feet (1,445 metres) at Mayor Peak (Puig Major). Precipitous cliffs, often about 1,000 feet (300 metres) high, characterize much of the north coast. The island’s varied landscape includes pine forests, olive groves, steep gullies, intensively terraced slopes, and fertile valleys. The much less rugged hills in the southeast are…

  • Torelli, Giacomo (Italian stage designer and engineer)

    Giacomo Torelli, Italian stage designer and engineer whose innovative theatre machinery provided the basis for many modern stage devices. Nothing is known of Torelli’s early life. In 1641 he was a military engineer at Venice. Already known as an architect, he built two churches there. Having

  • Torelli, Salinguerra (Ghibelline ruler of Ferrara)

    Salinguerra Torelli, 13th-century Italian ruler of Ferrara and brother-in-law and chief supporter of Ezzelino III da Romano, despot of Verona, a prominent leader of the Ghibelline (imperial) party. Torelli was born into a noble family of Bolognese origin whose members were rivals of the Este in

  • torera (female bullfighter)

    bullfighting: Performers: …distaff side; female bullfighters (called matadoras or toreras, though some of them resent being called by the feminine form of the noun and would prefer to be called, like male bullfighters, toreros or matadors) have been around since antiquity, though very few have performed with distinction for very long. Should…

  • torero (bullfighter)

    bullfighting: Performers: Professional bullfighters, called toreros (they are famously called toreadors in Bizet’s opera Carmen, a word that harkens back to the days of mounted bullfighters), consist of the picadors, the mounted assistants with pike poles who lance the bull in the bullfight’s first act; the banderilleros, the assistants on…

  • toreva block

    Toreva block, landslide product consisting of a very large block of undisturbed material that has been tilted backward toward the parent cliff during movement down a gentle slope. In northeastern Arizona such blocks are thought to have formed during more humid periods of the last glacial advance of

  • Torez (Ukraine)

    Torez, city, southeastern Ukraine. The settlement was established as Oleksiyivka by runaway serfs in the 1770s and expanded with the growth of coal mining in the 1860s. In 1867 it was renamed Chystyakove; in 1964 it became Torez in honour of the recently deceased French Communist Party leader

  • Torfa Glacier (region, Iceland)

    Iceland: Relief: …total power output of the Torfaj?kull (Torfa Glacier) area, the largest of the 19 high-temperature solfatara regions, is estimated to equal about 1,000 megawatts.

  • Torfaen (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Torfaen, county borough, historic county of Monmouthshire, southeastern Wales. Torfaen is centred on the urbanized and industrialized valley of the Afon Lywd (formerly called the River Torfaen), and it encompasses the surrounding wooded hills and moorlands. Pontypool, the county borough’s

  • Torfaj?kull (region, Iceland)

    Iceland: Relief: …total power output of the Torfaj?kull (Torfa Glacier) area, the largest of the 19 high-temperature solfatara regions, is estimated to equal about 1,000 megawatts.

  • Torga, Miguel (Portuguese poet and diarist)

    Miguel Torga, poet and diarist whose forceful and highly individual literary style and treatment of universal themes make him one of the most important writers in 20th-century Portuguese literature. Torga embarked on his literary career while a medical student at the University of Coimbra. After

  • Torgau (Germany)

    Torgau, city, Saxony Land (state), eastern Germany. It is a port on the Elbe River, northeast of Leipzig. First mentioned in 973, Torgau was chartered in 1255–67. After 1456 it was a frequent residence of the electors of Saxony, who built the Hartenfels Castle (1533–44 and 1616–23; now a museum).

  • Torgauer Bund (German religious league)

    Torgau: In 1526 the Torgauer Bund (Torgau League), a league of evangelical princes against the Roman Catholic princes, was formed there. During that period the religious reformer Martin Luther was active in Torgau, where he wrote the league’s constitution (the Torgau Articles, 1530). His wife, Katherina von Bora, is…

  • Torghay Valley (valley, Kazakhstan)

    Turgay Valley, depression in western Kazakhstan. Some 12–125 miles (20–200 km) wide, it runs roughly north-south for about 375 miles (600 km) through the middle of the Torghay Plateau. It was formed by a caving-in of the ancient foundation, and in the Ice Age, water flowed along it from the West

  • Torgils Knutsson (Swedish noble)

    Sweden: Civil wars: …magnates, especially by the marsk, Torgils Knutsson; even after Birger’s coronation in 1302, Torgils retained much of his power. The king’s younger brothers Erik and Valdemar, who were made dukes, attempted to establish their own policies and were forced to flee to Norway (1304), where they received support from the…

  • Torgler, Ernst (German communist)

    Reichstag fire: …connection with the fire were Ernst Torgler, the chairman of the German Communist Party in the Reichstag, and three Bulgarian communists—Simon Popov, Vassili Tanev, and Georgi Dimitrov. Dimitrov in particular won international fame for his fearless and skilled defense against Nazi prosecutors. All four of the accused communists were acquitted…

  • Torgos tracheliotus (bird)

    vulture: Old World vultures: The lappet-faced vulture (Torgos tracheliotus), sometimes called the eared, or Nubian, vulture, is a huge Old World vulture of arid Africa. Being a metre tall, with a 2.7-metre (8.9-foot) wingspan, it dominates all other vultures when feeding. It is black and brown above and has a…

  • Torgut (people)

    Kalmyk, Mongol people residing chiefly in Kalmykiya republic, in southwestern Russia. Their language belongs to the Oirat, or western, branch of the Mongolian language group. The Oirat dialects are also spoken in western Mongolia, and in Xinjiang and neighbouring provinces of China. The home of the

  • Tori Busshi (Japanese sculptor)

    Kuratsukuri Tori, the first great Japanese sculptor of the Asuka period (552–645). Tori belonged to the hereditary kuratsukuri-be (“saddlemakers’ guild”), and, as an ardent Buddhist, he applied his technique of making gilt bronze ornaments for saddle trappings to the making of bronze Buddhas.

  • Tori style (Japanese sculpture)

    Tori style, in Japanese art, style of sculpture that emerged during the Asuka period (552–645 ce) and lasted into the Nara period (710–784). It was derived from the Chinese Northern Wei style (386–534/535 ce). It is called Tori style after the sculptor Kuratsukuri Tori, who was of Chinese descent.

  • Tori, Agniolo di Cosimo di Mariano (Italian painter and poet)

    Il Bronzino, Florentine painter whose polished and elegant portraits are outstanding examples of the Mannerist style. Classic embodiments of the courtly ideal under the Medici dukes of the mid-16th century, they influenced European court portraiture for the next century. Bronzino studied separately

  • Tori, Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano (Italian painter and poet)

    Il Bronzino, Florentine painter whose polished and elegant portraits are outstanding examples of the Mannerist style. Classic embodiments of the courtly ideal under the Medici dukes of the mid-16th century, they influenced European court portraiture for the next century. Bronzino studied separately

  • Tori, Kuratsukuri (Japanese sculptor)

    Kuratsukuri Tori, the first great Japanese sculptor of the Asuka period (552–645). Tori belonged to the hereditary kuratsukuri-be (“saddlemakers’ guild”), and, as an ardent Buddhist, he applied his technique of making gilt bronze ornaments for saddle trappings to the making of bronze Buddhas.

  • Toriad y Dydd (work by Jones)

    John Jones: …“A Star Under Cloud”) and “Toriad y Dydd” (1797; “The Break of Day”).

  • Toribio, Tomás (architect)

    Latin American architecture: The new institutions of government: …in Montevideo, Uruguay, designed by Tomás Toribio. The Neoclassical academic architecture of the cabildo applies the language of Renaissance architecture (i.e., columns, arches, friezes) to large-scale buildings adjusted to accommodate new typologies and freed from a proportional system, lending a new form to the institutions of government.

  • Tories (political party, United Kingdom)

    Conservative Party, in the United Kingdom, a political party whose guiding principles include the promotion of private property and enterprise, the maintenance of a strong military, and the preservation of traditional cultural values and institutions. Since World War I the Conservative Party and

  • torii (Japanese architecture)

    Torii, symbolic gateway marking the entrance to the sacred precincts of a Shintō shrine in Japan. The torii, which has many variations, characteristically consists of two cylindrical vertical posts topped by a crosswise rectangular beam extending beyond the posts on either side and a second

  • Torii Kiyomasu (Japanese painter)

    Torii Kiyomasu, painter of Ukiyo-e (scenes from Japanese daily life). He is thought to have been a relative of Torii Kiyonobu, the first Japanese to paint actors. He made hand-coloured prints of the kind called tan-e (in which the dominant colour is supplied by tan, or red lead, a method used from

  • Torii Kiyonaga (Japanese painter)

    Torii Kiyonaga, one of the most important Japanese artists of the Ukiyo-e movement (paintings and wood-block prints of the “floating world”). He was the pupil of Torii Kiyomitsu and for a time headed the Torii school. So great, however, was his loyalty to the Torii family that he made his own son,

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