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  • Tooth, Temple of the (temple, Kandy, Sri Lanka)

    relic: …canine tooth, honoured at the Temple of the Tooth at Kandy, Sri Lanka. Other shrines reportedly have housed certain personal possessions of the Buddha, such as his staff or alms bowl. The alms bowl (patra), particularly, is associated with a romantic tradition of wanderings and, in different historical periods, has…

  • tooth-billed catbird (bird)

    bowerbird: The stagemaker, or tooth-billed catbird (Scenopoeetes dentirostris), of forests of northeastern Australia, arranges leaves silvery-side up (withered ones are carried aside) to form a “circus ring.”

  • tooth-billed pigeon (bird)

    pigeon: …of a single species, the tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris), which is native to Samoa. This fruit-eating, terrestrial pigeon has adopted arboreal ways in response to near extermination by introduced predators. Unlike most pigeons, it uses its feet to hold down its food while pecking off pieces.

  • toothache tree (plant)

    prickly ash: Common prickly ash, or toothache tree (Z. americanum), is very hardy, appearing as far north as Quebec. Another well-known cultivated species is Z. clava-herculis, variously called the Hercules’-club, the sea ash, or the pepperwood. West Indian satinwood, or yellowheart (Z. flavum), produces shiny golden brown…

  • toothache tree (tree)

    Angelica tree , (species Aralia spinosa), prickly-stemmed shrub or tree, of the ginseng family (Araliaceae), that can reach a height of 15 m (about 50 feet). Its leaves are large, with leaflets arranged feather-fashion and often prickly. The angelica tree is native to low-lying areas from Delaware

  • toothed belt (tool)

    belt drive: …crankshaft and camshafts is the toothed, or timing, belt. This is a flat belt with evenly spaced transverse teeth that fit in matching grooves on the periphery of the pulley. The positive drive these belts provide has many advantages but lacks overload protection.

  • toothed herring (fish)

    Mooneye, North American freshwater fish of the family Hiodontidae. The mooneye is a spirited catch but is not greatly valued as food. Mooneyes are herring-like in appearance, with sharp teeth, large eyes, and deeply forked tail fins. Those of the species Hiodon tergisus are bright silvery fish and

  • toothed whale (suborder of mammals)

    Toothed whale, (suborder Odontoceti), any of the odontocete cetaceans, including the oceanic dolphins, river dolphins, porpoises, pilot whales, beaked whales, and bottlenose whales, as well as the killer whale, sperm whale, narwhal, and beluga whale. The ancestors of present-day odontocetes

  • toothless whale (mammal)

    Baleen whale, (suborder Mysticeti), any cetacean possessing unique epidermal modifications of the mouth called baleen, which is used to filter food from water. Baleen whales seek out concentrations of small planktonic animals. The whales then open their mouth and take in enormous quantities of

  • toothpaste

    Colgate-Palmolive Company: …& Company sold the first toothpaste in a tube, Colgate’s Ribbon Dental Cream, in 1896. In 1928 the firm was bought by Palmolive-Peet Company, whose founder, B.J. Johnson, had developed the formula for Palmolive soap in 1898. At the turn of the 20th century, Palmolive—which contained both palm and olive…

  • toothwort (plant)

    Bittercress, (genus Cardamine), large genus of annual or perennial herbs of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), native to northern temperate areas. Bittercress plants bear white, pink, or pale purple four-petaled flowers in a terminal cluster and produce dry fruits known as siliques. Some—such as

  • toothwort (plant species)
  • Toots and the Maytals (Jamaican music group)

    Toots and the Maytals, highly popular Jamaican vocal ensemble of the 1960s and ’70s, regarded as one of the great early reggae groups. The members were Toots Hibbert (original name Frederick Hibbert; b. 1946, Maypen, Jamaica), Nathaniel (“Jerry”) Matthias (or McCarthy; b. c. 1945, Jamaica), and

  • Tootsie (film by Pollack [1982])

    Sydney Pollack: Tootsie and Out of Africa: Tootsie (1982) was one of the highlights of Pollack’s career, a blend of romance and comedy built around the talents of Dustin Hoffman, who played a struggling actor who turns to cross-dressing in order to land a role on a soap opera. The Academy Award-nominated…

  • Toowoomba (Queensland, Australia)

    Toowoomba, city, southeastern Queensland, Australia, on the Great Dividing Range. The principal inland city in the state, Toowoomba is a rail and road junction, tourist resort, service centre for Darling Downs (a large livestock, grain, and dairying region), and site of the Perseverence Creek Water

  • top (gem)

    facet: …a plane that separates the crown, the stone’s upper portion, from the pavilion, the stone’s base. The large facet in the crown parallel to the girdle is the table; the very small one in the pavilion also parallel to the girdle is the culet. Certain stones, such as mogul cut…

  • top (toy)

    Top, a toy having a body of conical, circular, or oval shape, often hollow, with a point or peg on which it turns or is made to whirl. If given a knock, a spinning top will go around in a circle at a slant; if spun with a slant at the start, it will quickly stand upright until halted by friction.

  • Top 10 (comic book)

    America's Best Comics: …on the police-procedural story with Top 10 (with artists Zander Cannon and Gene Ha), a series that imagined life in a city where everyone has superpowers. The book’s sprawling cast, clever stories, and meticulously executed art made it a hit with critics, although it failed to achieve the readership of…

  • Top 40 (radio-broadcast format)

    radio: In the United States: The once-dominant Top 40 format, for instance, splintered into as many as 30 subformats. These included “contemporary hit radio” (CHR), which emphasized less talk, more focused music playlists, more valuable promotional giveaways, and greater consideration of listeners’ lifestyles in advertising and feature presentations. Another splinter became the…

  • Top Banana (film by Green [1954])

    Jack Albertson: …notably the movie version of Top Banana (1954), and he also began acting on television, including on The Phil Silvers Show (1956–57). His other movies included Man of a Thousand Faces (1957), Days of Wine and Roses (1962), How to Murder Your Wife (1965), and The Flim-Flam Man

  • top carnivore (ecology)

    mesopredator release: …lotor), are typically outcompeted by top carnivores, such as wolves (Canis lupus) and cougars (Puma concolor). for food and other resources. Because top carnivores are also capable of killing and eating them, mesopredators often avoid areas claimed by top carnivores or alter their hunting and foraging patterns to reduce the…

  • top fermentation (beverage production)

    beer: Fermenting methods: Top fermentations, in which yeast rises to the surface, require the most elaborate systems, but most brewing operations now use more hygienically operated closed vessels and bottom fermentation. These vessels, erected outside the brewery, are several thousand hectolitres in capacity (1 hectolitre = 26 U.S.…

  • Top Five (film by Rock [2014])

    Chris Rock: …wrote, directed, and starred in Top Five (2014), about a comedian struggling to transition to more serious fare. The film was lauded for successfully situating Rock’s cutting humour in a moving and believable narrative. In 2018 he appeared in the comedies The Week Of, which also starred Sandler, and Nobody’s…

  • Top Fuel Eliminator (racing car)

    drag racing: …most familiar professional categories are Top Fuel (powered by nitromethane), Funny Cars (nitromethane and methanol), Pro Stock (gasoline), Pro Stock Bikes (nitromethane-powered motorcycles), and Pro Stock Trucks (gasoline).

  • Top Girls (play by Churchill)

    Caryl Churchill: …she won another Obie with Top Girls (1982), which deals with women’s losing their humanity in order to attain power in a male-dominated environment. Softcops (produced 1984), a surreal play set in 19th-century France about government attempts to depoliticize illegal acts, was produced by the Royal Shakespeare Company. Serious Money…

  • Top Gun (film by Scott [1986])

    Jerry Bruckheimer: … (1984), which featured Eddie Murphy, Top Gun (1986), which established Tom Cruise as a star, and Bad Boys (1995). After he and Simpson ended their partnership in 1995, Bruckheimer started producing films on his own, creating such hits as Armageddon (1998), Black Hawk Down (2001), and National Treasure (2004).

  • top hair (anatomy)

    mammal: Skin and hair: Guard hairs protect the rest of the pelage from abrasion and frequently from moisture, and they usually lend a characteristic colour pattern. The thicker underfur is primarily insulative and may differ in colour from the guard hairs. The third common hair type is the vibrissa,…

  • Top Hat (film by Sandrich [1935])

    Top Hat, American musical film, released in 1935, that was the first of the 10 films pairing Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers to boast a screenplay written specifically for them. The film was based on the play The Girl Who Dared. A characteristic vehicle for Astaire and Rogers, it featured a slight

  • top heading and bench method (tunneling)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Ground support: …and supported, as in the top heading and bench method of advance. For the extreme case of very soft ground, this approach results in the multiple-drift method of advance (Figure 2), in which the individual drifts are reduced to a small size that is safe for excavation and portions of…

  • top iron (tool)

    hand tool: Plane: Now called the double iron, it is a feature of all but the smallest of modern planes.

  • top junction layer (engineering)

    solar cell: Solar cell structure and operation: …the antireflection layer are the top junction layer, the absorber layer, which constitutes the core of the device, and the back junction layer. Two additional electrical contact layers are needed to carry the electric current out to an external load and back into the cell, thus completing an electric circuit.…

  • top kill (oil industry)

    Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Leaking oil: …attempt to employ a “top kill,” whereby drilling mud was pumped into the well to stanch the flow of oil, also failed, BP in early June turned to an apparatus called the Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) cap. With the damaged riser shorn from the LMRP—the top segment of…

  • top level domain (computer science and Internet)

    DNS: …a machine, followed by a top level domain (TLD), separated by dots (periods). For example, britannica.com has the domain name “britannica” and the TLD “com.” The most common type of TLD is a generic one such as “com,” “gov,” or “edu,” though there are also country code TLDs, such as…

  • top moss (plant)

    Top moss, (Physcomitrium pyriforme), a common species of urn moss formerly known as P. turbinatum. The common name derives from the top-shaped capsules, which open by a small lid at the tip to release the spores. Physcomitrium is a genus of about 80 species in the family Funariaceae of the subclass

  • Top of the Lake (television miniseries)

    Jane Campion: …codirected the eerie TV series Top of the Lake (2013, 2017), which centres on a female detective.

  • Top of the Pops (British television program)
  • top pouring (metallurgy)

    steel: Pouring procedures: In top pouring conducted in high-tonnage shops, a row of perhaps 20 molds is lined up in buggies on a railroad track in front of a pouring platform (see figure). A crane brings the ladle to the platform and holds it while the operator fills one…

  • top quark (physics)

    Carlo Rubbia: …for the sixth quark, called top, had been found. The discovery of this quark confirmed an earlier prediction that three pairs of these particles should exist.

  • top shell (gastropod family)

    Top shell, any marine snail of the family Trochidae (subclass Prosobranchia, class Gastropoda), characterized by a spiral, conical shell. Although top shells are found from the intertidal zone to the deep open seas, they occur with greatest diversity in the shallow waters along rocky shores from

  • Top, Lake (lake, Russia)

    Russia: Lakes: …Beloye (White) Lake and Lakes Top, Vyg, and Ilmen, each occupying more than 400 square miles (1,000 square km) in the European northwest, and Lake Chany (770 square miles [1,990 square km]) in southwestern Siberia.

  • top-blown rotary converter (metallurgy)

    metallurgy: Matte smelting: …are the Noranda, TBRC (top-blown rotary converter), and Mitsubishi processes. The Noranda reactor is a horizontal cylindrical furnace with a depression in the centre where the metal collects and a raised hearth at one end where the slag is run off. Pelletized unroasted sulfide concentrate is poured into the…

  • top-blown rotary converter process (metallurgy)

    metallurgy: Matte smelting: …are the Noranda, TBRC (top-blown rotary converter), and Mitsubishi processes. The Noranda reactor is a horizontal cylindrical furnace with a depression in the centre where the metal collects and a raised hearth at one end where the slag is run off. Pelletized unroasted sulfide concentrate is poured into the…

  • top-down approach (computer science)

    artificial intelligence: Symbolic vs. connectionist approaches: The top-down approach seeks to replicate intelligence by analyzing cognition independent of the biological structure of the brain, in terms of the processing of symbols—whence the symbolic label. The bottom-up approach, on the other hand, involves creating artificial neural networks in imitation of the brain’s structure—whence…

  • Topa Huallpa (emperor of Incas)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Civil war on the eve of the Spanish conquest: …corporation of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui); Topa Huallpa (Thupa Wallpa); and Paullu Topa (Pawllu Thupa).

  • Topa Inca Yupanqui (emperor of Incas)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Topa Inca Yupanqui: About 1471, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui abdicated in favour of his son Topa Inca Yupanqui, thereby ensuring the peaceful succession to the throne. Topa Inca Yupanqui was a great conqueror who was to bring most of the Central Andes region under Inca rule.…

  • Topal Osman-pa?a (ruler of Bosnia)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ottoman Bosnia: The second, Topal Osman-pa?a, introduced a new method of military conscription in 1865 and a completely new administrative system in 1866, dividing Bosnia into seven sanjaks and establishing a consultative assembly. He also built schools, roads, and a public hospital and allowed the two Christian communities to…

  • Topalov, Veselin (Bulgarian chess player)

    chess: The world championship and FIDE: …FIDE’s challenger, the Bulgarian grandmaster Veselin Topalov, who had won the 2005 FIDE World Championship Tournament. Kramnik won the match. As part of the unification contract, the winner agreed to risk the consolidated title in FIDE’s 2007 World Championship Tournament. Anand won the tournament and successfully defended the title against…

  • Toparceanu, George (Romanian poet)

    Arge?: …the house of the poet George (or Gheorghe) Toparceanu (1886–1937) are found in Namae?ti. Topoloveni town has a craft cooperative that makes traditional costumes and wood carvings. The 15th-century fortress of Poenari was constructed, overlooking the Arge? River valley, by Vlad III (Vlad ?epe?, or Vlad the Impaler), a prince…

  • Toparceanu, Gheorghe (Romanian poet)

    Arge?: …the house of the poet George (or Gheorghe) Toparceanu (1886–1937) are found in Namae?ti. Topoloveni town has a craft cooperative that makes traditional costumes and wood carvings. The 15th-century fortress of Poenari was constructed, overlooking the Arge? River valley, by Vlad III (Vlad ?epe?, or Vlad the Impaler), a prince…

  • topaz (mineral)

    Topaz, silicate mineral that is valued as a gemstone. It is believed that the topaz of modern mineralogists was unknown to the ancients and that the stone called topazos was the mineral chrysolite or peridot. The “topaz” in the Old Testament also may have been chrysolite. Topaz is an aluminum

  • Topaze (play by Pagnol)

    Marcel Paul Pagnol: Topaze (1928) secured Pagnol’s reputation as a major French playwright. Topaze ran for two years in Paris and was later adapted for the Broadway stage and made into a film in 1933. His next three comedies—Marius (1929), Fanny (1931), and César (1936), known as the…

  • topazolite

    Topazolite, yellowish andradite garnet, named for its resemblance to topaz. See

  • topcross (genetics)

    Backcross, the mating of a hybrid organism (offspring of genetically unlike parents) with one of its parents or with an organism genetically similar to the parent. The backcross is useful in genetics studies for isolating (separating out) certain characteristics in a related group of animals or

  • Topdog/Underdog (play by Parks)

    Suzan-Lori Parks: …Pulitzer Prize for drama (for Topdog/Underdog).

  • tope (Buddhism)

    Stupa, Buddhist commemorative monument usually housing sacred relics associated with the Buddha or other saintly persons. The hemispherical form of the stupa appears to have derived from pre-Buddhist burial mounds in India. As most characteristically seen at Sanchi in the Great Stupa (2nd–1st

  • Tope da Coroa (volcano, Cabo Verde)

    Cabo Verde: Relief, drainage, and soils: …northern island of Santo Ant?o, Tope de Coroa reaches 6,493 feet (1,979 meters).

  • Topeka (Kansas, United States)

    Topeka, city, capital (1861) of Kansas, U.S., seat (1857) of Shawnee county. Topeka lies on the Kansas River in the east-central part of the state. The name Topeka is of uncertain Indian origin; one interpretation is “smoky hill,” and another is “a good place to dig potatoes.” The present site was

  • Topeka Constitution (United States history)

    Topeka Constitution, (1855), U.S. resolution that established an antislavery territorial government in opposition to the existing proslavery territorial government in Kansas. The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 had opened the two territories to settlement under the “popular sovereignty” doctrine—that

  • Topelius, Zacharias (Finnish author)

    Zacharias Topelius, the father of the Finnish historical novel. His works, written in Swedish, are classics of Finland’s national literature. Topelius joined the faculty of the University of Helsinki as professor of Finnish history in 1864; he served as university president, 1875–78. Though he

  • Topers, The (painting by Velázquez)

    Diego Velázquez: Court painter in Madrid: …also known as Los borrachos ), seems to have been inspired by Titian and Rubens, but his realistic approach to the subject is characteristically Spanish and one that Velázquez was to preserve throughout his life.

  • T?pffer, Rodolphe (Swiss artist)

    graphic novel: The academic study of comics: illustrations of William Hogarth and Rodolphe T?pffer, and the engravings of William Blake. T?pffer, a 19th-century Swiss artist, was particularly important, and he is often described as the father of the modern comic. Hogarth, an 18th-century English broadsheet satirist, anticipated the funny pages in the late 19th century with visual…

  • Topham, Anthony (British musician)

    the Yardbirds: …8, 1943, London), and guitarist Anthony (“Top”) Topham (b., England). Later members were Jeff Beck (b. June 24, 1944, Wallington, Surrey) and Jimmy Page (b. January 9, 1944, Heston, Middlesex).

  • Topham, Top (British musician)

    the Yardbirds: …8, 1943, London), and guitarist Anthony (“Top”) Topham (b., England). Later members were Jeff Beck (b. June 24, 1944, Wallington, Surrey) and Jimmy Page (b. January 9, 1944, Heston, Middlesex).

  • Tophane, convention of (European history)

    Bulgaria: Political divisions under Alexander of Battenberg: …[March 3], 1886) and the convention of Tophane (March 24 [April 5], 1886). Prince Alexander was appointed governor-general of Eastern Rumelia, and the Eastern Rumelian administrative and military forces were merged with those of Bulgaria.

  • tophet (Phoenician burial site)

    Middle Eastern religion: Nature: the framework of ideas and practices: …include an area called the tophet that contains large numbers of infant burials (see photograph). One explanation of the tophet is that it reflects a major aspect of a fertility cult in which the first-born child belonged to the deity. The deity rewarded the parents who had sacrificed their child…

  • topi (mammal)

    Topi, (Damaliscus lunatus), one of Africa’s most common and most widespread antelopes. It is a member of the tribe Alcelaphini (family Bovidae), which also includes the blesbok, hartebeest, and wildebeest. Damaliscus lunatus is known as the topi in East Africa and as the sassaby or tsessebe in

  • topiary

    Topiary, the training of living trees and shrubs into artificial, decorative shapes. Thickly leaved evergreen shrubs are used in topiary; the best subjects are box, cypress, and yew, although others—such as rosemary, holly, and box honeysuckle—are used with success. Topiary is said to have been

  • Topica (work by Aristotle)

    rhetoric: Traditional and modern rhetoric: …Rhetoric but also in his Topics, which he had designed for dialectics, for disputation among experts. According to this view, philosophers engage in a rhetorical transaction that seeks to persuade through a dialogic process first themselves and then, by means of their utterances, others. It is in this “argumentative” light…

  • topical anesthesia (drug)

    anesthetic: Local anesthetics: This is called surface or topical anesthesia. A familiar example of topical anesthesia is the use of certain local anesthetics in throat lozenges to relieve the pain of a sore throat. Local anesthetics may be injected near a main nerve trunk in a limb to produce what is called regional…

  • topical immunomodulator (medication)

    dermatitis: Environmental influences and treatment: Topical immunomodulators (TIMs), which are steroid-free skin medications, have been developed. These agents work by inhibiting the activation of immune substances. However, due to their potentially dangerous side effects (e.g., lymphoma), TIMs are considered second-line treatments for dermatitis. Other therapies used for dermatitis include antihistamines,…

  • Topics (work by Aristotle)

    rhetoric: Traditional and modern rhetoric: …Rhetoric but also in his Topics, which he had designed for dialectics, for disputation among experts. According to this view, philosophers engage in a rhetorical transaction that seeks to persuade through a dialogic process first themselves and then, by means of their utterances, others. It is in this “argumentative” light…

  • Topiltzin (legendary Toltec ruler)

    Toltec: Under his son, Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcóatl, they formed a number of small states of various ethnic origins into an empire later in the 10th century. The ruler Topiltzin introduced the cult of Quetzalcóatl (“Feathered Serpent”), which name he adopted. This cult and others, as well as the Toltec military…

  • topiramate (drug)

    obesity: Treatment of obesity: and Qsymia (phentermine and topiramate). Belviq decreases obese individuals’ cravings for carbohydrate-rich foods by stimulating the release of serotonin, which normally is triggered by carbohydrate intake. Qsymia leverages the weight-loss side effects of topiramate, an antiepileptic drug, and the stimulant properties of phentermine, an existing short-term treatment for obesity.…

  • Topkapi (film by Dassin [1964])

    Jules Dassin: Blacklist and exile: She was also in Topkapi (1964), a classic caper flick (based on an Eric Ambler novel) about the theft of an emerald-studded dagger from a Turkish museum. It was shot on location in Istanbul, and it offered superb suspense and an exceptional cast, including Peter Ustinov (who won an…

  • Topkapi (work by Ambler)

    Eric Ambler: …East or East Asia, including The Light of Day (1962; U.S. title, Topkapi; filmed 1964 and again as The Levanter in 1972), which centres around a terrorist plot against Israel. His much-praised Doctor Frigo (1974) was set on a Caribbean island.

  • Topkap? Palace Museum (museum, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Topkap? Palace Museum, museum in Istanbul that exhibits the imperial collections of the Ottoman Empire and maintains an extensive collection of books and manuscripts in its library. It is housed in a palace complex that served as the administrative centre and residence of the imperial Ottoman court

  • Topkap? Saray? Muzesi (museum, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Topkap? Palace Museum, museum in Istanbul that exhibits the imperial collections of the Ottoman Empire and maintains an extensive collection of books and manuscripts in its library. It is housed in a palace complex that served as the administrative centre and residence of the imperial Ottoman court

  • Toplumcu Kurtulu? Partisi (political party, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Political process: …Party (Ulusal Birlik Partisi), the Communal Liberation Party (Toplumcu Kurtulu? Partisi), and the Republican Turkish Party (Cumhuriyetc?i Türk Partisi).

  • topmark (buoy)

    lighthouse: Buoyage systems: …surmounted by a distinctive “topmark.” There are four possible topmarks, corresponding to the four cardinal points of the compass—i.e., north, south, east, and west. The safest navigable water lies to the side of the buoy indicated by its topmark. The marks consist of a pair of cones arranged one…

  • topminnow (fish)

    Live-bearer, any of the numerous live-bearing topminnows of the family Poeciliidae (order Atheriniformes), found only in the New World and most abundantly in Mexico and Central America. Most of the many species are rather elongated, and all are small, the largest growing to only about 15

  • Topnaar Namas (people)

    Khoekhoe, any member of a people of southern Africa whom the first European explorers found in areas of the hinterland and who now generally live either in European settlements or on official reserves in South Africa or Namibia. Khoekhoe (meaning “men of men”) is their name for themselves;

  • Topo, El (film by Jodorowsky [1970])

    Alejandro Jodorowsky: El Topo and The Holy Mountain: Jodorowsky’s next film, El Topo (1970; “The Mole”), brought him worldwide notoriety. In a western setting saturated with sex, violence, and religious symbolism, the gunfighter El Topo (Jodorowsky) crosses the desert with his naked son (played by Jodorowsky’s son Brontis) but leaves him behind to go on a…

  • Topo-bibliographie (work by Chevalier)

    Ulysse Chevalier: …the Bio-bibliographie, 1877–88, and the Topo-bibliographie, 1894–1903. The former contains information on all historical personages alive between the years 1 and 1500 who are mentioned in printed books, and the latter contains place-names and other information. Chevalier was himself a professor at Lyon from 1887.

  • Topographia Christiana (work by Cosmas)

    Cosmas: …theologian, and geographer whose treatise Topographia Christiana (c. 535–547; “Christian Topography”) contains one of the earliest and most famous of world maps. In this treatise, Cosmas tried to prove the literal accuracy of the Biblical picture of the universe, asserting in particular that the Earth is flat and trying to…

  • Topographia Germaniae (work by Merian and Zeiller)

    Matth?us Merian: …1688 he published Martin Zeiller’s Topographia Germaniae, with more than 2,000 plates etched and engraved by himself and his sons Matth?us and Caspar. Among his last works was “Dance of Death” (1649).

  • Topographic Engineers, Corps of (United States Army corps)

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, combatant arm and a technical service of the United States Army. Alone among the armed services it engages in extensive civil as well as military activities. The army’s first engineer officers were appointed by George Washington in 1775, and in 1802 the Corps of

  • topographic map (cartography)

    Topographic map, cartographic representation of the Earth’s surface at a level of detail or scale intermediate between that of a plan (small area) and a chorographic (large regional) map. Within the limits of scale, it shows as accurately as possible the location and shape of both natural and

  • topographical poetry

    Topographical poetry, verse genre characterized by the description of a particular landscape. A subgenre, the prospect poem, details the view from a height. The form was established by John Denham in 1642 with the publication of his poem Cooper’s Hill. Topographical poems were at their peak of

  • Topographie idéale pour une agression caractérisée (work by Boudjedra)

    Rachid Boudjedra: Topographie idéale pour une agression caracté risée (1975; “Ideal Topography for a Specific Aggression”) took as its protagonist an illiterate Berber peasant drawn to the city by the prospect of work; lost in the capital’s subway, he is bombarded by a host of bewildering scenes…

  • topography (medicine)

    human disease: Classifications of diseases: In the topographic classification, diseases are subdivided into such categories as gastrointestinal disease, vascular disease, abdominal disease, and chest disease. Various specializations within medicine follow such topographic or systemic divisions, so that there are physicians who are essentially vascular surgeons, for example, or clinicians who are specialized…

  • topography (geology)

    continental landform: Basic concepts and considerations: …that implies progressive changes in topography from an initial designated morphology toward or to some altered form. The changes can only occur in response to energy available to do work within the geomorphic system in question, and it necessarily follows that the evolution will cease when the energy is consumed…

  • topoi (philosophy)

    foundations of mathematics: Intuitionistic logic: …important categories called topoi (singular: topos; see below Topos theory) have associated with them a language that is intuitionistic in general. In consequence of this fact, a theorem about sets proved constructively was immediately seen to be valid not only for sets but also for sheaves, which, however, lie beyond…

  • topological equivalence

    topology: Topological equivalence: The motions associated with a continuous deformation from one object to another occur in the context of some surrounding space, called the ambient space of the deformation. When a continuous deformation from one object to another can be performed in a particular ambient…

  • topological graph theory (mathematics)

    graph theory: …led to a subfield called topological graph theory. An important problem in this area concerns planar graphs. These are graphs that can be drawn as dot-and-line diagrams on a plane (or, equivalently, on a sphere) without any edges crossing except at the vertices where they meet. Complete graphs with four…

  • Topological Groups (work by Pontryagin)

    Lev Semyonovich Pontryagin: …were collected and published as Topological Groups, which has been translated into several languages. In 1931 he was one of five signers of the Declaration on the Reorganization of the Moscow Mathematical Society, in which the signers pledged themselves to work to bring the organization in line with the policies…

  • topological invariant

    homeomorphism: A topological property is defined to be a property that is preserved under a homeomorphism. Examples are connectedness, compactness, and, for a plane domain, the number of components of the boundary. The most general type of objects for which homeomorphisms can be defined are topological spaces.…

  • topological mapping (mathematics)

    Homeomorphism, in mathematics, a correspondence between two figures or surfaces or other geometrical objects, defined by a one-to-one mapping that is continuous in both directions. The vertical projection shown in the figure sets up such a one-to-one correspondence between the straight segment x

  • topological property

    homeomorphism: A topological property is defined to be a property that is preserved under a homeomorphism. Examples are connectedness, compactness, and, for a plane domain, the number of components of the boundary. The most general type of objects for which homeomorphisms can be defined are topological spaces.…

  • topological space

    Topological space, in mathematics, generalization of Euclidean spaces in which the idea of closeness, or limits, is described in terms of relationships between sets rather than in terms of distance. Every topological space consists of: (1) a set of points; (2) a class of subsets defined

  • topology

    Topology, branch of mathematics, sometimes referred to as “rubber sheet geometry,” in which two objects are considered equivalent if they can be continuously deformed into one another through such motions in space as bending, twisting, stretching, and shrinking while disallowing tearing apart or

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