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  • list of jazz musicians

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of jazz musicians, including both instrumentalists and vocalists. See also jazz, swing, bebop, Dixieland, Kansas City style, New Orleans style, Chicago style, Latin jazz, free jazz, jazz-rock, and

  • list of journalists

    This is a list of journalists, organized alphabetically by place of origin or residence. (See also

  • list of judges

    Judges are public officials vested with the authority to hear, determine, and preside over legal matters brought in a court of law. This is a list of judges ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also administrative law; common law; civil law; constitutional law; criminal

  • list of lakes

    This is a list of lakes ordered alphabetically by continent or region and by

  • list of lichens

    Lichens are composite organisms that consist of a symbiotic association of photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria and fungi. Given that each individual consists of two distinct and unrelated species, the taxonomy of the group is contentious. The following is a list of some of the major genera and

  • list of literary prizes

    This is a list of literary prizes and awards ordered alphabetically by the country in which the prize is based. Included are awards for fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and journalism. (See also

  • list of marsupials

    A marsupial is any of the more than 250 species belonging to the infraclass Metatheria (sometimes called Marsupialia), a mammalian group characterized by premature birth and continued development of the newborn while attached to the nipples on the mother’s lower belly. This is a list of selected

  • list of mathematicians

    This is a list of mathematicians, ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also

  • list of medical tests and diagnostic procedures

    This is a list of medical tests and procedures used to obtain health information and diagnose pathological and nonpathological conditions of the human body. It is grouped by type of procedure and ordered alphabetically. (See alsoddiagnosis; medicine;

  • list of mollusks

    Mollusks are soft-bodied invertebrates of the phylum Mollusca, usually wholly or partly enclosed in a calcium carbonate shell secreted by a soft mantle covering the body. Along with the insects and vertebrates, mollusks are one of the most diverse groups in the animal kingdom, with nearly 100,000

  • list of moons

    There are 171 moons, or natural satellites, orbiting the planets in our solar system; Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have 1, 2, 66, 62, 27, and 13 moons, respectively. The following is a list of some of the major planetary moons, including those of the dwarf planet

  • list of mosses

    Mosses are small, avascular, spore-bearing plants of the division Bryophyta. The approximately 12,000 species are distributed throughout the world. The following is a list of some of the major genera and species of mosses, arranged alphabetically by common

  • list of mountain ranges

    This is a list of mountain ranges ordered alphabetically by continent or region and by

  • list of mountains

    A mountain is a landform that rises prominently above its surroundings, generally exhibiting steep slopes, a relatively confined summit area, and considerable local relief. Mountains generally are understood to be larger than hills, but the term has no standardized geological meaning. Very rarely

  • list of movies

    This is a chronologically ordered list of movies. See also motion picture, history of the motion picture and Academy

  • list of museums

    This is a list of museums, ordered alphabetically by continent or region and by

  • list of musical compositions

    This is a list of classical musical compositions alphabetically organized by composer and by the composer’s place of origin or residence. See also musical form; concerto; fugue; march; opera; operetta; prelude; quartet; scherzo; sinfonia; sonata;

  • list of mustelids

    Mustelids include the polecats, the badgers, the martens, the otters, the wolverine, and other members of the weasel family. Historically, skunks have also been included in Mustelidae, but genetic analyses suggest that they belong to a separate family of their own (Mephitidae). Mustelids are

  • list of National Medal of Arts recipients

    This is a list in chronological order of National Medal of Arts recipients. The National Medal of Arts, established in 1984, is typically awarded annually by the U.S. president to See also National Endowment for the

  • list of national parks

    This is a list of national parks, organized by continent or region and by

  • list of national security advisers of the United States

    The National Security Council (NSC) was established in 1947 to advise the U.S. president on domestic, foreign, and military policies related to national security. The NSC is headed by the national security adviser, who is appointed by the president and not subject to confirmation by the U.S.

  • list of New Zealand writers

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of New Zealand writers. In addition to including writers born in New Zealand, the list contains those who wrote important works about the country or spent a significant amount of time there. (See also New Zealand

  • list of newspapers

    This is a list of current and historical newspapers organized alphabetically by country of publication. See also newspaper; journalism; news agency; history of

  • List of nicknames of U.S. States

    This is a list of nicknames for each of the 50 states of the United States, ordered alphabetically by state. A single state may have more than one nickname. Not all of these nicknames are considered official. This list excludes the District of Columbia and U.S.

  • list of notable deaths in 2016

    This is an alphabetical list of notable people who died in

  • list of notable deaths in 2017

    an alphabetical list of people who died in

  • list of novels

    This is a list of novels ordered chronologically by century and alphabetically by book title. See also novel and

  • list of orchestras

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of

  • list of painters

    This is a list of painters organized alphabetically by country of birth or residence. (See also

  • list of painting techniques

    The following is an alphabetical list of techniques used in painting. The list comprises devices used to introduce the illusion of three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface, methods of paint application, and different mediums chosen by the artist to create the desired visual

  • list of parasitic diseases

    This is a list of parasitic diseases, organized by the type of organism that causes the disease. (See also parasitism and

  • list of peninsulas

    Peninsulas are areas of land surrounded by water on three sides. They may be very large, as in the case of Arabia, or quite small. This a list of peninsulas ordered alphabetically by continent or region and by

  • list of performance artists

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of performance artists. See also performance art, Fluxus, and

  • list of petroleum products

    This is a list of products produced from petroleum. Types of unrefined petroleum include asphalt, bitumen, crude oil, and natural gas. (See also fossil fuel; hydrocarbon; oil; petrochemical; petroleum production; petroleum refining; pitch lake; tar

  • list of philosophers

    This a list of philosophers ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. In addition to philosophers, the list also includes figures whose ideas contributed significantly to philosophy. In the case of some historical figures not identified with an extant country, they are grouped by

  • list of photographers

    This is a list of photographers organized alphabetically by country of birth or residence. (See also history of

  • list of physicists

    This is a list of physicists, ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also

  • list of pigs

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of pigs. (See also domestication; hog; livestock farming; peccary;

  • list of pinnipeds

    The pinnipeds are a group of 33 species of aquatic fin-footed mammals composing three families: the true seals (family Phocidae), the fur seals and sea lions (family Otariidae), and the walrus (family Odobenidae). Pinnipeds live only in rich marine environments and a few inland or tropical

  • list of pirates

    The following is a list of pirates and buccaneers, organized alphabetically by nationality or country of

  • list of planets

    A planet is any relatively large natural body that revolves in an orbit around the Sun or around some other star and that is not radiating energy from internal nuclear fusion reactions. In addition to the above description, some scientists impose additional constraints regarding characteristics

  • list of plant diseases

    Infectious plant diseases are caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses and can range in severity from mild leaf or fruit damage to death. The following is a list of some of the major plant diseases, grouped by type of causative agent and ordered

  • list of plant fibres

    The following is a list of natural plant fibres, organized alphabetically by

  • list of plants in the family Amaranthaceae

    Amaranthaceae, the amaranth family, contains some 174 genera and around 2,500 species distributed worldwide. Its members are typically herbaceous plants or subshrubs, many of which can tolerate poor saline soils. The flowers are often small and borne in dense inflorescences, and the simple leaves

  • list of plants in the family Amaryllidaceae

    The amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae) contains 73 genera and at least 1,600 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Members of the family characteristically feature bulbs or underground stems and straplike leaves. The attractive flowers generally have three or

  • list of plants in the family Anacardiaceae

    The cashew family, Anacardiaceae, consists of about 80 genera and more than 700 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its members are characterized by the presence of resin ducts in the bark and feature compound leaves and unisexual flowers. The following is

  • list of plants in the family Apiaceae

    Comprising 434 genera and about 3,700 species, the carrot family (Apiaceae) is a significant group of flowering plants. Its members are often aromatic and are characterized by hollow stems, taproots, and flat-topped flower clusters known as umbels. The following is a list of some of the major

  • list of plants in the family Araceae

    The arum family (Araceae) comprises 114 genera and about 3,750 species of flowering plants. The flowers are characteristically borne on a distinctive inflorescence known as a spadix and are usually surrounded by a single leaflike bract known as a spathe. Several species are important in the floral

  • list of plants in the family Asparagaceae

    The asparagus family (Asparagaceae) comprises about 153 genera and some 2,500 species of flowering plants. Distributed nearly worldwide, the family is extremely diverse, and its members are united primarily by genetic and evolutionary relationships rather than morphological similarities. The

  • list of plants in the family Asteraceae

    The aster family (Asteraceae) is one of the largest angiosperm families, with more than 1,620 genera and 23,600 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees distributed throughout the world. The plants are characterized by their composite flower heads and one-seeded achene fruits. The following

  • list of plants in the family Betulaceae

    The birch family (Betulaceae) contains six genera and more than 150 species of trees and shrubs. The family is primarily distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and contains a number of important ornamentals as well as timber and nut trees. The following is a list of some of the major genera and

  • list of plants in the family Brassicaceae

    Commonly known as the mustard family, Brassicaceae contains some 338 genera and more than 3,700 species of flowering plants distributed throughout the world. Brassicaceae species are characterized by four-petalled cross-shaped flowers that feature two long and two short stamens and produce podlike

  • list of plants in the family Cactaceae

    The cactus family (Cactaceae) consists of about 131 genera and 1,866 species of flowering plants, almost all of which are found in the New World. Most cacti are adapted to arid environments, though a number of species are native to rainforests and other tropical or subtropical areas. Many have

  • list of plants in the family Cucurbitaceae

    The gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, consists of about 975 species across 98 genera. Members of the family are annual or perennial herbaceous plants; many are climbing or trailing vines with characteristic tendrils. The flowers are often showy and unisex and produce large fruits known as pepos. The

  • list of plants in the family Ericaceae

    The heath family (Ericaceae) is a large group of flowering plants, with more than 4,000 species in 126 genera distributed nearly worldwide. The plants range from small alpine herbs to large tropical trees. Many can tolerate poor acidic soils. The flowers are often urn-shaped with fused petals,

  • list of plants in the family Euphorbiaceae

    Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, comprises some 7,500 species and 275 genera of flowering plants distributed primarily in the tropics. The flowers are typically unisexual and are borne in a characteristic cluster known as a cyathia. Many species contain milky latex, and some are useful as a source

  • list of plants in the family Fabaceae

    Commonly known as the pea family, Fabaceae features about 670 genera and nearly 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs. Distributed worldwide, members of the family are generally characterized by compound leaves and the production of fruits known as legumes. The following is a list of

  • list of plants in the family Fagaceae

    The oak, or beech, family (Fagaceae) contains about 1,000 species unevenly distributed across eight genera. The group is mostly limited to the warmer parts of the Northern Hemisphere and comprises a number of important timber and nut trees. The following is a list of some of the major genera and

  • list of plants in the family Lamiaceae

    The mint family (Lamiaceae) is known for its aromatic members, especially the mints and balms. Plants in the family are characterized by square stems, paired and simple leaves, and two-lipped open-mouthed tubular flowers. The following is a list of some of the major genera and species in the mint

  • list of plants in the family Malvaceae

    The mallow family (Malvaceae) contains some 243 genera and at least 4,225 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees distributed nearly worldwide. Members of the family often feature showy five-petaled flowers with an epicalyx (fused bracts below the sepals). Many are cultivated as a source of

  • list of plants in the family Moraceae

    The mulberry family (Moraceae) comprises about 40 genera and some 1,000 species of deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs, distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of the family contain a milky latex and generally feature unusual fruits formed by the fusion of the ovaries of

  • list of plants in the family Myrtaceae

    The myrtle family (Myrtaceae) contains about 150 genera and 3,300 species of trees and shrubs. Its members are widely distributed in the tropics and characteristically feature leathery leaves with oil glands. Several are useful as spices, and a number of species are economically important as timber

  • list of plants in the family Orchidaceae

    The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is the second largest family of flowering plants, with about 880 genera and some 26,000 species distributed nearly worldwide. Orchids are perennial herbs and feature unusual bilaterally symmetric flowers, with masses of pollen known as pollinia, and tiny, dustlike

  • list of plants in the family Papaveraceae

    The poppy family of flowering plants (Papaveraceae) features 44 genera and 760 species, a number of which are common garden ornamentals. Most of the members are herbaceous plants found in the Northern Hemisphere, but several species are woody shrubs or small tropical trees. Almost all plants in the

  • list of plants in the family Poaceae

    With more than 10,000 species, the grass family, Poaceae, is one of the largest families of flowering plants. Its members are monocotyledons and feature leaves with parallel veins; the flowers are usually wind-pollinated. Many grasses are cultivated as ornamental plants and for lawns, and several

  • list of plants in the family Ranunculaceae

    Ranunculaceae, the buttercup family, comprises about 2,252 species in 62 genera of flowering plants. Its members are mostly herbaceous plants and are distributed worldwide, with greatest diversity in temperate regions. The flowers are often showy, with five or more petals and numerous pistils and

  • list of plants in the family Rosaceae

    With over 2,500 species in more than 90 genera, the rose family (Rosaceae) is one of the major angiosperm families. While its taxonomy is somewhat contentious, the family is usually divided into four subfamilies based primarily on fruit type: Amygdaloideae, with drupes (fleshy stone fruits);

  • list of plants in the family Rutaceae

    The rue family (Rutaceae) comprises more than 2,000 species across 160 genera, most of which are woody shrubs and trees. The flowers are generally showy and fragrant, and many species have attractive aromatic foliage. A number of these plants, notably members of the genus Citrus, are important food

  • list of plants in the family Sapindaceae

    The soapberry family, Sapindaceae, contains about 135 genera and some 1,600 species. Its members are distributed mainly in the tropics, and include trees, shrubs, lianas, and herbaceous vines. The following is a list of some of the major genera and species in Sapindaceae, arranged alphabetically by

  • list of plants in the family Solanaceae

    Called the nightshade family or the potato family, Solanaceae has more than 90 genera and nearly 3,000 species distributed throughout the world. Its members are characterized by flowers with five petals, sepals, and stamens and typically bear alternate leaves. Many species contain toxic alkaloids.

  • list of plays by Shakespeare

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of plays by William Shakespeare. Dates following titles indicate the dates the plays were written unless otherwise noted. Asterisks indicate plays likely written by Shakespeare and other playwrights, though evidence has been disputed. Edward III and Cardenio

  • list of playwrights

    This is a list of playwrights ordered alphabetically by place of origin or residence. Translators of dramatic literature are also included. (See also dramatic literature;

  • list of poets

    This is a list of poets ordered alphabetically by place of origin or residence. In the case of some historical figures not identified with an extant country, they are grouped by ethnic or cultural association. (See also poetry; metre; rhythm; rhyme; poetic diction; poetic license; poetic

  • list of poets laureate of Britain

    The title of poet laureate was first granted in England in the 17th century for poetic excellence. The post has become free of specific poetic duties, but its holder remains a salaried member of the British royal household. The office’s title traces its roots to an ancient Greek and Roman tradition

  • list of poets laureate of the United States

    The position of poet laureate of the United States is somewhat different from that of Britain, where the title was first established in the 17th century. Whereas the British office renders the laureate a salaried member of the British royal household, the American poet laureate acts as the chair of

  • list of political parties

    This is a list of political parties, ordered alphabetically by country or organization. (See also political party and political

  • list of political scientists

    Political science is the systematic study of governance by the application of empirical and generally scientific methods of analysis. This is a list of political scientists organized alphabetically by place of origin or residence. (See also political philosophy; political

  • list of presidents of Austria

    This is a chronologically ordered list of the presidents of

  • list of presidents of Brazil

    This is a chronologically ordered list of Brazilian presidents. (See also Brazil; South

  • list of presidents of Chile

    This is a chronologically ordered list of the presidents of Chile. (See also South

  • list of presidents of Egypt

    This is a chronologically ordered list of the presidents of

  • list of presidents of France

    Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was elected the first president of France in 1848. Prior to that point, the country had been ruled by kings, emperors, and various executives. The succession of republics was several times interrupted (1852–70, 1940–44, and 1944–46) by other forms of government that did not

  • list of presidents of Indonesia

    This is a chronologically ordered list of presidents of

  • list of presidents of Kenya

    This is a chronologically ordered list of the presidents of

  • list of presidents of Mexico

    Mexico’s constitution of 1917 established economic and political principles for the country, including the role of its president. The president today is popularly elected to a single six-year term and has the power to select a cabinet, the attorney general, diplomats, high-ranking military

  • list of presidents of South Korea

    This is a chronologically ordered list of presidents of South Korea, from the earliest to the most

  • list of primates

    A primate is any mammal of the group that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans. The order Primates, with its 300 or more species, is the third most diverse order of mammals, after rodents and bats. This is a list of selected primates ordered alphabetically by taxonomic

  • list of prime ministers of Australia

    Australia, established as a federated union in 1901, is a constitutional monarchy, and its government is led by a prime minister, generally the leader of the majority political party or coalition in the federal House of Representatives. This is a chronologically ordered list of the prime ministers,

  • list of prime ministers of Canada

    Though the titular head of Canada is the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom (represented locally by a governor-general), the effective head of government is the prime minister. After a general election, the governor-general calls on the leader of the political party winning the most seats in

  • list of prime ministers of Denmark

    This is a chronologically ordered list of the prime ministers of Denmark. The office of prime minister was inaugurated in 1848. The title “prime minister” was changed to “council president” in 1855 and to “minister of state” in

  • list of prime ministers of Great Britain and the United Kingdom

    The office of prime minister developed in Britain in the 18th century, when King George I ceased attending meetings of his ministers and it was left to powerful premiers to act as government chief executive. Sir Robert Walpole is generally considered to have been Britain’s first prime minister.

  • list of prime ministers of India

    India’s head of state is the president, whose powers are largely nominal and ceremonial. Effective executive power rests with the Council of Ministers, headed by the prime minister, who is chosen by the majority party or coalition in the Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament) and is formally

  • list of prime ministers of Israel

    This is a list of prime ministers of Israel organized chronologically from earliest to most

  • list of prime ministers of Italy

    This is a chronologically ordered list of the prime ministers of

  • list of prime ministers of Japan

    The office of prime minister of Japan was established in the 1880s during the Meiji Restoration. Originally chosen and appointed by the emperor (with the recommendation of advisers), since the constitution of 1947 the prime minister has been designated by the Diet (Kokkai) before being formally

  • list of prime ministers of New Zealand

    New Zealand has a parliamentary form of government based on the British model. The head of government is the prime minister, generally the leader of the governing political party in Parliament. The titles premier and first minister were variously applied to each of the principal ministers until

  • list of prime ministers of Norway

    This is a chronologically ordered list of prime ministers of Norway, dating from the 1905 dissolution of its union with

  • list of procyonids

    Procyonids (family Procyonidae) are any of a group of tree-climbing mammals closely related to bears. This is a list of procyonids ordered alphabetically by common name. (See also

  • list of prominent families

    This is a list of prominent families, grouped by the professions and activities for which they were known and ordered alphabetically by place of origin or residence. (See also list of

  • list of psychologists

    Psychology is a scientific discipline that studies psychological and biological processes and behaviour in humans and other animals. This is an alphabetically ordered list of psychologists arranged by place of origin or residence. (See also applied psychology; behaviourism; biological psychology;

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