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  • Lutheranism (Christianity)

    Lutheranism, the branch of Christianity that traces its interpretation of the Christian religion to the teachings of Martin Luther and the 16th-century movements that issued from his reforms. Along with Anglicanism, the Reformed and Presbyterian (Calvinist) churches, Methodism, and the Baptist

  • Lutherbourg, Philip James de (artist)

    Philip James de Loutherbourg, early Romantic painter, illustrator, printmaker, and scenographer, especially known for his paintings of landscapes and battles and for his innovative scenery designs and special effects for the theatre. First trained under his father, a miniature painter from

  • Luthuli, Albert John (South African leader)

    Albert John Luthuli, Zulu chief, teacher and religious leader, and president of the African National Congress (1952–60) in South Africa. He was the first African to be awarded a Nobel Prize for Peace (1960), in recognition of his nonviolent struggle against racial discrimination. Albert John Mvumbi

  • Luthuli, Albert John Mvumbi (South African leader)

    Albert John Luthuli, Zulu chief, teacher and religious leader, and president of the African National Congress (1952–60) in South Africa. He was the first African to be awarded a Nobel Prize for Peace (1960), in recognition of his nonviolent struggle against racial discrimination. Albert John Mvumbi

  • Luti, Benedetto (Italian artist)

    Western painting: Late Baroque and Rococo: …18th-century style by his pupil Benedetto Luti, while Francesco Trevisani abandoned the dramatic lighting of his early paintings in favour of a glossy Rococo classicism. In the early 18th century, Neapolitan painting under Francesco Solimena developed from the brilliant synthesis of Pietro da Cortona’s grand manner and Venetian colour that…

  • lutite (rock)

    Lutite, any fine-grained sedimentary rock consisting of clay- or silt-sized particles (less than 0.063 mm [0.0025 inch] in diameter) that are derived principally from nonmarine (continental) rocks. Laminated lutites and lutites that are fissile—i.e., easily split into thin layers—are called

  • Lutjanidae (fish)

    Snapper, any of about 105 species of fishes of the family Lutjanidae (order Perciformes). Snappers are found, often in abundance, throughout the tropics. Active, schooling fishes with elongated bodies, large mouths, sharp canine teeth, and blunt or forked tails, snappers are usually rather large,

  • Lutjanus campechanus (fish)

    snapper: …wholly yellow tail; and the red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), a bright-red fish (one of several red-coloured snappers) famed as food and found in rather deep Atlantic waters.

  • Lutjanus griseus (fish)

    snapper: …and white Indo-Pacific fish; the gray, or mangrove, snapper (L. griseus), a gray, reddish, or greenish Atlantic fish; the yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus), a swift-moving Atlantic species with a broad, yellow stripe from the nose to the wholly yellow tail; and the red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), a bright-red fish (one…

  • Lutjanus jocu (fish)

    snapper: Some, however, such as the dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu) of the Atlantic, may contain a toxic substance and cause ciguatera, a form of poisoning. The better known species of snapper include the emperor snapper (L. sebae), a red and white Indo-Pacific fish; the gray, or mangrove, snapper (L. griseus), a…

  • Lutjanus sebae (fish)

    snapper: …species of snapper include the emperor snapper (L. sebae), a red and white Indo-Pacific fish; the gray, or mangrove, snapper (L. griseus), a gray, reddish, or greenish Atlantic fish; the yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus), a swift-moving Atlantic species with a broad, yellow stripe from the nose to the wholly yellow…

  • Lütkens, R. J. (German clergyman)

    Protestantism: Denmark-Norway: …whose royal chaplain, the German R.J. Lütkens, approved of the pietistic pastors and won Frederick’s support for missions in India. The king sought out missionaries in his kingdom but found none. He then turned to Germany, where, through Lütken’s contacts, he discovered two young Halle-trained Pietists, Bartholom?us Ziegenbalg (1683–1719) and…

  • luto humano, El (novel by Revueltas)

    José Revueltas: …Human Mourning, also translated as The Stone Knife) is a powerful novel that uses flashbacks and interior monologues to present the plight of rural Mexicans from the pre-Columbian period up to the 1930s. In 1943 Revueltas was expelled from the Communist Party and took part in founding the Spartacus Leninist…

  • Luton (town and unitary authority, England, United Kingdom)

    Luton, town and unitary authority, geographic and historic county of Bedfordshire, England. It lies along England’s chief superhighway (M1), 30 miles (48 km) northwest of London, and has an international airport. Long famous for the manufacture of straw hats, Luton developed into an industrial town

  • Lutos?awski, Witold (Polish composer)

    Witold Lutos?awski, outstanding Polish composer of the 20th century who attempted to create a new musical language by incorporating elements of folk songs, 12-tone serialism, atonal counterpoint, and controlled improvisations reminiscent of aleatory (chance, see aleatory music) compositions while

  • Lutra canadensis (mammal)

    otter: Conservation and classification: North American river otters (L. canadensis) are still taken as part of the commercial fur trade, but the primary threats to others are the destruction of wetland habitats and pollution. Heavy metals and contaminants such as mercury and PCBs

  • Lutrin, Le (work by Boileau)

    Nicolas Boileau: …most successful of mock-heroic epics, Le Lutrin, dealing with a quarrel of two ecclesiastical dignitaries over where to place a lectern in a chapel.

  • Lutrinae (mammal)

    Otter, (subfamily Lutrinae), any of 13 or 14 species of semiaquatic mammals that belong to the weasel family (Mustelidae) and are noted for their playful behaviour. The otter has a lithe and slender body with short legs, a strong neck, and a long flattened tail that helps propel the animal

  • lutrine opossum (marsupial)

    Thick-tailed opossum, (genus Lutreolina), any of three species of minklike, aggressive, and mainly carnivorous South American marsupials (family Didelphidae, subfamily Didelphinae) adapted to live along rivers and streams in periodically flooded grassland habitats. One species (Lutreolina turneri)

  • lutrine possum (marsupial)

    Thick-tailed opossum, (genus Lutreolina), any of three species of minklike, aggressive, and mainly carnivorous South American marsupials (family Didelphidae, subfamily Didelphinae) adapted to live along rivers and streams in periodically flooded grassland habitats. One species (Lutreolina turneri)

  • Lutrochidae (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Lutrochidae (travertine beetles) 1 genus (Lutrochus); found near streams; distribution limited to New World. Family Psephenidae (water-penny beetles) Larvae flat, almost circular; a few species, mostly in India, North America. Family

  • Lutrogale perspicillata (mammal)

    otter: Conservation and classification: Lutrogale (smooth-coated otter) 1 species found in Southern Asia. Genus Pteronura (giant otter) 1 species found in South America. Assorted Referencesclassification

  • Luts’k (Ukraine)

    Lutsk, city, northwestern Ukraine, on a defensive site at a bend in the Styr River. It was a tribal settlement, perhaps of the Luchanians, as early as the 10th century. The first known record of the settlement dates to 1085. Lutsk later became a part of the principality of Galicia-Volhynia and

  • Lutsenko, Yuri (Ukrainian government official)

    Ukraine: The Yanukovych presidency: …February 2012 Tymoshenko’s interior minister, Yuri Lutsenko, also was convicted of abuse of power and sentenced to four years in prison. Many observers believed both trials were politically motivated. When Ukraine cohosted the UEFA European Championship football (soccer) tournament in summer 2012, a number of EU countries registered their concern…

  • Lutsk (Ukraine)

    Lutsk, city, northwestern Ukraine, on a defensive site at a bend in the Styr River. It was a tribal settlement, perhaps of the Luchanians, as early as the 10th century. The first known record of the settlement dates to 1085. Lutsk later became a part of the principality of Galicia-Volhynia and

  • Luttelton, Sir Thomas (British jurist)

    Sir Thomas Littleton, jurist, author of Littleton on Tenures (or Treatise on Tenures), the first important English legal text neither written in Latin nor significantly influenced by Roman (civil) law. An edition (1481 or 1482?) by John Lettou and William de Machlinia was doubtless the first book

  • Lutter, Battle of (European history)

    history of Europe: The triumph of the Catholics, 1619–29: …they were routed at the Battle of Lutter (Aug. 26, 1626). The joint armies of Tilly and Wallenstein pursued the defeated forces: first they occupied the lands of North German rulers who had declared support for the invasion, then they conquered the Danish mainland itself. Christian made peace in 1629,…

  • Lutterell, John (English religious leader)

    William of Ockham: Treatise to John XXII: Ockham met John Lutterell again at Avignon; in a treatise addressed to Pope John XXII, the former chancellor of Oxford denounced Ockham’s teaching on the Sentences, extracting from it 56 propositions that he showed to be in serious error. Lutterell then became a member of a committee…

  • Lutterworth (England, United Kingdom)

    Harborough: The district contains two towns: Lutterworth, with its medieval church where the reformer John Wycliffe was parish priest in the 14th century, and Market Harborough. The latter is a busy market town with some small industries and good rail and road links with Leicester and London. It has a fine…

  • Lüttich (Belgium)

    Liège, city, Walloon Region, eastern Belgium, on the Meuse River at its confluence with the Ourthe. (The grave accent in Liège was officially approved over the acute in 1946.) The site was inhabited in prehistoric times and was known to the Romans as Leodium. A chapel was built there to honour St.

  • Lüttich, Operation (1944, WW II)

    Normandy Invasion: The German counterattack and the Falaise pocket: …westward, he issued orders for Operation Lüttich, designed to drive behind the point of the American spearhead and reach the sea at Avranches. However, Ultra interceptions of German cipher traffic alerted the Americans to the danger, and, when Lüttich opened on August 7, heavy antitank defenses were in place. The…

  • Luttrell, Henry (English poet)

    Henry Luttrell, English poet of light verse and London society wit. Luttrell was an illegitimate son of Henry Lawes Luttrell, 2nd earl of Carhampton, who in 1798 used his influence in securing his son a seat in the Irish Parliament and a post in the Irish government, which the young Luttrell

  • Luttrell, Joyce Reba (American songwriter and singer)

    Dottie Rambo, (Joyce Reba Luttrell), American songwriter and singer (born March 2, 1934, Madisonville, Ky.—died May 11, 2008, Mount Vernon, Mo.), wrote more than 2,500 songs, many of which became gospel standards, including “I Go to the Rock,” “Stand by the River” (2003; a megahit sung with Dolly

  • Lüttwitz, Walther von (German general)

    Weimar Republic: Political disturbances at home: Walther von Lüttwitz, who commanded the troops in the Berlin area, and Wolfgang Kapp, an East Prussian official. With the help of the Ehrhardt Brigade, a Freikorps formation, they assumed power in Berlin for a few days. However, the Kapp Putsch failed to receive the…

  • Lutuli, Albert John (South African leader)

    Albert John Luthuli, Zulu chief, teacher and religious leader, and president of the African National Congress (1952–60) in South Africa. He was the first African to be awarded a Nobel Prize for Peace (1960), in recognition of his nonviolent struggle against racial discrimination. Albert John Mvumbi

  • Lutycy (people)

    Polab: …principalities, the Obodrites and the Lutycy, or Wilcy. The many Lutycy tribes, of which the Ratarowie and Stodoranie (Hawolanie) were the most important, were subdued by Lothar of Saxony and Albert the Bear of Brandenburg in the 12th century. The other Polab groups were also subjugated by the Germans in…

  • Lutyens, Sir Edwin (British architect)

    Sir Edwin Lutyens, English architect noted for his versatility and range of invention along traditional lines. He is known especially for his planning of New Delhi and his design of the Viceroy’s House there. After studying at the Royal College of Art, London, he was articled in 1887 to a firm of

  • Lutyens, Sir Edwin Landseer (British architect)

    Sir Edwin Lutyens, English architect noted for his versatility and range of invention along traditional lines. He is known especially for his planning of New Delhi and his design of the Viceroy’s House there. After studying at the Royal College of Art, London, he was articled in 1887 to a firm of

  • Lutz, Alois (Austrian skater)

    figure skating: Pioneers of the sport: Paulsen, Ulrich Salchow, and Alois Lutz. Each man created a jump that is now named after him. Paulsen, a Norwegian equally expert in figure and speed skating, introduced his jump in Vienna in 1882 at what is generally regarded as the first international championship. The “axel” was later perfected…

  • Lützelburger, Hans (German engraver)

    dance of death: …were engraved by the German Hans Lützelburger and published at Lyon in 1538. Holbein’s procession is divided into separate scenes depicting the skeletal figure of death surprising his victims in the midst of their daily life. Apart from a few isolated mural paintings in northern Italy, the theme did not…

  • Lützen, Battle of (European history [1632])

    Battle of Lützen, (November 16 [November 6, Old Style], 1632), military engagement of the Thirty Years’ War in which Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden lost his life; it was fought by the Swedes to help their North German allies against the forces of the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II. Having received

  • Lutzomyia (insect genus)

    Carrión disease: …sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia, which propagate in the Andes Mountains in parts of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Oyora fever develops between 3 and 12 weeks of disease transmission. The disease responds well to certain antibiotics. Control measures are directed principally at the insect carrier, with the use of…

  • Lützow (ship)

    Battle of Jutland: The clash of fleets: …3:48 pm Hipper’s flagship, the Lützow, opened fire, which was promptly returned, but during the next 20 minutes the British line suffered severely: the Lion, the Princess Royal, and the Tiger were hit repeatedly, and the Indefatigable, caught by two salvoes from the Von der Tann, capsized and sank. The…

  • Lützow, Adolf, Freiherr von (Prussian general)

    Adolf, baron von Lützow, Prussian major general and a famous, though largely ineffectual, guerrilla leader during the Napoleonic Wars of 1813–15. Lützow entered the Prussian Army in 1795 and was present at the decisive defeat of the Prussian forces by the French at Auerst?dt (1806). He retired in

  • Lützow, Elisa von (wife of Lützow)

    Karl Leberecht Immermann: …he fell in love with Elisa von Lützow, the wife of the Prussian general Adolf, Freiherr von Lützow. Their passionate love affair ended 14 years after the Lützow divorce (1825) because Elisa unwaveringly refused to enter upon a second marriage. At the beginning of 1824, Immermann became judge in the…

  • Lützowsche Freikorps (Prussian army corp)

    Adolf, baron von Lützow: …mounted free corps (called the Lützowsche Freikorps), composed mainly of non-Prussian volunteers, to operate behind the French lines. The formation eventually numbered about 3,000 and became popularly known as the Schwarze Schar (“Black Band”) after its uniform, which was a symbol of mourning for enslaved Germany. The armistice of June…

  • Luu cau huyet le tan thu (work by Phan Boi Chau)

    Phan Boi Chau: In 1903 he wrote Luu cau huyet le tan thu (“Ryukyu’s Bitter Tears”), an allegory equating Japan’s bitterness at the loss of the Ryukyu Islands with the Vietnamese loss of independence. With fellow revolutionaries he formed the Duy Tan Hoi (“Reformation Society”; see Duy Tan) in 1904 and secured…

  • Luu, Jane (American astronomer)

    comet: The modern era: …Jewitt and Vietnamese American astronomer Jane Luu found an object well beyond Neptune in an orbit with a semimajor axis of 43.9 AU, an eccentricity of only 0.0678, and an inclination of only 2.19°. The object, officially designated (15760) 1992 QB1, has a diameter of about 200 km (120 miles).…

  • Luuanda (work by Vieira)

    José Luandino Vieira: …early collection of short stories, Luuanda (1963). The book, which received a Portuguese writers’ literary award in 1965, was banned until the overthrow of the colonial government in 1974. Although the stories are not overtly political, their realism makes clear the oppressiveness of Portuguese occupation. Many of Vieira’s stories follow…

  • Luvale (people)

    Luvale, Bantu-speaking people of northwestern Zambia and southeastern Angola. In terms of history, language, material culture, and religion, the Luvale are closely related to the Lunda and Ndembu to the northeast, who extend northward into southern Congo (Kinshasa). They are also culturally similar

  • luvar (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Luvaridae (luvar) 1 species (Luvarus imperialis); rare; resembles a dolphinfish (family Coryphaenidae) in its very high forehead and its eye placed low almost on level with its mouth; mouth small, toothless; body deep, laterally compressed; a fleshy keel on each side of caudal peduncle; pelagic in…

  • Luvarus imperialis (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Luvaridae (luvar) 1 species (Luvarus imperialis); rare; resembles a dolphinfish (family Coryphaenidae) in its very high forehead and its eye placed low almost on level with its mouth; mouth small, toothless; body deep, laterally compressed; a fleshy keel on each side of caudal peduncle; pelagic in…

  • Luvian language

    Luwian language, one of several ancient extinct Anatolian languages. The language is preserved in two closely related but distinct forms, one using cuneiform script and the other using hieroglyphic writing. Luwian influence on the vocabulary of the Hittite language began before the earliest

  • Luvigana (national capital, Slovenia)

    Ljubljana, capital city and economic, political, and cultural centre of Slovenia, located on the Ljubljanica River. The city lies in central Slovenia in a natural depression surrounded by high peaks of the Julian Alps. A walled Roman encampment was built there in the mid-1st century bce by Roman

  • Luvisol (FAO soil group)

    Luvisol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The mixed mineralogy, high nutrient content, and good drainage of these soils make them suitable for a wide range of agriculture, from grains to orchards to vineyards. Luvisols form on

  • Luvua River (river, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Luvua River, tributary of the Lualaba River in southeastern Congo (Kinshasa). It issues from the northern end of Lake Mweru, on the Congo-Zambia border, and flows about 220 miles (350 km) northwest past Kiambi to its confluence with the Lualaba River opposite Ankoro. The river is navigable by

  • Luwian (ancient Anatolian people)

    Luwian, member of an extinct people of ancient Anatolia. The Luwians were related to the Hittites and were the dominant group in the Late Hittite culture. Their language is known from cuneiform texts found at the Hittite capital, Bo?azk?y. (See Luwian language.) Luwiya is mentioned as a foreign

  • Luwian language

    Luwian language, one of several ancient extinct Anatolian languages. The language is preserved in two closely related but distinct forms, one using cuneiform script and the other using hieroglyphic writing. Luwian influence on the vocabulary of the Hittite language began before the earliest

  • Luwian religion

    Anatolian religion: Religions of successor states: …in about 1180 bc, the Luwians moved eastward and southward into Cappadocia, Cilicia, and North Syria. Here they formed a number of small successor kingdoms. Shortly afterward the Phrygians crossed the Bosporus from Thrace and occupied the centre of the Anatolian plateau, cutting off in the extreme southwest a remnant…

  • Lux (American musician)

    Meade Lewis, American musician, one of the leading exponents of boogie-woogie. Lewis’s first instrument was the violin, but by the late 1920s he was playing piano in Chicago nightclubs. His most famous recording, “Honky Tonk Train Blues,” was one of the most vibrant and exhilarating of all

  • lux (unit of energy measurement)

    Lux, unit of illumination (see luminous intensity) in the International System of Units (SI). One lux (Latin for “light”) is the amount of illumination provided when one lumen is evenly distributed over an area of one square metre. This is also equivalent to the illumination that would exist on a

  • Lux Mundi: A Series of Studies in the Religion of the Incarnation (edited by Gore)

    Charles Gore: This conviction found expression in Lux Mundi: A Series of Studies in the Religion of the Incarnation (1889), which Gore edited and which became a major text of liberal Anglo-Catholicism. He also wrote The Incarnation of the Son of God (1891), Reconstruction of Belief, 3 vol. (1921–24), Christ and Society…

  • Lux Radio Theatre, The (radio program)

    radio: Film-based anthology shows: …intensified with the premiere of The Lux Radio Theatre in 1934. By 1936 the program was hosted by Paramount’s famous director-producer Cecil B. DeMille. From this point on, almost all the stories used on Lux were drawn from movies, and most of the shows employed the stars who had appeared…

  • Luxembourg (national capital, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg, city, capital of Luxembourg, located in the south-central part of the country. Luxembourg city is situated on a sandstone plateau into which the Alzette River and its tributary, the Petrusse, have cut deep winding ravines. Within a loop of the Alzette, a rocky promontory called the Bock

  • Luxembourg (province, Belgium)

    Belgium: Walloon Brabant, and Luxembourg), and Flemings, a Flemish- (Dutch-) speaking people (more than one-half of the total population), who are concentrated in the five northern and northeastern provinces (West Flanders, East Flanders [West-Vlaanderen, Oost-Vlaanderen],

  • Luxembourg

    Luxembourg, country in northwestern Europe. One of the world’s smallest countries, it is bordered by Belgium on the west and north, France on the south, and Germany on the northeast and east. Luxembourg has come under the control of many states and ruling houses in its long history, but it has been

  • Luxembourg Castle (castle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg: Over a 400-year period, Luxembourg Castle was repeatedly attacked and rebuilt—by the Spaniards, Austrians, French, and Dutch, successively—to become the strongest fortress in Europe after Gibraltar. One such reinforcement was undertaken by the French military engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, who redesigned the city’s defensive fortifications after having…

  • Luxembourg Commission (French history)

    France: The Second Republic, 1848–52: …and social council called the Luxembourg Commission was created to study programs of social reform; Blanc was named its president. The principle of universal manhood suffrage was proclaimed—a return to the precedent of 1792 that increased the electorate at a stroke from 200,000 to 9,000,000. In matters of foreign policy,…

  • Luxembourg Gardens (park, Paris, France)

    Paris: Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Latin Quarter: …the boulevard Saint-Michel skirts the Luxembourg Gardens, the remains of the park of Marie de Médicis’ Luxembourg Palace (1616–21), which now houses the French Senate. The gardens are planted with chestnuts and are enhanced with a pond for toy sailboats, a marionette theatre, and statuary.

  • Luxembourg National Museum (museum, Luxembourg, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg National Museum, national museum of Luxembourg, located in the historic centre of Luxembourg city at the Fish Market (Marché-aux-Poissons). It is housed in an extensive late Gothic and Renaissance mansion. The museum has collections of Gallo-Roman art, coins, medieval sculpture, armour,

  • Luxembourg question (European history [1867])

    German Empire: Tension with France (1867–70): …when Napoleon III raised the question of Luxembourg. Luxembourg had been a member of the old confederation, and a Prussian garrison still remained there. Napoleon III proposed to buy the grand duchy from its ruler, the king of the Netherlands. The response was an outcry in Germany and questions in…

  • Luxembourg, Chateau de (castle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg: Over a 400-year period, Luxembourg Castle was repeatedly attacked and rebuilt—by the Spaniards, Austrians, French, and Dutch, successively—to become the strongest fortress in Europe after Gibraltar. One such reinforcement was undertaken by the French military engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, who redesigned the city’s defensive fortifications after having…

  • Luxembourg, flag of

    horizontally striped red-white-blue national flag. The flag typically has a width-to-length ratio of 3 to 5, but the ratio 1 to 2 is also acceptable.As a landlocked nation, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg had little need for a national flag until the middle of the 19th century. Its heraldic banner,

  • Luxembourg, Fran?ois-Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de (French general)

    Fran?ois-Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duke de Luxembourg, one of King Louis XIV’s most successful generals in the Dutch War (1672–78) and the War of the Grand Alliance (1689–97). The posthumous son of Fran?ois de Montmorency-Bouteville, he was reared by a distant relative, Charlotte de

  • Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of

    Luxembourg, country in northwestern Europe. One of the world’s smallest countries, it is bordered by Belgium on the west and north, France on the south, and Germany on the northeast and east. Luxembourg has come under the control of many states and ruling houses in its long history, but it has been

  • Luxembourg, Grand-Duché de

    Luxembourg, country in northwestern Europe. One of the world’s smallest countries, it is bordered by Belgium on the west and north, France on the south, and Germany on the northeast and east. Luxembourg has come under the control of many states and ruling houses in its long history, but it has been

  • Luxembourg, history of

    Luxembourg: History: The earliest human remains found in present-day Luxembourg date from about 5140 bce, but little is known about the people who first populated the area. Two Belgic tribes, the Treveri and Mediomatrici, inhabited the country from about 450 bce until…

  • Luxembourg, House of (European dynasty)

    Czechoslovak history: The Luxembourg dynasty: After a four-year struggle for the throne, in 1310 the Bohemian magnates decided for John of Luxembourg, son of Henry VII, the Holy Roman emperor from 1312. John, who married Elizabeth (Eli?ka), the second daughter of Wenceslas II, was only 14 when he…

  • Luxembourg, Maréchal de (French aristocrat)

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Years of seclusion and exile: …under the protection of the Maréchal de Luxembourg. But even that highly placed friend could not save him in 1762 when his treatise émile; ou, de l’education (Emile; or, On Education), was published and scandalized the pious Jansenists of the French Parlements even as The Social Contract scandalized the Calvinists…

  • Luxembourg, Musée du (museum, Paris, France)

    museum of modern art: History: …owe their origins to the Musée du Luxembourg in Paris. Designated by Louis XVIII in 1818 as a venue for the collection and display of the work of living artists, the Musée du Luxembourg acted as a kind of testing ground for recent art to judge its worthiness for admission…

  • Luxembourgeois language

    Luxembourgish language, national language of Luxembourg. Luxembourgish is a Moselle-Franconian dialect of the West Middle German group. This old language has been enriched by many French words and phrases, and the resulting dialect is spoken by all classes of people in Luxembourg. The population of

  • Luxembourgian language

    Luxembourgish language, national language of Luxembourg. Luxembourgish is a Moselle-Franconian dialect of the West Middle German group. This old language has been enriched by many French words and phrases, and the resulting dialect is spoken by all classes of people in Luxembourg. The population of

  • Luxembourgish language

    Luxembourgish language, national language of Luxembourg. Luxembourgish is a Moselle-Franconian dialect of the West Middle German group. This old language has been enriched by many French words and phrases, and the resulting dialect is spoken by all classes of people in Luxembourg. The population of

  • Luxemburg, Grossherzogtum

    Luxembourg, country in northwestern Europe. One of the world’s smallest countries, it is bordered by Belgium on the west and north, France on the south, and Germany on the northeast and east. Luxembourg has come under the control of many states and ruling houses in its long history, but it has been

  • Luxemburg, Rosa (Polish-German revolutionary)

    Rosa Luxemburg, Polish-born German revolutionary and agitator who played a key role in the founding of the Polish Social Democratic Party and the Spartacus League, which grew into the Communist Party of Germany. As a political theoretician, Luxemburg developed a humanitarian theory of Marxism,

  • Luxemburgian language

    Luxembourgish language, national language of Luxembourg. Luxembourgish is a Moselle-Franconian dialect of the West Middle German group. This old language has been enriched by many French words and phrases, and the resulting dialect is spoken by all classes of people in Luxembourg. The population of

  • Luxeuil (France)

    Merovingian script: Luxeuil, in Burgundy, was a particularly important centre in the development of a Merovingian cursive style during the 7th and 8th centuries. The style of script that developed in northern France at the monastery of Corbie, a daughter house of Luxeuil, is especially noteworthy for…

  • Luxing (Chinese deity)

    Luxing, in Chinese mythology, one of three stellar gods known collectively as Fulushou. He was honoured as a deity who could make people happy through increased salaries or promotions that brought prosperity (lu). In life, Luxing was a scholar who bore the name Shi Fen. In the 2nd century bc he was

  • Luxing (Chinese scholar)

    Luxing: In life, Luxing was a scholar who bore the name Shi Fen. In the 2nd century bc he was a favourite of Emperor Jing and was made a high official at the royal court. His family prospered through imperial generosity. Perhaps because the Chinese have many gods…

  • Luxor (Egypt)

    Luxor, city and capital of Al-Uq?ur mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Upper Egypt. Luxor has given its name to the southern half of the ruins of the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes. Area governorate, 1,080 square miles (2,800 square km); city, 160 square miles (415 square km). Pop. (2017) governorate,

  • Luxor Obelisk (monument, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Triumphal Way: Louis-Philippe also had the Luxor Obelisk, a gift from Egypt, installed in the centre and flanked by two fountains. Later, the surrounding moat was filled in. King Louis XVI was decapitated on January 21, 1793, near the pedestal that now holds the statue of Brest. Four months later the…

  • Luxor, Temple of (monument, Luxor, Egypt)

    Luxor: The ancient ruins: Temple of Luxor consisted of a large peristyle court and a complex of halls and chambers beyond. In one hall is a granite shrine of Alexander the Great. The great peristyle forecourt is surrounded on three sides by a double row of graceful papyrus-cluster columns,…

  • luxury (society)

    Luxury, word that implies a relatively large consumption of wealth for nonessential pleasures. There is, however, no absolute definition of luxury, for the conception is relative to both time and person. It is a commonplace of history that the luxuries of one generation may become the necessities

  • luxury tax

    Luxury tax, excise levy on goods or services considered to be luxuries rather than necessities. Modern examples are taxes on jewelry and perfume. Luxury taxes may be levied with the intent of taxing the rich, as in the case of the late 18th- and early 19th-century British taxes on carriages and

  • Luyana (people)

    Lozi, a complex of about 25 peoples of about 6 cultural groups inhabiting western Zambia, the area formerly known as Barotseland in Zambia and speaking Benue-Congo languages of the Niger-Congo family. Formerly, the groups were all called Barotse as subjects of the paramount chief of the dominant

  • Luyia (people)

    Luhya, ethnolinguistic cluster of several acephalous, closely related Bantu-speaking peoples including the Bukusu, Tadjoni, Wanga, Marama, Tsotso, Tiriki, Nyala, Kabras, Hayo, Marachi, Holo, Maragoli, Dakho, Isukha, Kisa, Nyole, and Samia of Western Province, western Kenya. The term Luhya, which i

  • Luyken, Jan (Dutch poet and engraver)

    Jan Luyken, Dutch lithographer and poet whose work ranges from hedonistic love songs to introspective religious poetry. As a young man, Luyken published De duyste lier (1671; “German Lyric”), a volume of erotic poetry. He was married in 1672 and baptized in the Baptist church the following year.

  • Luynes, Charles d’Albert, duc de (French statesman)

    Charles d’Albert, duke de Luynes, French statesman who, from 1617 to 1621, dominated the government of young King Louis XIII. The son of Honoré d’Albert, Seigneur (lord) de Luynes, he became the king’s falconer in 1611. Since Louis was neglected and deprived of political influence by his mother,

  • Luz (ancient city, Palestine)

    Bethel, ancient city of Palestine, located just north of Jerusalem. Originally called Luz and in modern times Baytin, Bethel was important in Old Testament times and was frequently associated with Abraham and Jacob. Excavations, carried out by the American School of Oriental Research and the

  • Luz (eschatology)

    death: Judaism: …that of the “bone called Luz” (or Judenkn?chlein, as it was to be called by early German anatomists). In his Glossa magna in Pentateuchum (ad 210), Rabbi Oshaia had affirmed that there was a bone in the human body, just below the 18th vertebra, that never died. It could not…

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