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  • low velocity zone (geology)

    Asthenosphere, zone of Earth’s mantle lying beneath the lithosphere and believed to be much hotter and more fluid than the lithosphere. The asthenosphere extends from about 100 km (60 miles) to about 700 km (450 miles) below Earth’s surface. Heat from deep within Earth is thought to keep the

  • low vision aid (optics system)

    eye disease: Optical aids: …special lens systems known as low-vision aids. These devices provide a magnified image but reduce the visual field. Their main value is to enable a person to read normal print that would otherwise be difficult to read. They can be of use for distance, particularly when viewing conditions are relatively…

  • low vowel (linguistics)

    Tai languages: Phonological characteristics: …follows: level (using no diacritic), low (using a grave accent), falling (using a circumflex), high (using an acute accent), and rising (using a wedge, or ha?ek); for example, maa (with no diacritic) ‘to come,’ màak (with a grave accent) ‘areca nut,’ maak (with a circumflex) ‘much,’ máa (with an acute…

  • low water (physics)

    tidal power: Types: …differences between high tides and low tides by using a “barrage,” or type of dam, to block receding water during ebb periods. At low tide, water behind the barrage is released, and the water passes through a turbine that generates electricity.

  • low wing (aircraft)

    wing: Placed below the fuselage, low wings reduce the height of the undercarriage and simplify engine maintenance.

  • Low, Frank James (American astronomer)

    Frank James Low, American astronomer and physicist (born Nov. 23, 1933, Mobile, Ala.—died June 11, 2009, Tucson, Ariz.), helped lead the development of infrared astronomy. In 1961, while working at Texas Instruments, he devised an instrument that detected and measured infrared, or heat, radiation

  • Low, George (Austrian-born American aerospace engineer)

    George Low, Austrian-born American aerospace engineer and manager who made major contributions to the U.S. program of human spaceflight. Throughout his career, Low was noted for his attention to detail, his commitment to technical excellence, and his leadership. Low’s family emigrated to the United

  • Low, George Michael (Austrian-born American aerospace engineer)

    George Low, Austrian-born American aerospace engineer and manager who made major contributions to the U.S. program of human spaceflight. Throughout his career, Low was noted for his attention to detail, his commitment to technical excellence, and his leadership. Low’s family emigrated to the United

  • Low, George Wilhelm (Austrian-born American aerospace engineer)

    George Low, Austrian-born American aerospace engineer and manager who made major contributions to the U.S. program of human spaceflight. Throughout his career, Low was noted for his attention to detail, his commitment to technical excellence, and his leadership. Low’s family emigrated to the United

  • Low, Juliette Gordon (American leader)

    Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Juliette Gordon was born into a prominent Georgia family. She was educated at private schools in Virginia and New York City and for some years thereafter traveled widely. She married William M. Low, a fellow native of

  • Low, Penelope Margaret (British author)

    Penelope Lively, British writer of well-plotted novels and short stories that stress the significance of memory and historical continuity. After spending her childhood in Egypt, Lively was sent to London at the age of 12 when her parents were divorced. She graduated from St. Anne’s College, Oxford,

  • Low, Seth (American educator)

    Seth Low, American municipal reformer, university builder, and philanthropist who, during his tenure as president of Columbia College (renamed Columbia University in 1896), transformed it from a small college on a crowded city block into a large university with an impressive campus on Morningside

  • Low, Sir David Alexander Cecil (British caricaturist)

    Sir David Low, New Zealand-born British journalist, one of the great modern political cartoonists and caricaturists. A self-taught artist, Low was already contributing cartoons to a local weekly paper at the age of 11. At 17 he set out as a full-time free-lance artist, combining this work from 1911

  • Low, Sir Hugh (British official)

    Sir Hugh Low, first successful British administrator in the Malay Peninsula, whose methods became models for subsequent British colonial operations in Malaya. Before going to the Malay Peninsula, Low had spent an uneventful 30 years as a colonial civil servant on the small island of Labuan, a crown

  • low-alkali cement (cement)

    cement: Types of portland cement: Low-alkali cements are portland cements with a total content of alkalies not above 0.6 percent. These are used in concrete made with certain types of aggregates that contain a form of silica that reacts with alkalies to cause an expansion that can disrupt a concrete.

  • low-bypass turbofan (engine)

    jet engine: Low-bypass turbofans and turbojets: In the next higher regime of aircraft flight speed, the low supersonic range from Mach numbers above 1 up to 2 or 3, one finds the application of the simple turbojet (with no bypass stream) and the low-bypass turbofan engine (with…

  • low-centre polygon (ice wedge)

    permafrost: Polygonal ground: …the centre and are called low-centre polygons or raised-edge polygons and may contain a pond in the centre. Low-centre, or raised-edge, polygons indicate that ice wedges are actually growing and that the sediments are being actively upturned. If erosion, deposition, or thawing is more prevalent than the up-pushing of the…

  • low-cristobalite (mineral)

    cristobalite: Cristobalite has two modifications: low-cristobalite, which occurs naturally up to 268° C (514° F) but is not stable; and high-cristobalite, which occurs above 268° C but is only stable above 1,470° C. Natural low-cristobalite usually occurs in sub-microcrystalline masses (see opal) or fibrous to columnar spherulites (see lussatite) in…

  • low-density lipoprotein (physiology)

    atherosclerosis: …more and more fatty materials—primarily low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), protein-lipid complexes that serve as a vehicle for delivering cholesterol to the body—immune cells called macrophages are drawn to the site to scavenge the materials. When filled with lipids the macrophages become known as “foam cells,” which later die and accumulate in…

  • low-density polyethylene (chemical compound)

    polyethylene: Low-density polyethylene: LDPE is prepared from gaseous ethylene under very high pressures (up to about 350 megapascals, or 50,000 pounds per square inch) and high temperatures (up to about 350 °C [660 °F]) in the presence of oxide initiators. These processes yield a polymer structure…

  • low-energy electron diffraction (physics)

    electron diffraction: …techniques, such as LEEDX (low-energy electron diffraction), depend on these diffraction patterns to examine solids, liquids, and gases.

  • low-fat milk

    milk: …cream separator by centrifugation, yielding low-fat milk and skim milk. Low-fat milk contains 1–2 percent fat, while skim milk contains less than 0.5 percent fat.

  • low-heat portland cement (cement)

    cement: Types of portland cement: (Type II), high-early-strength (Type III), low-heat (Type IV), and sulfate-resistant (Type V). In other countries Type II is omitted, and Type III is called rapid-hardening. Type V is known in some European countries as Ferrari cement.

  • low-income developing country (economics)

    economic development: …by the World Bank: “low-income developing countries” in 1985 were defined as those with per capita incomes below $400; “middle-income developing countries” were defined as those with per capita incomes between $400 and $4,000. To be sure, countries with the same per capita income may not otherwise resemble one…

  • low-income housing

    Low-income housing, housing for individuals or families with low incomes. Although housing has been recognized as a human right under a number of international conventions, access to housing for low-income people is often problematic. Various state, private, and nonprofit-sector initiatives have

  • low-intensity conflict

    the Troubles: …textbook categorization as a “low-intensity conflict.” Some 3,600 people were killed and more than 30,000 more were wounded before a peaceful solution, which involved the governments of both the United Kingdom and Ireland, was effectively reached in 1998, leading to a power-sharing arrangement in the Northern Ireland Assembly at…

  • low-involvement purchase (business)

    marketing: Low-involvement purchases: There are two types of low-involvement purchases. Habitual buying behaviour occurs when involvement is low and differences between brands are small. Consumers in this case usually do not form a strong attitude toward a brand but select it because it is familiar. In…

  • low-level waste (radioactive waste)

    nuclear ceramics: Low-level waste: ) Over the years low-level wastes (LLW) have accumulated from the processing of nuclear fuels and wastes. These consist of aqueous solutions and sludges, which customarily have been stored in steel-lined underground tanks. However, concerns over actual and potential leaks from these tanks leading…

  • low-lift pump (civil engineering)

    water supply system: Pumps: …nearby treatment plant are called low-lift pumps. These move large volumes of water at relatively low discharge pressures. Pumps that discharge treated water into arterial mains are called high-lift pumps. These operate under higher pressures. Pumps that increase the pressure within the distribution system or raise water into an elevated…

  • low-light surveillance device (police science)

    warning system: The visible region: …panel; this version is called low-light-level television.

  • low-pass filter (acoustics)

    sound: Acoustic filtration: …area will function as a low-pass filter, reflecting high frequencies; an opening or series of openings will function as a high-pass filter, removing low frequencies. Some automobile mufflers make use of this type of filter.

  • low-power FM (broadcasting)

    pirate radio: From piracy to microbroadcasting: Congress to ease restrictions on low-power FM (LPFM) broadcasts. By the early 21st century those efforts had guided some 800 microbroadcasters through the transition from pirate to fully licensed radio station, and the Local Community Radio Act, passed by Congress in 2010, made it easier for noncommercial LPFM broadcasters to…

  • low-pressure sodium-vapour lamp (instrument)

    sodium-vapour lamp: A low-pressure sodium-vapour (LPS) lamp contains an inner discharge tube made of borosilicate glass that is fitted with metal electrodes and filled with neon and argon gas and a little metallic sodium. When current passes between the electrodes, it ionizes the neon and argon, giving a…

  • low-pressure suction table (instrument)

    art conservation and restoration: Paintings on canvas: …been introduced by using a low-pressure suction table, from which the water is removed through spaced perforations in the table surface with a powerful downdraft of air. Pressure-sensitive adhesives have also been introduced as lining adhesives but have not been widely adopted. Although all these methods are currently in use,…

  • low-self control (sociology)

    criminology: Sociological theories: The theory of low self-control retains the focus on restraints from engaging in crime but argues that those restraints are primarily internal. People with low self-control, according to this theory, are impulsive and insensitive to others, tend to engage in physical rather than mental activities and to take…

  • low-sodium diet

    therapeutics: Hypertension: …with hypertension benefit from a low-sodium diet (reduced sodium chloride [table salt] intake) and physicians often recommend this as part of the initial therapy for hypertension. If alterations in diet fail to counteract the hypertension, drugs such as diuretics may be prescribed along with potassium supplements (because most diuretics may…

  • low-speed engine (diesel engine)

    ship: Diesel: The low-speed engine is characterized by rated speeds in the range of 80–120 revolutions per minute. In all cases it is a two-stroke engine supercharged by exhaust-gas turbochargers. Whereas medium-speed engines are widely employed ashore, the low-speed engine is almost exclusively a marine engine that is…

  • low-speed synchronous generator (machine)

    electric generator: Waterwheel generators: The construction of low-speed synchronous generators is substantially different from that of high-speed units. To produce power at 60 hertz, the number of rotor poles is in the range of 10 to 120 for the above speed range. For these machines the rotor poles are of the projecting,…

  • low-temperature colour (pottery painting)

    Chinese pottery: Song dynasty: The earliest known example of overglaze painting in the history of Chinese pottery bears a date equivalent to 1201. The technique was more widely used for the decoration of Cizhou wares in the 14th century. In both the variety and the vigour of their forms and decoration, Cizhou stonewares present…

  • low-temperature phenomenon (physics)

    Low-temperature phenomena, the behaviour of matter at temperatures close to absolute zero ?273.15 °C (?459.67 °F). At such temperatures the thermal, electric, and magnetic properties of many substances undergo great change, and, indeed, the behaviour of matter may seem strange when compared with

  • low-temperature polymer rubber (synthetic)

    Carl Shipp Marvel: …research, he developed the “cold rubber” process for American industry. During the late 1950s, in his syntheses of high-temperature-resistant synthetic materials for the U.S. space program, he developed the technique of cyclopolymerization. In one of the most important advances in the chemistry of high-temperature polymers during the 1960s, Marvel…

  • low-tridymite (mineral)

    tridymite: …three modifications: high-tridymite, middle-tridymite, and low-tridymite. Tridymite forms thin hexagonal plates that are generally twinned, often in groups of three; its name alludes to this habit. It commonly occurs in igneous rocks, more abundantly than cristobalite, as in the trachytes of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany; northern Italy; and in the Massif Central,…

  • low-volume spraying (agriculture)

    origins of agriculture: Integrated control: Low-volume spraying was invented about 1950, particularly for the application of herbicides, in which 10 or 20 gallons of water, transformed into fine drops, would carry the pesticide. Ultralow-volume spraying has also been introduced; four ounces (about 110 grams) of the active ingredient itself (usually…

  • low-warp loom (weaving)

    tapestry: Techniques: …haute-lisse in French) or a horizontal loom (low-warp, or basse-lisse). In early high-warp looms the warps were attached to a beam at the top, and groups of warp threads were weighted at the bottom. The weft was beaten up (i.e., pushed) toward the top as the weaving progressed. High-warp looms…

  • lowan (bird)

    megapode: …turkeys (not true turkeys); and mallee fowl, or lowan (Leipoa ocellata), which frequent the mallee, or scrub, vegetation of southern interior Australia. The mallee fowl, the best known of the group, is 65 cm (25.5 inches) long and has white-spotted, light brown plumage. The male builds a mound of decaying…

  • lowboy (furniture)

    Lowboy, antiquarian term for a small dressing table with four or six legs and two or three drawers, resembling in some ways the lower portion of a highboy (q.v.). Lowboy and highboy were often made to match. In the versions made until about 1750, the legs are joined by stretchers, but after that

  • Lowden, Frank Orren (American politician)

    Frank Orren Lowden, American lawyer and politician, governor of Illinois (1917–21), and a leading contender for the Republican presidential nomination in 1920 and 1928. Lowden attended law school in Chicago and within a few years of graduating had become a prominent and prosperous corporate

  • Lowe, Alexander Stewart (American mountaineer)

    Alexander Stewart Lowe, American mountaineer who combined agility with strength and stamina to climb some of the world’s most formidable and highest rock and ice faces; some of his most impressive feats included two ascents of Mt. Everest, the establishment of new routes on Kwangde and Kusum

  • Lowe, Chris (British musician)

    Pet Shop Boys: …Tyne and Wear, England) and Chris Lowe (b. October 4, 1959, Blackpool, Lancashire).

  • Lowe, Doug (British athlete)

    Doug Lowe, English middle-distance runner who won gold medals in the 800-metre races at the 1924 Olympic Games in Paris and at the 1928 Games in Amsterdam. Lowe was a champion runner at Highgate School and also at the University of Cambridge, where he studied law. He came in fourth in the

  • Lowe, Douglas Gordon Arthur (British athlete)

    Doug Lowe, English middle-distance runner who won gold medals in the 800-metre races at the 1924 Olympic Games in Paris and at the 1928 Games in Amsterdam. Lowe was a champion runner at Highgate School and also at the University of Cambridge, where he studied law. He came in fourth in the

  • Lowe, Edmund (American actor)

    Raoul Walsh: Early work: …I with Victor McLaglen and Edmund Lowe as marines Flagg and Quirt. (One of his most-acclaimed silents, The Honor System [1917], about a man falsely imprisoned under brutal conditions, was at the time considered by some, including director John Ford, to be even better than The Birth of a Nation.…

  • Lowe, Edward (American entrepreneur)

    Edward Lowe, U.S. entrepreneur and marketer of the absorbent clay granules that he sold under the name Kitty Litter, an invention that made him a multimillionaire (b. 1920--d. Oct. 4,

  • Lowe, Florence (American aviator)

    Pancho Barnes, aviator and movie stunt pilot, one of the first American women to establish a reputation and a business in the field of aviation. Florence Lowe was reared in an atmosphere of wealth and privilege on an estate in San Marino, California. As the granddaughter of Thaddeus Lowe, who had

  • Lowe, George (New Zealand mountaineer)

    (Wallace) George Lowe, New Zealand mountaineer (born Jan. 15, 1924, Hastings, N.Z.—died March 20, 2013, Ripley, Derbyshire, Eng.), was a lifelong friend of Sir Edmund Hillary and the last surviving climber from the 1953 British expedition on which Hillary and Tibetan mountaineer Tenzing Norgay, on

  • Lowe, Jacques (American photographer)

    Jacques Lowe, German-born American photographer (born Jan. 24, 1930, Cologne, Ger.—died May 12, 2001, New York, N.Y.), served as Pres. John F. Kennedy’s campaign and personal photographer. Lowe took more than 40,000 photographs of Kennedy and his family, many of them touching candid shots that h

  • Lowe, Nick (British musician)

    Elvis Costello: He befriended Nick Lowe, bassist for the pub rock band Brinsley Schwarz, who brought him to the attention of Jake Riviera, one of the heads of the independent label Stiff Records. In 1977 Lowe produced Costello’s first album, My Aim Is True. A critical and commercial success,…

  • Lowe, Robert, Viscount Sherbrooke (British politician)

    Robert Lowe, Viscount Sherbrooke, British Liberal Party politician whose effective opposition to the Liberals’ electoral Reform Bill of 1866 made it possible for the Conservatives to sponsor and take credit for the Reform Act of 1867. Despite his leadership of the renegade Liberals known as the

  • Lowe, Sir Hudson (British general)

    Sir Hudson Lowe, British general, governor of St. Helena when Napoleon I was held captive there; he was widely criticized for his unbending treatment of the former emperor. Lowe held several important commands in the war with France from 1793. He was knighted in 1814. He arrived on the island of

  • Lowe, Thaddeus S. C. (American balloonist)

    Balloon Corps: Both Thaddeus S.C. Lowe of New Hampshire and John La Mountain of New York combined entertainment with long-distance test flights. Both men also employed balloons as aerial observation platforms for the Union army.

  • Lowe, Wallace George (New Zealand mountaineer)

    (Wallace) George Lowe, New Zealand mountaineer (born Jan. 15, 1924, Hastings, N.Z.—died March 20, 2013, Ripley, Derbyshire, Eng.), was a lifelong friend of Sir Edmund Hillary and the last surviving climber from the 1953 British expedition on which Hillary and Tibetan mountaineer Tenzing Norgay, on

  • Lowe, William Cleland (American businessman)

    William Cleland Lowe, American businessman (born Jan. 15, 1941, Easton, Pa.—died Oct. 19, 2013, Lake Forest, Ill.), oversaw the development of the IBM Personal Computer (PC), a milestone in the evolution of the home computer. Lowe obtained a degree in physics (1962) from Lafayette College in Easton

  • Lowell (Massachusetts, United States)

    Lowell, city, Middlesex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies at the junction of the Concord and Merrimack rivers, 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Boston. It was the country’s first planned industrial town. The site was originally settled in 1653 as a farming community known as East

  • Lowell Offering (American magazine)

    Harriet Farley: …for her stewardship of the Lowell Offering, a literary magazine published by women at the textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts.

  • Lowell, A. Lawrence (American educator)

    A. Lawrence Lowell, American lawyer and educator, president of Harvard University from 1909 to 1933, who led the university in significant academic growth. A member of a prominent Boston family, Lowell was the brother of the astronomer Percival Lowell and of the poet Amy Lowell. He graduated from

  • Lowell, Abbott Lawrence (American educator)

    A. Lawrence Lowell, American lawyer and educator, president of Harvard University from 1909 to 1933, who led the university in significant academic growth. A member of a prominent Boston family, Lowell was the brother of the astronomer Percival Lowell and of the poet Amy Lowell. He graduated from

  • Lowell, Amy (American poet)

    Amy Lowell, American critic, lecturer, and a leading poet of the Imagist school. Lowell came from a prominent Massachusetts family (her brothers were Abbott Lawrence Lowell, later president of Harvard, and astronomer Percival Lowell). She was educated in private schools and by her mother, and until

  • Lowell, Francis Cabot (American industrialist)

    Francis Cabot Lowell, American businessman, a member of the gifted Lowell family of Massachusetts and the principal founder of what is said to have been the world’s first textile mill in which were performed all operations converting raw cotton into finished cloth. While visiting the British Isles

  • Lowell, James Russell (American poet and critic)

    James Russell Lowell, American poet, critic, essayist, editor, and diplomat whose major significance probably lies in the interest in literature he helped develop in the United States. He was a highly influential man of letters in his day, but his reputation declined in the 20th century. A member

  • Lowell, Josephine Shaw (American social worker)

    Josephine Shaw Lowell, American charity worker and social reformer, an advocate of the doctrine that charity should not merely relieve suffering but that it should also rehabilitate the recipient. She was born to wealthy Bostonians who numbered among their friends such well-known figures as James

  • Lowell, Percival (American astronomer)

    Percival Lowell, American astronomer who predicted the existence of a planet beyond the orbit of Neptune and initiated the search that ended in the discovery of Pluto. A member of the distinguished Lowell family of Massachusetts (he was brother to A. Lawrence Lowell and Amy Lowell), he devoted

  • Lowell, Robert Traill Spence, Jr. (American poet)

    Robert Lowell, Jr., American poet noted for his complex, autobiographical poetry. Lowell grew up in Boston. James Russell Lowell was his great-granduncle, and Amy, Percival, and A. Lawrence Lowell were distant cousins. Although he turned away from his Puritan heritage—largely because he was

  • Lowell, Robert, Jr. (American poet)

    Robert Lowell, Jr., American poet noted for his complex, autobiographical poetry. Lowell grew up in Boston. James Russell Lowell was his great-granduncle, and Amy, Percival, and A. Lawrence Lowell were distant cousins. Although he turned away from his Puritan heritage—largely because he was

  • Lowell, University of (university, Lowell, Massachusetts, United States)

    University of Massachusetts: …campus, previously known as the University of Lowell, was founded as two separate institutions—a teacher-training school and a textile school—in 1894–95. The Dartmouth campus, previously known as Southeastern Massachusetts University, was also founded as two separate institutions—both textile schools—in 1895. Both the Lowell and the Dartmouth campuses were incorporated into…

  • Lowen, John (English actor)

    John Lowin, English actor, a colleague of William Shakespeare. Lowin was the son of a carpenter. He worked as a goldsmith’s apprentice for eight years and then joined the Earl of Worcester’s Men as an actor in 1602. By 1603 he was a member of the King’s Men. He is known to have specialized in the

  • L?wenburg (hill, Germany)

    Siebengebirge: …the highest of the group; L?wenburg (1,493 feet); Lohrberg (1,427 feet); and Nonnenstromberg (1,101 feet). Quarries yield basalt for paving and for building (e.g., the Cologne and Limburg an der Lahn cathedrals). On the lower slopes behind K?nigswinter (King’s Vineyards) are some of the northernmost vineyards in Europe.

  • L?wenfinck, A. F. von (German potter)

    pottery: Faience, or tin-glazed ware: …flowers”) were introduced, perhaps by A.F. von L?wenfinck, about 1750, and inspired similar painting elsewhere. Figures by J.W. Lanz, who also worked in porcelain here and at Frankenthal, are to be seen. Much work was done in the fashionable Rococo style, including objects, such as clock cases and wall cisterns,…

  • L?wenheim, Leopold (German teacher)

    metalogic: The L?wenheim-Skolem theorem: …theorem (1915, 1920), named after Leopold L?wenheim, a German schoolteacher, and Skolem, which says that if a sentence (or a formal system) has any model, it has a countable or enumerable model (i.e., a model whose members can be matched with the positive integers). In the most direct method of…

  • L?wenheim–Skolem theorem (logic)

    metalogic: The L?wenheim-Skolem theorem: A finding closely related to the completeness theorem is the L?wenheim-Skolem theorem (1915, 1920), named after Leopold L?wenheim, a German schoolteacher, and Skolem, which says that if a sentence (or a formal system) has any model, it has a countable or enumerable model…

  • Lowenstein, Allard K. (American scholar, political activist, and diplomat)

    Allard K. Lowenstein, American scholar, political activist, and diplomat who was known for his unceasing fight against injustice in many forms, evidenced by his participation in such causes as antiapartheid, civil rights, and antiwar protests. A graduate of Yale Law School (1954), Lowenstein taught

  • Lowenstein, Allard Kenneth (American scholar, political activist, and diplomat)

    Allard K. Lowenstein, American scholar, political activist, and diplomat who was known for his unceasing fight against injustice in many forms, evidenced by his participation in such causes as antiapartheid, civil rights, and antiwar protests. A graduate of Yale Law School (1954), Lowenstein taught

  • L?wenthal, Leo (German philosopher)

    Max Horkheimer: (1903–69), Eric Fromm (1900–80), Leo L?wenthal (1900–93), Herbert Marcuse (1898–1979), and Franz Neumann (1900–54)—who (along with Horkheimer) came to be known collectively as the Frankfurt School. Horkheimer also served as editor of the institute’s literary organ, Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung (“Journal for Social

  • lower Amu Darya oasis (oasis, Central Asia)

    Turkmenistan: Oases: The lower Amu Darya oasis lies in the ancient delta of the Amu Darya and was long one of the most important agricultural regions of the republic. The oasis is cut by a dense network of old riverbeds as well as by irrigation channels and ditches…

  • Lower Austria (state, Austria)

    Nieder?sterreich, Bundesland (federal state), northeastern Austria. It is bordered by the Czech Republic on the north, Slovakia on the east, and by Bundesl?nder Burgenland on the southeast, Steiermark (Styria) on the south, and Ober?sterreich (Upper Austria) on the west. Nieder?sterreich Bundesland

  • Lower Avon (river, western England, United Kingdom)

    River Avon, river that rises on the southeastern slope of the Cotswolds, England, and flows through Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, and Somerset. The river shares the name Avon (derived from a Celtic word meaning “river”) with several other rivers in Great Britain, including the Avon of Warwickshire

  • Lower Big Horn Basin (river basin, United States)

    Bighorn River: …Wyoming and Montana, and the Lower Big Horn in Montana.

  • lower bout (violin)

    stringed instrument: Morphology: …body, called the upper and lower bouts, are separated by the indented waist, or middle bout, which provides clearance for the bow on the outer strings. The middle bout meets the upper and lower to form outturned corners, where the ribs are brought together and glued firmly to corner blocks…

  • Lower Burma (geographical division, Myanmar)

    Lower Burma, historical and geographic division of Burma (Myanmar), referring to the southern coastal and delta region on the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea (as opposed to Upper Burma). It was the centre of the Mon kingdoms based at Pegu and was acquired by the British Indian government in 1826

  • Lower California (peninsula, Mexico)

    Baja California, peninsula, northwestern Mexico, bounded to the north by the United States, to the east by the Gulf of California, and to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. The peninsula is approximately 760 miles (1,220 km) long and 25 to 150 miles (40 to 240 km) wide, with a total area of

  • Lower Circassian (people)

    Adygeya: …(province) in 1922 for the Adyghian people, one of two major branches of the Circassians (Cherkess), who make up about one-fifth of its total population. Apart from the foothills in the south, which are covered in deciduous forest, most of Adygeya is an undulating plain with rich soils that are…

  • Lower Colorado River Basin Bill (United States legislation)

    Carl T. Hayden: …of the signing of the Lower Colorado River Basin Bill authorizing a massive $1,000,000,000 development project for central Arizona, which he had done much to promote.

  • lower Congo (region, Africa)

    African art: Congo (Kinshasa) and Congo (Brazzaville): The savanna falls into the lower Congo, Kuba, and Luba cultural areas; the rainforest, into the northern, northeast, and northwest areas.

  • lower control limit (statistics)

    statistics: Statistical process control: …line, referred to as the lower control limit, are chosen so that when the process is in control there will be a high probability that the value of a sample mean will fall between the two control limits. Standard practice is to set the control limits at three standard deviations…

  • lower cortex (thallus structure)

    fungus: Form and function of lichens: …called upper cortex, medulla, and lower cortex. The upper cortex consists of either a few layers of tightly packed cells or hyphae that may contain pigments. A cuticle may cover the cortex. The lower cortex, which is similar in structure to the upper cortex, participates in the formation of attachment…

  • Lower Country (region, Liechtenstein)

    Liechtenstein: Geography: …traditional regions of Vaduz and Schellenberg are still recognized as unique regions—the Upper Country (Oberland) and the Lower Country (Unterland), respectively—and they form separate electoral districts. All citizens age 18 or older who live in the principality are eligible to vote in national elections.

  • lower delta plain (geology)

    delta: …plain, the middle one the lower delta plain, and the third the subaqueous delta, which lies seaward of the shoreline and forms below sea level.

  • Lower Depths, The (film by Kurosawa [1957])

    Kurosawa Akira: Films of the 1950s: Macbeth, and Donzoko (1957; The Lower Depths) was from Maxim Gorky’s drama: each of these films is skillfully Japanized. Throne of Blood, which reflects the style of the sets and acting of the Japanese Noh play and uses not a word of the original text, has been called the…

  • Lower Depths, The (play by Gorky)

    The Lower Depths, drama in four acts by Maxim Gorky, performed in 1902 and published in the same year as Na dne. The play is set in the late 19th century in a dilapidated flophouse and examines society’s outcasts. The denizens of the rooming house are unexpectedly—and, as it turns out,

  • Lower Devonian Series (geology and stratigraphy)

    Devonian Period: Southern Hemisphere: The marine Lower Devonian shows some affinity with the Bokkeveld in South Africa, which in turn has strong links with South America. No Devonian strata are known in Africa between the Bokkeveld and sections in Ghana and northwestern Africa.

  • Lower Doab (region, India)

    Ganges-Yamuna Doab: …topography flattens out in the Lower Doab, where the Sind, Betwa, and Ken streams run parallel to each other. Geologically, the whole region forms part of the alluvial Indo-Gangetic trough. Forests, occurring in patches, are composed of acacia and teak.

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