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  • Livingston, Robert R. (United States statesman)

    Robert R. Livingston, early American leader who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, first secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs (1781–83), and minister to France (1801–04). Born into a wealthy and influential New York family, Livingston was admitted to the bar in 1770.

  • Livingston, William (United States statesman)

    William Livingston, first Revolutionary governor of New Jersey. A graduate of Yale, Livingston was admitted to the New York bar in 1748 and served briefly in the New York legislature (1759–60). His chief political influence was exerted through pamphlets and newspaper articles, first in the

  • Livingston, William K. (American neurologist)

    pain: Theories of pain: American neurologist William K. Livingston, who worked with patients with industrial injuries in the 1930s, diagrammed a feedback loop within the nervous system, which he described as a “vicious circle.” Livingston theorized that severe lasting pain induces functional and organic changes in the nervous system, thereby producing…

  • Livingstone (Zambia)

    Livingstone, town, extreme southern Zambia. It lies on the northern bank of the Zambezi River at the Zimbabwe border, just north of Victoria Falls. The first European settlement in the area was upriver at the Old Drift Ferry Station in the 1890s; the town’s present site was occupied in 1905 with

  • Livingstone Falls (waterfalls, Africa)

    Livingstone Falls, series of 32 rapids and cataracts on the Congo River, extending for about 220 miles (354 km) between Kinshasa and Matadi in Congo (Kinshasa) and partially along the border with Congo (Brazzaville). The total drop of the falls is about 850 feet (260 m), despite only minor rapids

  • Livingstone Mountains (mountains, Tanzania)

    East African lakes: Physiography: …on the Tanzanian side the Livingstone Mountains rise precipitously from the lake surface. In the northwest, however, there is a well-defined alluvial plain. From the east come the waters of the Ruhuhu River, and numerous streams flow across the Malawi Plateau to the western shore. In the shallower southern part…

  • Livingstone Museum (museum, Livingstone, Zambia)

    Livingstone: The Livingstone Museum has a collection of ethnological, archaeological, and historical exhibits, including those related to the 19th-century Scottish explorer-missionary David Livingstone, for whom the town is named. Pop. (2000) 97,488; (2010 prelim.) 136,897.

  • Livingstone’s eland (mammal)

    eland: The common, or Cape, eland (T. oryx) ranges over the woodlands, plains, mountains, and subdeserts of eastern and southern Africa. The eland is the largest of all antelopes.

  • Livingstone, David (Scottish explorer and missionary)

    David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and explorer who exercised a formative influence on Western attitudes toward Africa. Livingstone grew up in a distinctively Scottish family environment of personal piety, poverty, hard work, zeal for education, and a sense of mission. His father’s family was

  • Livingstone, Douglas (South African poet)

    South African literature: In English: …War II, but it was Douglas Livingstone who became the leading English-language poet of the latter 20th century. He emerged in the 1960s with his powerful descriptions of African landscapes and animals, but his poetry subsequently broadened in scope to touch upon various aspects of modern society. Also of considerable…

  • Livingstone, Ken (British politician)

    Ken Livingstone, British politician, who made constitutional history on May 4, 2000, when he was elected mayor of London—the first time that British voters had directly elected a candidate to an executive office at any level of government. He served as mayor until May 2008. Livingstone was born in

  • Livingstone, Kenneth Robert (British politician)

    Ken Livingstone, British politician, who made constitutional history on May 4, 2000, when he was elected mayor of London—the first time that British voters had directly elected a candidate to an executive office at any level of government. He served as mayor until May 2008. Livingstone was born in

  • Livingstone, Sir Richard Winn (British scholar)

    Sir Richard Winn Livingstone, classical scholar and university administrator who championed the classical liberal arts curriculum. Livingstone’s parents were an Anglican vicar and the daughter of an Irish baron, and he was educated at Winchester and then New College at Oxford, where he took honours

  • Livistona (plant genus)

    palm: Evolution: Sabal, Serenoa, Livistona, Trachycarpus, and Oncosperma, existed in the United States, Canada, India, Europe, and China, many in places where palms do not occur today. These genera include members of groups considered primitive and specialized within the family and appear to represent an early burst of radiation…

  • Livistona eastonii (plant)

    palm: Ecology: …up to 350 years, and Livistona eastonii in Australia has lived to be as old as 720 years.

  • Livius Andronicus, Lucius (Roman author)

    Lucius Livius Andronicus, founder of Roman epic poetry and drama. He was a Greek slave, freed by a member of the Livian family; he may have been captured as a boy when Tarentum surrendered to Rome in 272 bc. A freedman, he earned his living teaching Latin and Greek in Rome. His main work, the

  • Livius Johanis le Vieux (Dutch painter)

    Jan Lievens, versatile painter and printmaker whose style derived from both the Dutch and Flemish schools of Baroque art. A contemporary of Rembrandt, he was a pupil of Joris van Schooten (1616–18) and of Rembrandt’s teacher Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam (1618–20). After residing in Leiden for a

  • Livius, Titus (Roman historian)

    Livy, with Sallust and Tacitus, one of the three great Roman historians. His history of Rome became a classic in his own lifetime and exercised a profound influence on the style and philosophy of historical writing down to the 18th century. Little is known about Livy’s life and nothing about his

  • Livland (historical region, Europe)

    Livonia, lands on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, north of Lithuania; the name was originally applied by Germans in the 12th century to the area inhabited by the Livs, a Finno-Ugric people whose settlements centred on the mouths of the Western Dvina and Gauja rivers, but eventually it was u

  • Livni, Tzipi (Israeli politician)

    Tzipi Livni, Israeli politician who served as minister of justice (2006–07 and 2013–14) and minister of foreign affairs (2006–09), among other cabinet posts. She was also the leader of the Kadima party (2008–12) and founder and leader of the Hatnua party (2012– ). Although she entered politics in

  • Livni, Tziporah Malka (Israeli politician)

    Tzipi Livni, Israeli politician who served as minister of justice (2006–07 and 2013–14) and minister of foreign affairs (2006–09), among other cabinet posts. She was also the leader of the Kadima party (2008–12) and founder and leader of the Hatnua party (2012– ). Although she entered politics in

  • Livonia (historical region, Europe)

    Livonia, lands on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, north of Lithuania; the name was originally applied by Germans in the 12th century to the area inhabited by the Livs, a Finno-Ugric people whose settlements centred on the mouths of the Western Dvina and Gauja rivers, but eventually it was u

  • Livonia (Michigan, United States)

    Livonia, city, Wayne county, southeastern Michigan, U.S. It is a western suburb of Detroit. It originated in 1834 as Livonia township (named for Livonia, N.Y.) and was primarily a farming community for more than a century. After World War II it rapidly experienced planned industrial and residential

  • Livonia, Confederation of (European history)

    Baltic states: The early modern age: The internal strength of the Confederation of Livonia diminished during the 16th century, though trade with Russia by the Hanseatic League (an organization of German merchants) brought prosperity to the towns. The Reformation rendered the ecclesiastical states anachronisms. The Confederation was unable to withstand the onslaughts of the Russian tsar…

  • Livonian (people)

    Baltic states: Early Middle Ages: Their kinsmen, the Livs, inhabited four major areas in northern Latvia and northern Courland. The western Balts were divided into at least eight recognizable groupings. The westernmost, the Prussians, formed 10 principalities in what subsequently became East Prussia. The Jotvingians and Galindians inhabited an area to the south

  • Livonian Highland (region, Latvia)

    Vidzeme, plateau region of central Latvia, roughly corresponding to the historic state of Livonia. It is a hilly, irregular, partially terraced morainic area, dotted with many small morainal lakes. It reaches an elevation of 1,020 feet (311 m) at Mount Gaizi?? and is drained to the west by the G

  • Livonian Knights (German organization of knights)

    Order of the Brothers of the Sword, organization of crusading knights that began the successful conquest and Christianization of Livonia (most of modern Latvia and Estonia) between 1202 and 1237. After German merchants from Lübeck and Bremen acquired commercial interests in the lands around the

  • Livonian language

    Finno-Ugric languages: Livonian, and Votic. The Permic group consists of Komi (Zyryan), Permyak, and Udmurt (Votyak). The three remaining groups are the individual languages Mari (formerly Cheremis), Mordvin, and Sami (formerly Lapp). Mari and Mordvin, however, are frequently classified together as the Volga-Finnic

  • Livonian Order (German organization of knights)

    Order of the Brothers of the Sword, organization of crusading knights that began the successful conquest and Christianization of Livonia (most of modern Latvia and Estonia) between 1202 and 1237. After German merchants from Lübeck and Bremen acquired commercial interests in the lands around the

  • Livonian War (Russian history)

    Livonian War, (1558–83), prolonged military conflict, during which Russia unsuccessfully fought Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for control of greater Livonia—the area including Estonia, Livonia, Courland, and the island of Oesel—which was ruled by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights (Order

  • Livorno (Italy)

    Livorno, city, Toscana (Tuscany) regione, central Italy. It lies on the Ligurian Sea at the western edge of a cultivated coastal plain and is enclosed east and south by a circle of low hills, the Livornesi Hills. Originally a small fishing village, it first became important when it was given by the

  • Livourne (Italy)

    Livorno, city, Toscana (Tuscany) regione, central Italy. It lies on the Ligurian Sea at the western edge of a cultivated coastal plain and is enclosed east and south by a circle of low hills, the Livornesi Hills. Originally a small fishing village, it first became important when it was given by the

  • Livre au Roi (legal code of Jerusalem-Acre)

    Crusades: The Latin East after the Third Crusade: The Livre au Roi (Book of the King), an important section of the Assizes of Jerusalem, dates from his reign. He also dealt wisely with Saladin’s brother, al-?ādil of Egypt. On Amalric’s death in 1205, the kingdoms of Cyprus and Jerusalem-Acre were divided, and in 1210…

  • Livre d’amour (work by Sainte-Beuve)

    Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve: Early life and Romantic period: …privately printed volume of lyrics, Livre d’amour (1904), which was, however, not published in the lifetime of either of them.

  • Livre d’architecture (work by Boffrand)

    Germain Boffrand: Boffrand, best known for his Livre d’architecture… (1745; “Book of Architecture”), was instrumental in spreading French taste across 18th-century Europe. He was responsible for a multitude of works, great and small, including plans for the new palace of Nantes and construction of the great altar for Nantes cathedral. He also…

  • Livre d’image, Le (film by Godard [2018])

    Jean-Luc Godard: Later work and awards: Le Livre d’image (2018; The Image Book) is a cinematic essay, featuring a montage of film clips, photographs, and wartime footage, with Godard providing commentary.

  • Livre de la Chasse (work by Gaston III)

    Gaston III: …him to write the treatise Livre de la chasse (“Book of the Hunt”). It was translated into English by Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, as the bulk of the first English book on hunting, The Master of Game.

  • Livre de la cité des dames, Le (work by Christine de Pisan)

    The Book of the City of Ladies, prose work by Christine de Pisan, published in 1405 as Le Livre de la cité des dames. Written in praise of women and as a defense of their capabilities and virtues, the work is a significant feminist argument against the misogynist male writing of the day. It was

  • Livre de Prométhéa, Le (work by Cixous)

    French literature: Prose fiction: …Le Livre de Prométhéa (1983; The Book of Promethea)—learned, funny, sparkling, and innovative—achieved its writer’s ambition to make a distinctive model of the desiring feminine subject, within but not consumed by the inherited forms of writing and culture. Marguerite Duras’s autobiographical novels L’Amant (1984; The Lover) and L’Amant de la…

  • Livre de toutes sortes de fleurs d’après nature, Le (work by Monnoyer)

    floral decoration: 17th century: …de fleurs d’après nature (Book of All Kinds of Flowers from Nature) accurately portray flowers from a horticultural standpoint and at the same time show prototypes of display. These floral arrangements are freer and more airy than those of the Low Countries and yet suggest Baroque opulence. Flora ouerocultura…

  • Livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roy Charles V, Le (work by Christine de Pisan)

    Christine de Pisan: …of the deceased king, Charles—Le Livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roy Charles V (1404; “Book of the Deeds and Good Morals of the Wise King Charles V”), a firsthand picture of Charles V and his court. Her eight additional prose works reveal her remarkable breadth of…

  • Livre des menus, Le (cookbook by Escoffier)
  • Livre des quatre dames (work by Chartier)

    Alain Chartier: His earliest-known poem, the Livre des quatre dames (1415 or 1416; “Book of the Four Ladies”), is a discussion between four ladies who have lost their lovers at the Battle of Agincourt. The same technique is used in the prose Quadrilogue invectif, written in 1422, the dialogue being between…

  • Livre des trois vertus, Le (work by Christine de Pisan)

    Christine de Pisan: …their heroism and virtue, and Le Livre des trois vertus (1405; “Book of Three Virtues”), a sequel comprising a classification of women’s roles in medieval society and a collection of moral instructions for women in the various social spheres. The story of her life, L’Avision de Christine (1405), told in…

  • Livre du rire et de l’oubli, Le (novel by Kundera)

    The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, novel by Milan Kundera, written in Czech as Kniha smíchu a zapomnění but originally published in French as Le Livre du rire et de l’oubli (1979). The political situation in the former country of Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic and Slovakia), where history

  • Livre du sang, Le (work by Khatibi)

    Abdelkebir Khatibi: …Veiled Prophet”), and a novel, Le Livre du sang (1979; “The Book of Blood”), demonstrate his theoretical approach to literature. The latter novel is a poetical search for identity inspired by the Greek myth of Orpheus. De la mille et troisième nuit (“Of the Thousand and Third Night”) was published…

  • livre tournois (French coin)

    franc: …the new unit of exchange—the livre tournois, a gold coin subdivided into 20 sols. In 1795, to symbolize the political changes that followed the French Revolution, the republican government introduced a new franc currency. The first coin was a five-franc silver piece; gold coins worth 20 francs (napoleons) were coined…

  • Livre, Le (work by Mallarmé)

    Stéphane Mallarmé: …in what he called his Grand Oeuvre (“Great Work”), or Le Livre (“The Book”). He never came near to completing this work, however, and the few preparatory notes that have survived give little or no idea of what the end result might have been.

  • Livres dou trésor, Li (work by Latini)

    encyclopaedia: The level of writing: …and mercantile classes with his Li livres dou trésor (c. 1264; “Treasure Books”) and therefore used a concise and accurate style that evoked an immediate and general welcome. Gregor Reisch managed to cover the whole university course of the day in his brief Margarita philosophica, which correctly interpreted the taste…

  • Livres, les enfants et les hommes, Les (work by Hazard)

    children's literature: North versus south: by Marguerite Mitchell, Books, Children and Men, 1944; 4th ed., 1960): “In the matter of literature for children the North surpasses the South by a large margin.” For Hazard, Spain had no children’s literature; Italy, with its Pinocchio and Cuore, could point only to an isolated pair of…

  • Livro das saudades (work by Ribeiro)

    Bernardim Ribeiro: …by its opening words as Menina e moca (“Childhood and Adolescence”), is generally considered a masterpiece of Portuguese literature of the Renaissance. Innovative in its use of prose, Ribeiro’s tale established a stylistic tradition that has endured as a major force in Portuguese literature.

  • Livro de linhagens (work by Pedro)

    Portuguese literature: Prose: The 14th-century Livro de linhagens (“Book of Genealogy”) of Pedro Afonso, count of Barcelos, constituted a landmark by going beyond genealogy to history and legend. The work contains short epic narratives, romances, and tales of adventure and fantasy. He was also responsible for the compilation in 1344…

  • Livro do desassossego (work by Pessoa)

    Fernando Pessoa: …of Livro do desassossego (The Book of Disquiet), a diary-like work of poetic fragments that Pessoa worked on through the last two decades of his life and that remained unfinished at his death. It was published together for the first time in 1982 and brought him worldwide attention; a…

  • Livsslaven (work by Lie)

    Jonas Lie: One of Life’s Slaves, 1895), which tells of the social misfortunes of a boy born out of wedlock, and Familien paa Gilje (1883; The Family at Gilje, 1920), a novel that deals with the position of women, the most popular question of his day. The…

  • Livy (Roman historian)

    Livy, with Sallust and Tacitus, one of the three great Roman historians. His history of Rome became a classic in his own lifetime and exercised a profound influence on the style and philosophy of historical writing down to the 18th century. Little is known about Livy’s life and nothing about his

  • Livyatan (Middle Eastern mythology)

    Leviathan, in Jewish mythology, a primordial sea serpent. Its source is in prebiblical Mesopotamian myth, especially that of the sea monster in the Ugaritic myth of Baal (see Yamm). In the Old Testament, Leviathan appears in Psalms 74:14 as a multiheaded sea serpent that is killed by God and given

  • Liwan (district, Guangzhou, China)

    Guangzhou: Old City districts: The original Liwan district occupied the western part of the Old City, as well as a large island in the Pearl River to the west. It too was enlarged considerably in 2005, when it merged with Fangcun district, across the river to the southwest. The old part…

  • Liwang (emperor of Zhou dynasty)

    China: The Zhou feudal system: …bce the nobles jointly expelled Liwang, a tyrant, and replaced him with a collective leadership headed by the two most influential nobles until the crown prince was enthroned. In 771 bce the Zhou royal line was again broken when Youwang was killed by invading barbarians. The nobles apparently were split…

  • Liwātiyyah (people)

    Oman: Ethnic groups: …among the latter are the Liwātiyyah, who originally came from Sindh (now in Pakistan) but have lived in Oman for centuries.

  • Liwā? (geographical region, Arabia)

    Arabia: The Rub? al-Khali: …oasis hamlets of Al-Jiwā? (Liwā? in the United Arab Emirates) lie among the dunes on the desert’s northeastern fringe. The largest dunes of the Rub? al-Khali are in the far east, where heights of more than 800 feet are reached and sand ridges extend for more than 30 miles,…

  • Liwā?, Al- (Egyptian newspaper)

    Mu??afā Kāmil: …1900 he founded the daily Al-Liwā? (“The Standard”) to put forth the group’s views. Realizing that independence would be difficult to obtain, he looked to France, which he saw as the symbol of European liberalism, to help Egypt counter British power. When France and Great Britain signed the Entente Cordiale…

  • Liwung River (river, Indonesia)

    Jakarta: …at the mouth of the Ciliwung (Liwung River), on Jakarta Bay (an embayment of the Java Sea). It is coextensive with the metropolitan district of Greater Jakarta (Jakarta Raya) and nearly coextensive with the daerah khusus ibukota (special capital district) of Jakarta—the latter also including a number of small offshore…

  • Lixbuna (national capital, Portugal)

    Lisbon, city, port, capital of Portugal, and the centre of the Lisbon metropolitan area. Located in western Portugal on the estuary of the Tagus (Tejo) River, it is the westernmost capital city in continental Europe and serves as the country’s chief port, largest city, and commercial, political,

  • Lixisol (FAO soil group)

    Lixisol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Lixisols develop on old landscapes in a tropical climate with a pronounced dry season. Their age and mineralogy have led to low levels of plant nutrients and a high erodibility, making

  • Lixue (Chinese philosophy)

    Lu Jiuyuan: …the Learning of Principle (lixue), often called the Cheng-Zhu school after its leading philosophers, Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi.

  • Lixus (ancient city, Morocco)

    Lixus, ancient site located north of the modern seaport of Larache, Morocco, on the right bank of the Oued Loukkos (Lucus River). Originally settled by Phoenicians during the 7th century bc, it gradually grew in importance, later coming under Carthaginian domination. After the destruction of

  • Liyong, Taban lo (South Sudanese and Ugandan writer)

    Taban lo Liyong, South Sudanese and Ugandan author whose experimental works and provocative opinions stimulated literary controversy in East Africa. By his own account, Liyong was born in southern Sudan and taken at a young age by his family to northern Uganda, where he grew up. He attended

  • Liyuan (Chinese history)

    East Asian arts: Social conditions: …latter school was called the Pear Garden (Liyuan); ever since, actors in China have been called “children of the pear garden” (liyuan zidi). More than a thousand young people from all ranks of society drew government salaries while studying and performing at lavish state banquets and for official ceremonies. Acting…

  • Liza of Lambeth (novel by Maugham)

    W. Somerset Maugham: …obstetrician in his first novel, Liza of Lambeth (1897), and its success, though small, encouraged him to abandon medicine. He traveled in Spain and Italy and in 1908 achieved a theatrical triumph—four plays running in London at once—that brought him financial security. During World War I he worked as a…

  • Liza With a Z: A Concert for Television (American television special [1972])

    Bob Fosse: From Broadway to Cabaret: …Minnelli on the TV special Liza with a Z (1972), which earned him Emmy Awards for direction and choreography; the show itself also garnered an Emmy. In addition, Pippin opened on Broadway in 1972, and the following year Fosse won Tonys for best director (musical) and choreographer for his work…

  • lizard (reptile)

    Lizard, (suborder Sauria), any of more than 5,500 species of reptiles belonging in the order Squamata (which also includes snakes, suborder Serpentes). Lizards are scaly-skinned reptiles that are usually distinguished from snakes by the possession of legs, movable eyelids, and external ear

  • lizard beetle (insect)

    Lizard beetle, (family Languriidae), any of some 400 species of long, narrow beetles (insect order Coleoptera), most of which are found in Asia and North America. Adult lizard beetles are 2 to 10 mm (0.1 to 0.4 inch) long, are reddish in colour with dark wing covers (elytra), and feed on leaves and

  • lizard orchid (plant, Himantoglossum species)

    Lizard orchid, (Himantoglossum hircinum), unusual-looking orchid (family Orchidaceae), occurring sporadically in a variety of dry European habitats. The plant’s common name refers to its lizardlike flowers, while the species name hircinum applies to its goatlike odour. The lizard orchid is a

  • lizard orchid (plant, Burnettia species)

    lizard orchid: …is also known as a lizard orchid. The minute plant is endemic to southeastern Australia and bears white to purple flowers with a striped labellum.

  • Lizard Peninsula (peninsula, England, United Kingdom)

    Lizard Peninsula, peninsula, Cornwall unitary authority, England, the southernmost part of the island of Great Britain. The coastal scenery is magnificent, with offshore rocks, rugged cliffs 250 feet (75 metres) high, and small coves. Inland the landscape is level and open. The local serpentine

  • Lizard Point (peninsula, England, United Kingdom)

    Lizard Peninsula, peninsula, Cornwall unitary authority, England, the southernmost part of the island of Great Britain. The coastal scenery is magnificent, with offshore rocks, rugged cliffs 250 feet (75 metres) high, and small coves. Inland the landscape is level and open. The local serpentine

  • lizard’s tail (plant)

    Lizard’s tail, member of the lizard’s-tail family (Saururaceae), found in marshy areas of eastern North America. The plant has creeping stems, or runners. Erect branches about 60 to 150 centimetres (2 to 5 feet) tall bear heart-shaped leaves on long stalks. Small, white flowers grow in a spike with

  • lizard’s-tail family (plant family)

    Piperales: Families: Saururaceae, the lizard’s-tail family, is native to North America and Southeast Asia. It includes five genera and six species, most of them aromatic herbs with creeping rhizomes (horizontal stems). The plants generally inhabit wet areas.

  • Lizard, The (peninsula, England, United Kingdom)

    Lizard Peninsula, peninsula, Cornwall unitary authority, England, the southernmost part of the island of Great Britain. The coastal scenery is magnificent, with offshore rocks, rugged cliffs 250 feet (75 metres) high, and small coves. Inland the landscape is level and open. The local serpentine

  • lizardfish (fish)

    Lizardfish, any of about 57 species of marine fish of the family Synodontidae, found primarily in the tropics. Lizardfish are elongated with rounded bodies and scaly heads. They grow to a maximum length of about 50 centimetres (20 inches) and are characteristically mottled or blotched to blend

  • Lizardi, José Joaquín Fernández de (Mexican editor and author)

    José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, Mexican editor, pamphleteer, and novelist, a leading literary figure in Mexico’s national liberation movement. Largely self-taught, Fernández wrote as “the Mexican thinker,” taking this pseudonym from the title of his radical journal, El pensador mexicano (1812).

  • lizardite (mineral)

    serpentine: …corrugated plates or fibres; and lizardite, a very fine-grained, platy variety. Named in allusion to its resemblance to a snake’s skin, serpentine is usually grayish, white, or green but may be yellow (chrysotile) or green-blue (antigorite); the green colour is due to iron replacing magnesium.

  • Lizong (emperor of Song dynasty)

    China: The chief councillors: Both Lizong (reigned 1224/25–1264) and his successor Duzong (reigned 1264/65–1274) indulged excessively in pleasure, though much of it was carefully concealed from the public. Shortly after the death of Shi Miyuan, the role of chief councillor went to Jia Sidao, who, though he was denounced in…

  • Lizzani, Carlo (Italian filmmaker)

    Carlo Lizzani, Italian filmmaker (born April 3, 1922, Rome, Italy—died Oct. 5, 2013, Rome), collaborated with many of the leading filmmakers of Italian Neorealism during his six-decade career. He also directed films about some of his colleagues and co-wrote the script for a 2013 documentary on

  • Ljouwert (Netherlands)

    Leeuwarden, gemeente (municipality), northern Netherlands. Leeuwarden lies at the junction of the Harlinger-Trek Canal and the Dokkumer Ee Canal. Originally a port on the Middelzee (reclaimed since the 13th century), it was chartered in 1435, became the capital of Friesland in 1504, and was from

  • LJP (political party, India)

    Lok Janshakti Party (LJP), regional political party in Bihar state, eastern India. It also has had a small presence on the national political scene in New Delhi. The LJP was formed in November 2000, following a split in the Janata Dal (United), or JD(U), party. The LJP has focused mainly on

  • Ljubljana (national capital, Slovenia)

    Ljubljana, capital city and economic, political, and cultural centre of Slovenia, located on the Ljubljanica River. The city lies in central Slovenia in a natural depression surrounded by high peaks of the Julian Alps. A walled Roman encampment was built there in the mid-1st century bce by Roman

  • Ljubljana, University of (university, Ljubljana, Slovenia)

    Slovenia: Education: The University of Ljubljana, founded in 1595 and reopened in 1919, has divisions that include the natural sciences, the social sciences, the humanities and arts, education, theology, law, medicine, and engineering. The University of Maribor, founded in 1975, is vocationally oriented. There are also several independent…

  • Ljubljanica River (river, Slovenia)

    Ljubljana: …of Slovenia, located on the Ljubljanica River. The city lies in central Slovenia in a natural depression surrounded by high peaks of the Julian Alps.

  • Ljusnan River (river, Sweden)

    Ljusnan River, river in central Sweden. After rising in the Norwegian border mountains it flows for 270 miles (430 km) in a generally southeasterly direction through the provinces of H?rjedalen and H?lsingland past the towns of Sveg, Ljusdal, and Bolln?s to the Gulf of Bothnia at Ljusne. It has a

  • LKP (political party, Lithuania)

    Lithuania: Political process: During the Soviet period the Lithuanian Communist Party (Lietuvos Komunistu Partija; LKP) was the country’s only political party. Its members and candidates for membership were supported by the activities of the Komsomol youth movement. In 1989, however, the legislature ended the Communist Party’s monopoly on power by legalizing other political…

  • LL Cool J (American rapper and actor)

    LL Cool J, American rapper and actor, a leading exponent of mid-1980s new-school rap and one of the few hip-hop stars of his era to sustain a successful recording career for more than a decade. Taking the stage name LL Cool J (“Ladies Love Cool James”) at age 16, Smith signed with fledgling rap

  • Llaima Volcano (volcano, Chile)

    Chile: The Chilean Andes: Among them are Copahue, Llaima, Osorno, and the highest, Mount Tronador, at an elevation of 11,453 feet. Their perfect conical shapes reflecting on the quiet waters in the Lake District provide some of the most splendid scenery in temperate South America. In southern Chile, below latitude 42° S, the…

  • Llallagua (Bolivia)

    mineral deposit: Veins: …Canada; the tin-silver veins of Llallagua and Potosí, Bolivia; and the silver-nickel-uranium veins of the Erzgebirge, Germany, which were first described by Georgius Agricola in his book De re metallica (1556).

  • llama (mammal)

    Llama, (Lama glama), South American member of the camel family, Camelidae (order Artiodactyla), closely related to the alpaca, guanaco, and vicu?a, which are known collectively as lamoids. Unlike camels, lamoids do not have the characteristic camel humps; they are slender-bodied animals and have

  • llama fibre (fibre)

    llama: 5 kg of fibre. Llama fleece consists of the coarse guard hairs of the protective outer coat (about 20 percent) and the short, crimped (wavy) fibre of the insulating undercoat. The coarse fleece is inferior to the wool of the alpaca. The hair’s colour is usually variegated, generally…

  • Llandaf (former town, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Llandaff, part of the city and county of Cardiff, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), Wales. Formerly a separate town, Llandaff lies along the west bank of the River Taff about 2 miles (3 km) northwest of Cardiff’s city centre. The cathedral of the ancient diocese of Llandaff in the Church in

  • Llandaff (former town, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Llandaff, part of the city and county of Cardiff, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), Wales. Formerly a separate town, Llandaff lies along the west bank of the River Taff about 2 miles (3 km) northwest of Cardiff’s city centre. The cathedral of the ancient diocese of Llandaff in the Church in

  • Llandaff Castle (castle, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Llandaff: Llandaff Castle, the home of the medieval bishops, was destroyed about 1403–04 by the Welsh insurgent leader Owain Glyn D?r, but the ruined gatehouse remains. Nearby are the Cathedral School, a theological college, and Howell’s School for Girls. Retaining much of a village atmosphere at…

  • Llandaff, Cathedral of (cathedral, Llandaff, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Llandaff: The cathedral of the ancient diocese of Llandaff in the Church in Wales originated in a 6th-century foundation by the Celtic St. Teilo, but the present structure was begun by Bishop Urban in the early 12th century. The Book of Llandaff, compiled under Bishop Urban, was…

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