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  • livermorium (chemical element)

    Livermorium (Lv), artificially produced transuranium element of atomic number 116. In 2000 scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, announced the production of atoms of livermorium when

  • Liverpool (England, United Kingdom)

    Liverpool, city and seaport, northwestern England, forming the nucleus of the metropolitan county of Merseyside in the historic county of Lancashire. The city proper, which is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, forms an irregular crescent along the north shore of the Mersey estuary a few miles

  • Liverpool (former town, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Liverpool, former town, Queens county, southeastern Nova Scotia, Canada, lying at the mouth of the Mersey River, 88 miles (142 km) west-southwest of Halifax. In 1996 it amalgamated with Queens Municipal District to form the Region of Queens Municipality. The site was called Ogumkiqueok by the

  • Liverpool and Manchester Railway (British railway)

    George Stephenson: When the Liverpool-Manchester line was nearing completion in 1829, a competition was held for locomotives; Stephenson’s new engine, the Rocket, which he built with his son, Robert, won with a speed of 36 miles (58 km) per hour. Eight locomotives were used when the Liverpool-Manchester line opened…

  • Liverpool Anglican Cathedral (cathedral, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom)

    Sir Giles Gilbert Scott: …commission being for the new Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. The construction of this massive Gothic structure in red sandstone, begun in 1904, spanned Scott’s entire working life and was completed only in 1980 by two of his associates, F.G. Thomas and R.A. Pickney. He was knighted after the consecration ceremony in…

  • Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (medicine)

    palliative care: Developments in palliative care: …by developments such as the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient and the Gold Standards Framework in the United Kingdom and by groups such as the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization in the United States, Palliative Care Australia, and the Indian Association of Palliative Care in India. The…

  • Liverpool delft (pottery)

    Liverpool delft, tin-glazed earthenware made from about 1710 to about 1760 in Liverpool, Eng., which, along with Bristol and London (Southwark and Lambeth), was one of the three main centres of English delftware. Some of the wares produced at Liverpool are similar to those of Bristol and London:

  • Liverpool FC (English football club)

    Liverpool FC, English professional football (soccer) club based in Liverpool. It is the most successful English team in European football tournament history, having won six European Cup/Champions League trophies. The club has also won the English top-division league title 18 times. Everton FC was

  • Liverpool Football Club (English football club)

    Liverpool FC, English professional football (soccer) club based in Liverpool. It is the most successful English team in European football tournament history, having won six European Cup/Champions League trophies. The club has also won the English top-division league title 18 times. Everton FC was

  • Liverpool Museums (museum, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom)

    museum: Europe: The Liverpool Museums in England, for example, began circulating specimens to schools for educational purposes; panoramas and habitat groups were used to facilitate interpretation. As first gas lighting and then electric lighting became available, museums extended their hours into the evenings to provide service to those…

  • Liverpool Oratorio (work by McCartney and Davis)

    Paul McCartney: Other work and assessment: …too: his semiautobiographical classical composition Liverpool Oratorio, written in collaboration with American composer Carl Davis, was first performed in 1991 by the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra at Liverpool’s Anglican cathedral, where McCartney once failed his audition as a choirboy. He subsequently oversaw the recording of his other classical compositions, including…

  • Liverpool porcelain

    Liverpool porcelain, soft-paste porcelain, rather heavy and opaque, produced between 1756 and 1800 in various factories in Liverpool, England. Most of the products were exported to America and the West Indies. The earliest factory was Richard Chaffers and Company, which first made phosphatic

  • Liverpool Street Station (railroad station, London, United Kingdom)

    Liverpool Street Station, railway station in the northeastern part of the City of London. Lying beside Bishopsgate (street) and the Great Eastern Hotel (1884), it is roughly equidistant between Spitalfields Market (in Tower Hamlets) and Finsbury Circus. The station was opened (1874) where the

  • Liverpool Triangle (trade)

    Liverpool: …general trading pattern was the Liverpool Triangle—the exchange of manufactured goods from the Mersey hinterland for slaves in West Africa who were in turn traded for sugar, molasses, spices, and other plantation crops in the West Indies.

  • Liverpool, Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of (British politician)

    Charles Jenkinson, 1st earl of Liverpool, politician who held numerous offices in the British government under King George III and was the object of widespread suspicion as well as deference because of his reputed clandestine influence at court. It was believed that he in some way controlled the

  • Liverpool, Nicholas (president of Dominica)

    Nicholas Liverpool, Dominican lawyer and politician who served as president of Dominica (2003–12). Educated in England, Liverpool graduated from the University of Hull in 1960 and was called to the bar the following year; he received a Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield in 1965. From the 1970s

  • Liverpool, Nicholas Joseph Orville (president of Dominica)

    Nicholas Liverpool, Dominican lawyer and politician who served as president of Dominica (2003–12). Educated in England, Liverpool graduated from the University of Hull in 1960 and was called to the bar the following year; he received a Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield in 1965. From the 1970s

  • Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd earl of Liverpool, British prime minister from June 8, 1812, to Feb. 17, 1827, who, despite his long tenure of office, was overshadowed by the greater political imaginativeness of his colleagues, George Canning and Viscount Castlereagh (afterward 2nd Marquess of

  • Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of, Baron Hawkesbury of Hawkesbury (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd earl of Liverpool, British prime minister from June 8, 1812, to Feb. 17, 1827, who, despite his long tenure of office, was overshadowed by the greater political imaginativeness of his colleagues, George Canning and Viscount Castlereagh (afterward 2nd Marquess of

  • Liverpool, University of (university, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom)

    Liverpool: …International Slave Museum, and the University of Liverpool (chartered 1881) are among the many cultural institutions. Liverpool also has a well-known symphony orchestra, and the city is home to two world-class professional football (soccer) teams (Everton and Liverpool FC). Area 43 square miles (112 square km). Pop. (2001) city, 439,473;…

  • liverwort (plant)

    Liverwort, (division Marchantiophyta), any of more than 9,000 species of small nonvascular spore-producing plants. Liverworts are distributed worldwide, though most commonly in the tropics. Thallose liverworts, which are branching and ribbonlike, grow commonly on moist soil or damp rocks, while

  • livery company (trade association)

    Livery company, any of various craft or trade associations of the City of London, Eng., most of which are descended from medieval guilds. Certain grades of members are privileged to wear a special “livery,” or distinctive clothing in the form of a fur-trimmed gown. In the late 20th century there

  • Livery Stable Blues (song)

    Dixieland: …the first jazz record, “Livery Stable Blues,” which also became the first million-selling recording in history. This and subsequent ODJB recordings, such as “Tiger Rag,” “Dixie Jazz Band One Step,” and “At the Jazz Band Ball,” reflected the “white style” of playing: technically proficient but less experimental than black…

  • Lives (work by Vasari)

    Fra Angelico: Legacy: …his section on Angelico in Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters, Sculptors, & Architects, was largely inaccurate in his biographical data but correctly situated Fra Angelico in the framework of the Renaissance.

  • Lives (work by Walton)

    Plutarch: Reputation and influence: …Plutarch well, and his own Lives (collected 1670, 1675) imitated Plutarch by dwelling on the strength, rather than the weakness, of his subjects’ characters.

  • Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (work by Diogenes La?rtius)

    Greek literature: Late forms of prose: Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers was a valuable work of the 3rd century by Diogenes La?rtius, a writer otherwise unknown.

  • Lives in the Balance (album by Browne)

    Jackson Browne: …mirrored his activism, especially on Lives in the Balance (1986), which evidenced his vehement opposition to U.S. policy in Central America. His albums in the 1990s and 2000s largely reflected a return to more personal concerns, though political activism and political songs remained central to his identity.

  • Lives in Writing (essays by Lodge)

    David Lodge: The essay collection Lives in Writing was published in 2014.

  • Lives of a Bengal Lancer, The (film by Hathaway [1935])

    Henry Hathaway: Early work: …next film, the adventure drama The Lives of a Bengal Lancer (1935), which received seven Academy Award nominations, including best picture and Hathaway’s only nod for directing. In 1935 Cooper also starred in Peter Ibbetson, a romance-fantasy.

  • Lives of Eminent Men (work by Aubrey)

    John Aubrey: His biographies first appeared as Lives of Eminent Men (1813). The definitive presentation of Aubrey’s biographical manuscripts, however, is Brief Lives (2 vol., 1898; edited by Andrew Clark). Though not biographies in the strict sense of the word, Aubrey’s Lives, based on observation and gossip, are profiles graced by picturesque…

  • Lives of Girls and Women, The (short stories by Munro)

    Alice Munro: Lives of Girls and Women (1971) was conceived as a novel but developed into a series of interrelated coming-of-age stories. Like much of her fiction, the tales capture the social and cultural milieu of her native southwestern Ontario. Munro embraced the mystery, intimacy, and tension…

  • Lives of Others, The (film by Henckel von Donnersmarck [2006])
  • Lives of the Artists (work by Vasari)

    art market: The rise of Rome: 1550 publication of Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of the Artists and the expansion of art criticism and theoretical writing. Associated phenomena include the establishment of the first academies of art and the collecting of drawings, an activity pioneered in print by Vasari in his Book of Drawings and followed in the…

  • Lives of the Caesars (work by Suetonius)

    Catullus: Life: …in the Roman biographer Suetonius’ Life of Julius Caesar, Catullus’ father was Caesar’s friend and host, but the son nevertheless lampooned not only the future dictator but also his son-in-law Pompey and his agent and military engineer Mamurra with a scurrility that Caesar admitted was personally damaging and would leave…

  • Lives of the Engineers (work by Smiles)

    Samuel Smiles: …wrote many other books, including Lives of the Engineers (3 vol., 1861–62; 5 vol., enlarged ed., 1874), a pioneer study in economic history; and an Autobiography (ed. by T. Mackay, 1905).

  • Lives of the English Poets, The (work by Johnson)

    Samuel Johnson: The Lives of the Poets: Johnson’s last great work, Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, to the Works of the English Poets (conventionally known as The Lives of the Poets), was conceived modestly as short prefatory notices to an edition of English poetry. When Johnson was approached by some London booksellers in 1777 to write what…

  • Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints, The (work by Butler)

    Alban Butler: His monumental achievement, The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints, 4 vol. (1756–59), was considered a sound, critical, and authoritative work. Containing more than 1,600 hagiographies, it went through many editions. It was revised by Herbert Thurston and Donald Attwater in Butler’s Lives of the…

  • Lives of the Lord Chancellors (reference work)

    biography: Reference collections: …importance; classified collections such as Lives of the Lord Chancellors (Britain) and biographical manuals devoted to scholars, scientists, and other groups are available in growing numbers; information about living persons is gathered into such national collections as Who’s Who? (Britain), Chi è? (Italy), and Who’s Who in America?

  • Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (work by Vasari)

    Fra Angelico: Legacy: …his section on Angelico in Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters, Sculptors, & Architects, was largely inaccurate in his biographical data but correctly situated Fra Angelico in the framework of the Renaissance.

  • Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes, The (translation by North)

    Sir Thomas North: His The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes, translated in 1579 from Jacques Amyot’s French version of Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, has been described as one of the earliest masterpieces of English prose. Shakespeare borrowed from North’s Lives for his Roman plays—Antony and Cleopatra, Julius Caesar,…

  • Lives of the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland, to the Time of Dean Swift, The (work by Shiels and others)

    Robert Shiels: …compilation of a five-volume The Lives of the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland, to the Time of Dean Swift (1753), published shortly before his death. Although this work bore the name of Theophilus Cibber (1703–58), playwright and actor, it was actually Shiels who did most of the research for…

  • Lives of the Poets, The (work by Johnson)

    Samuel Johnson: The Lives of the Poets: Johnson’s last great work, Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, to the Works of the English Poets (conventionally known as The Lives of the Poets), was conceived modestly as short prefatory notices to an edition of English poetry. When Johnson was approached by some London booksellers in 1777 to write what…

  • Lives of the Prophets, The (Judaism)

    The Lives of the Prophets, pseudepigraphal collection (not in any scriptural canon) of folk stories and legends about the major and minor biblical prophets and a number of other prophetic figures from the Old Testament books of I Kings, II Chronicles, and Nehemiah. The work demonstrates the

  • Lives of the Saints (work by Aelfric)

    Aelfric: …nickname Grammaticus, he also wrote Lives of the Saints, Heptateuch (a vernacular language version of the first seven books of the Bible), as well as letters and various treatises.

  • Lives of the Saints (work by Butler)

    Alban Butler: His monumental achievement, The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints, 4 vol. (1756–59), was considered a sound, critical, and authoritative work. Containing more than 1,600 hagiographies, it went through many editions. It was revised by Herbert Thurston and Donald Attwater in Butler’s Lives of the…

  • Lives of the Sophists (work by Philostratus)

    Gordian I: …writer Flavius Philostratus dedicated his Lives of the Sophists to him. Early in 238, when Gordian was proconsul in Africa, a group of wealthy young landowners resisted and killed the tax collectors who had been sent to Africa by the emperor Maximinus (reigned 235–238). The insurgents proclaimed Gordian emperor, and…

  • Livesay, Dorothy (Canadian poet)

    Dorothy Livesay, Canadian lyric poet whose sensitive and reflective works spanned six decades. Livesay attended several schools, including the Sorbonne in Paris (1931–32), where a study of French Symbolist poets influenced her own work. A second formative element was her experience in Montreal as a

  • Livesay, Dorothy Kathleen May (Canadian poet)

    Dorothy Livesay, Canadian lyric poet whose sensitive and reflective works spanned six decades. Livesay attended several schools, including the Sorbonne in Paris (1931–32), where a study of French Symbolist poets influenced her own work. A second formative element was her experience in Montreal as a

  • LiveScript (programming language)

    computer programming language: Web scripting: JavaScript is one such language, designed by the Netscape Communications Corp., which may be used with both Netscape’s and Microsoft’s browsers. JavaScript is a simple language, quite different from Java. A JavaScript program may be embedded in a Web page with the HTML tag <script…

  • Livesey, Roger (British actor)

    The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp: …officer Clive Candy (played by Roger Livesey). In 1902 in Berlin, Candy impulsively helps Edith Hunter (Deborah Kerr) combat anti-British propaganda and ends up dueling German officer Theo Kretschmar-Schuldorff (Anton Walbrook). Candy and Theo become friends when they recover in the same hospital, and Theo becomes engaged to Edith. In…

  • livestock

    Livestock, farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In Western countries the category encompasses primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules; other animals, such as buffalo, oxen, llamas, or camels, may predominate in the agriculture of other areas. A brief treatment of

  • livestock farming

    Livestock farming, raising of animals for use or for pleasure. In this article, the discussion of livestock includes both beef and dairy cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, mules, asses, buffalo, and camels; the raising of birds commercially for meat or eggs (i.e., chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese,

  • Livi, Ivo (French actor)

    Yves Montand, French stage and film actor and popular cabaret singer. Though considered by many to be the quintessence of worldly Gallic charm, Montand was actually born in Italy to peasants who fled to Marseille when he was two years of age to escape the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini. At age

  • Livia Drusilla (Roman patrician)

    Livia Drusilla, Caesar Augustus’s devoted and influential wife who counseled him on affairs of state and who, in her efforts to secure the imperial succession for her son Tiberius, was reputed to have caused the deaths of many of his rivals, including Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Gaius and Lucius

  • Livia, Villa of (villa, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Palatine: …known as the House of Livia, for his widow, and has small, graceful rooms decorated with paintings. Other private houses, now excavated and visible, were incorporated into the foundations of the spreading imperial structures, which eventually projected down into the Forum on one side and onto the Circus Maximus on…

  • Livin’ on the Edge (recording by Aerosmith)

    Aerosmith: …Grammys for the singles “Livin’ on the Edge” and “Crazy.” During this time, Aerosmith was a constant presence on MTV, and the group won numerous music video awards. The band’s next release, Nine Lives (1997), reached the top of the Billboard album chart, and the single “Pink” garnered a…

  • Living (work by Peri Rossi)

    Cristina Peri Rossi: Peri Rossi’s first book, Viviendo (“Living”), was published in 1963, but it had been written much earlier. It is a collection of narratives with female protagonists. She won several literary prizes early in her career for her poetry and short stories. Her award-winning Los museos abandonados (1969; “Abandoned Museums”)…

  • Living and the Dead, The (work by Warner)

    W. Lloyd Warner: The Living and the Dead, a study of the symbolic behaviour of Americans and considered one of his most important works, was published in 1959. The Emergent American Society, which he edited, was published in 1967.

  • Living Church movement (Russian Orthodoxy)

    Renovated Church, federation of several reformist church groups that took over the central administration of the Russian Orthodox church in 1922 and for over two decades controlled many religious institutions in the Soviet Union. The term Renovated Church is used most frequently to designate the m

  • Living Corpse, The (play by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Fiction after 1880: …drama, Zhivoy trup (written 1900; The Living Corpse), and a harrowing play about peasant life, Vlast tmy (written 1886; The Power of Darkness). After his death, a number of unpublished works came to light, most notably the novella Khadji-Murat (1904; Hadji-Murad), a brilliant narrative about the Caucasus reminiscent of Tolstoy’s…

  • living costs (economics)

    Cost of living, monetary cost of maintaining a particular standard of living, usually measured by calculating the average cost of a number of specific goods and services required by a particular group. The goods and services used as indexes may be the minimum necessary to preserve health or may be

  • Living End, The (work by Elkin)

    Stanley Elkin: The Living End (1979), a collection of three interwoven novellas about heaven, hell, and Minnesota’s twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, is perhaps Elkin’s best-known work. The novellas examine the mundane concerns of a Twin Cities liquor salesman, as well as God and the…

  • Living God, The (work by S?derblom)

    classification of religions: Other principles: …seen in S?derblom’s Gifford Lectures, The Living God, in which religions were divided according to their doctrines of the relation between human and divine activity in the achievement of salvation. Thus, among higher religions there are those in which humanity alone is responsible for salvation (Buddhism), God alone is responsible…

  • Living History (book by Clinton)

    Hillary Clinton: Senate and 2008 presidential run: …of her White House years, Living History, was published and set sales records; she had received an advance of about $8 million for the book. In 2006 she was easily reelected to the Senate.

  • Living Idol, The (film by Lewin [1957])

    Albert Lewin: …René Cardona) his final film, The Living Idol, about an archaeologist (James Robertson Justice) who believes that a young Mexican woman (Liliane Montevecchi) is the reincarnation of an Aztec who was sacrificed to jaguars.

  • Living in a Big Way (film by La Cava [1947])

    Gregory La Cava: Later films: …with his last credited film, Living in a Big Way (1947). The laboured musical, which starred Gene Kelly and featured a script by La Cava, ran over budget and failed at the box office.

  • Living in Oblivion (film by DiCillo [1995])

    Peter Dinklage: …big-screen role, the independent film Living in Oblivion (1995), Dinklage delivers a scathing indictment of Hollywood’s treatment of dwarfs.

  • Living in the Material World (album by Harrison)

    George Harrison: …Me Peace on Earth),” on Living in the Material World (1973), and “Got My Mind Set on You”, on Cloud Nine (1987). In 1971 Harrison staged two concerts to raise money to fight starvation in Bangladesh, which later became the prototype for star-studded fund-raising events. In 1979 he ventured into…

  • living instrument (international law)

    international law: Treaties: …have been described as “living instruments,” such as human rights treaties that establish an implementation system; in the case of the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950, this approach has allowed the criminalization of homosexuality to be regarded as a violation of human rights in the contemporary period…

  • Living Man Declared Dead and Other Chapters, A (work by Simon)

    Taryn Simon: A Living Man Declared Dead and Other Chapters (2011) focused on what Simon termed “bloodlines.” The project was organized in discrete sections; the centerpiece of each was a portrait of one person. That portrait was accompanied by images of all of the person’s living descendants…

  • Living Maritime Museum (museum, Mystic, Connecticut, United States)

    museum: Museums and the environment: …such as the renovation of Mystic Seaport in Connecticut as a maritime museum, the use of Ironbridge Gorge as a museum to interpret the cradle of the Industrial Revolution in England, and the restoration of the walled medieval cities at Suzdal and Vladimir in Russia. In Australia the heyday of…

  • Living My Life (work by Goldman)

    anarchism: Anarchism in the Americas: …1892; and Emma Goldman, whose Living My Life gives a picture of radical activity in the United States at the turn of the century. Goldman, who had immigrated to the United States from tsarist Russia in 1885, soon became a preeminent figure in the American anarchist movement. A follower of…

  • Living Newspaper (theatrical production)

    Living Newspaper, theatrical production consisting of dramatizations of current events, social problems, and controversial issues, with appropriate suggestions for improvement. The technique was used for propaganda in the U.S.S.R. from the time of the Revolution in 1917. It became part of the Epic

  • Living on Velvet (film by Borzage [1935])

    Frank Borzage: In Living on Velvet (1935), George Brent played a guilt-racked pilot who was responsible for the deaths of his family in a plane crash, and Kay Francis played the socialite who helps him face up to his trauma.

  • living organism

    chemical compound: Organic compounds: …that can be described as living have a crucial dependence on organic compounds. Foodstuffs—namely, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates—are organic compounds, as are such vital substances as hemoglobin, chlorophyll, enzymes, hormones, and vitamins.

  • Living Out Loud (film by LaGravenese [1998])

    Holly Hunter: …Ordinary (1997), and the romance Living Out Loud (1998).

  • living picture (theatre)

    stagecraft: Renaissance costume: Tableaux vivant and mimes were performed in costumes similar to those worn in the mystery and morality plays. With the gradual decline of church power and the revival of Classical ideas, Renaissance designers found their inspiration in the myths and legends of Greece and Rome.

  • Living Relic, A (work by Turgenev)

    Ivan Turgenev: Sketches of rural life: …of the paralyzed Lukeriya in “A Living Relic” (1874).

  • living standards

    Standard of living, in social science, the aspirations of an individual or group for goods and services. Alternatively, the term is applied specifically to a measure of the consumption of goods and services by an individual or group, sometimes called “level of living” (what is) as opposed to

  • living stone (plant)

    Lithops, (genus Lithops), genus of about 40 species of small succulent plants of the carpetweed family (Aizoaceae), native to southern Africa. The plants are generally found in rocky arid regions of southern Angola, Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, and it is believed that their small rocklike

  • Living Stream Ministry (religious publication)

    the Local Church: …to California, where he established Living Stream Ministry, the publishing arm of the movement, to facilitate his own writing and teaching activity and through which he offered guidance to the movement’s otherwise autonomous congregations. The movement, commonly known as the Local Church, a name derived from Nee’s teaching of one…

  • Living Theatre, The (American theatrical company)

    The Living Theatre, theatrical repertory company founded in New York City in 1947 by Julian Beck and Judith Malina. It is known for its innovative production of experimental drama, often on radical themes, and for its confrontations with tradition, authority, and sometimes audiences. The group

  • living things

    chemical compound: Organic compounds: …that can be described as living have a crucial dependence on organic compounds. Foodstuffs—namely, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates—are organic compounds, as are such vital substances as hemoglobin, chlorophyll, enzymes, hormones, and vitamins.

  • living trust (law)

    trust company: …companies is concerned chiefly with living trusts and testamentary trusts. Any person during his lifetime may convey property in trust to a trust company with instructions as to the disposal of the income from the property and eventually of the property itself. Such living trusts are used especially by the…

  • living will (law)

    Living will, document in which an individual specifies medical measures to be taken or withheld in the event that one becomes disabled. Advances in medical technology now allow the body to be kept alive in circumstances that would normally result in death (e.g., inability to eat, breathe, or

  • Living with War (album by Young)

    Neil Young: Later work and causes: …Reagan, whereas in 2006, on Living with War, he voiced his angry opposition to the Iraq War and conservative Pres. George W. Bush’s handling of it. The album was performed on a tour with Crosby, Stills and Nash that was captured in the film Déjà Vu (2008; directed by Young…

  • living, cost of (economics)

    Cost of living, monetary cost of maintaining a particular standard of living, usually measured by calculating the average cost of a number of specific goods and services required by a particular group. The goods and services used as indexes may be the minimum necessary to preserve health or may be

  • living, standard of

    Standard of living, in social science, the aspirations of an individual or group for goods and services. Alternatively, the term is applied specifically to a measure of the consumption of goods and services by an individual or group, sometimes called “level of living” (what is) as opposed to

  • Living, The (novel by Dillard)

    Annie Dillard: When her first novel, The Living, appeared in 1992, reviewers found in its depictions of the logging culture of the turn-of-the-20th-century Pacific Northwest the same visionary realism that distinguished the author’s nonfiction. The Annie Dillard Reader was published in 1994 and Mornings Like This: Found Poems arrived in 1995.…

  • living-rock cactus (plant)

    Living-rock cactus, (genus Ariocarpus), genus of eight species of cacti (family Cactaceae), especially Ariocarpus fissuratus. The plants are native to Texas and Mexico and live on limestone-rich soil. Ariocarpus species contain sufficient alkaloids, principally hordenine, to make them mildly

  • Livings, Henry (British author)

    Henry Livings, British working-class playwright whose farces convey serious truths. His plays, which resemble parables, exhibit both a dazzling comic flair and an unexpected force and profundity that is heightened by his use of colloquial language. After attending the University of Liverpool,

  • Livingston (county, New York, United States)

    Livingston, county, western New York state, U.S. The terrain rises from a lowland region in the north to rolling hills in the south. The Genesee River flows through the western part of the county. Lakes include Conesus and Hemlock. Among the parklands is Letchworth State Park, where the Genesee has

  • Livingston (Montana, United States)

    Livingston, city, seat (1887) of Park county, south-central Montana, U.S. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Bozeman near the Yellowstone River. The city is surrounded by divisions of the Gallatin National Forest. Originally called Clark’s City, it was founded in 1882 as a division

  • Livingston (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Livingston, “new town,” West Lothian council area, southeastern Scotland, on the Glasgow-Edinburgh motorway (superhighway). Livingston lies mainly within the historic county of West Lothian, but the part of the town south of the River Almond belongs to the historic county of Midlothian. Livingston

  • Livingston, Edward (American politician)

    Edward Livingston, American lawyer, legislator, and statesman, who codified criminal law and procedure. Livingston was admitted to the bar in 1785 and began to practice law in New York City. He was a Republican representative in Congress from 1795 to 1801, when he was appointed U.S. district

  • Livingston, Henry Brockholst (United States jurist)

    Henry Brockholst Livingston, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1806 to 1823. Livingston joined the Continental Army at the age of 19 and saw action with Benedict Arnold and as an aide to General Philip John Schuyler and General Arthur St. Clair before accompanying his

  • Livingston, Jay (American songwriter)

    Jay Harold Livingston, American songwriter (born March 28, 1915, McDonald, Pa.—died Oct. 17, 2001, Los Angeles, Calif.), in collaboration with Ray Evans, created songs for some 80 motion pictures, including three songs that won Academy Awards—“Buttons and Bows” from the Bob Hope western comedy T

  • Livingston, M. Stanley (American physicist)

    cyclotron: physicists Ernest Orlando Lawrence and M. Stanley Livingston. A cyclotron consists of two hollow semicircular electrodes, called dees, mounted back to back, separated by a narrow gap, in an evacuated chamber between the poles of a magnet. An electric field, alternating in polarity, is created in the gap by a…

  • Livingston, Neville O’Reilly (Jamaican musician)

    Bob Marley: …name Winston Hubert MacIntosh) and Bunny Wailer (original name Neville O’Reilly Livingston; b. April 10, 1947, Kingston). The trio, which named itself the Wailers (because, as Marley stated, “We started out crying”), received vocal coaching by noted singer Joe Higgs. Later they were joined by vocalist Junior Braithwaite and backup…

  • Livingston, Robert (American politician and merchant)

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