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  • excision (ritual surgical procedure)

    female genital cutting: The procedure: Excision. Type 2 FGC involves the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora. It can also include the removal of the labia majora. Infibulation (also called Pharoanic circumcision). The vaginal opening is reduced by removing all or parts of the external…

  • excision nuclease (enzyme)

    Aziz Sancar: …of an enzyme known as uvrABC nuclease (excision nuclease, or excinuclease) in E. coli. The enzyme specifically targeted DNA that had been damaged by UV or chemical exposure, cutting the affected DNA strand at each end of the damaged region and thereby enabling the removal of the damaged nucleotides.

  • excision repair (biology)

    nucleic acid: Repair: …DNA lesions is by an excision repair pathway. Enzymes recognize damage within DNA, probably by detecting an altered conformation of DNA, and then nick the strand on either side of the lesion, allowing a small single-stranded DNA to be excised. DNA polymerase and DNA ligase then repair the single-stranded gap.…

  • excisional biopsy (medicine)

    cancer: Biopsy: In excisional biopsy the entire tumour is removed. This procedure is carried out when the mass is small enough to be removed completely without adverse consequences. Incisional biopsies, which remove only a piece of a tumour, are done if the mass is large. Biopsies obtained with…

  • excisionase (protein)

    nucleic acid: Site-specific recombination: A third protein, called excisionase, recognizes the hybrid sites formed on integration and, in conjunction with integrase, catalyzes an excision process whereby the λ chromosome is removed from the bacterial chromosome.

  • Excitable Boy (album by Zevon)

    Warren Zevon: …That album was followed by Excitable Boy (1978), which featured the rollicking “Werewolves of London”—Zevon’s only major hit—as well as the geopolitically inspired songs “Roland the Headless Thompson Gunner” and “Lawyers, Guns and Money.”

  • excitation (physiology)

    nervous system: Stimulus-response coordination: …of the cell fluid called irritability. In simple organisms, such as algae, protozoans, and fungi, a response in which the organism moves toward or away from the stimulus is called taxis. In larger and more complicated organisms—those in which response involves the synchronization and integration of events in different parts…

  • excitation (atomic physics)

    Excitation, in physics, the addition of a discrete amount of energy (called excitation energy) to a system—such as an atomic nucleus, an atom, or a molecule—that results in its alteration, ordinarily from the condition of lowest energy (ground state) to one of higher energy (excited state). In

  • excitation energy (atomic physics)

    excitation: …discrete amount of energy (called excitation energy) to a system—such as an atomic nucleus, an atom, or a molecule—that results in its alteration, ordinarily from the condition of lowest energy (ground state) to one of higher energy (excited state).

  • excitation state (atomic physics)

    energy state: … higher energy levels are called excited states. See also Franck-Hertz experiment.

  • excitatory amino acid (biology)

    nervous system: Amino acids: Of the excitatory amino acid receptors, the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor has been thoroughly characterized. Patch-clamp studies show that this receptor is influenced by the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+). In the absence of Mg2+, activated NMDA receptors open nonspecific cationic channels with no variation when the…

  • excitatory postsynaptic potential (biochemistry)

    nervous system: Postsynaptic potential: …generated, it is called an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). Other neurotransmitters stimulate a net efflux of positive charge (usually in the form of K+ diffusing out of the cell), leaving the inside of the membrane more negative. Because this hyperpolarization draws the membrane potential farther from the threshold, making it…

  • excited state (atomic physics)

    energy state: … higher energy levels are called excited states. See also Franck-Hertz experiment.

  • excitement phase (physiology)

    sexual intercourse: In the excitement stage, the body prepares for sexual activity by tensing muscles and increasing heart rate. In the male, blood flows into the penis, causing it to become erect; in the female, the vaginal walls become moist, the inner part of the vagina becomes wider, and…

  • excitement stage (physiology)

    sexual intercourse: In the excitement stage, the body prepares for sexual activity by tensing muscles and increasing heart rate. In the male, blood flows into the penis, causing it to become erect; in the female, the vaginal walls become moist, the inner part of the vagina becomes wider, and…

  • exciter (electronics)

    electric generator: Field excitation: …another generator, known as an exciter, mounted on the same shaft. This may be a direct-current generator. In most modern installations, a synchronous generator is used as the exciter. For this purpose, the field windings of the exciter are placed on its stator and the phase windings on its rotor.…

  • exciton (physics)

    Exciton, the combination of an electron and a positive hole (an empty electron state in a valence band), which is free to move through a nonmetallic crystal as a unit. Because the electron and the positive hole have equal but opposite electrical charges, the exciton as a whole has no net

  • exciton state (physics)

    radiation: Excitation states: …important of them are the exciton state, the polaron state, the charge-transfer (or charge-separated) state, and the plasmon state.

  • exclamation mark (grammar)

    punctuation: Punctuation in Greek and Latin to 1600: …their modern names, and the exclamation mark, quotation marks, and the dash had been added to the system.

  • excludability (economics)

    private good: …both excludable and rivalrous, where excludability means that producers can prevent some people from consuming the good or service based on their ability or willingness to pay and rivalrous indicates that one person’s consumption of a product reduces the amount available for consumption by another. In practice, private goods exist…

  • excluded middle, law of (logic)

    realism: Metaphysical realism and antirealism: …logical principles such as the law of excluded middle (for every proposition p, either p or its negation, not-p, is true, there being no “middle” true proposition between them) can no longer be justified if a strongly realist conception of truth is replaced by an antirealist one which restricts what…

  • excluded peril (insurance)

    insurance: Excluded perils: Among the excluded perils (or exclusions) of homeowner’s policies are the following: loss due to freezing when the dwelling is vacant or unoccupied, unless stated precautions are taken; loss from weight of ice or snow to property such as fences, swimming pools, docks,…

  • excluded third, principle of (logic)

    realism: Metaphysical realism and antirealism: …logical principles such as the law of excluded middle (for every proposition p, either p or its negation, not-p, is true, there being no “middle” true proposition between them) can no longer be justified if a strongly realist conception of truth is replaced by an antirealist one which restricts what…

  • exclusion (insurance)

    insurance: Excluded perils: Among the excluded perils (or exclusions) of homeowner’s policies are the following: loss due to freezing when the dwelling is vacant or unoccupied, unless stated precautions are taken; loss from weight of ice or snow to property such as fences, swimming pools, docks,…

  • exclusion and avoidance, principle of (biology)

    plant disease: Exclusion and avoidance: The principle of exclusion and avoidance is to keep the pathogen away from the growing host plant. This practice commonly excludes pathogens by disinfection of plants, seeds, or other parts, using chemicals or heat. Inspection and certification of seed and other planting stock help ensure freedom…

  • Exclusion Bill (English history)

    United Kingdom: The exclusion crisis and the Tory reaction: …when the Commons passed the Exclusion Bill, Charles dissolved Parliament and called new elections. These did not change the mood of the country, for in the second Exclusion Parliament (1679) the Commons also voted to bypass the duke of York in favour of his daughter Mary and William of Orange,…

  • exclusion chromatography (chemistry)

    Gel chromatography, in analytical chemistry, technique for separating chemical substances by exploiting the differences in the rates at which they pass through a bed of a porous, semisolid substance. The method is especially useful for separating enzymes, proteins, peptides, and amino acids from e

  • Exclusion Parliament (British history)

    United Kingdom: The exclusion crisis and the Tory reaction: First he co-opted the leading exclusionists, including the earl of Shaftesbury, the earl of Halifax, and the earl of Essex, into his government, and then he offered a plan for safeguarding the church during his brother’s reign. But when the Commons passed the Exclusion Bill, Charles dissolved Parliament and called…

  • exclusion principle (physics)

    Pauli exclusion principle, assertion that no two electrons in an atom can be at the same time in the same state or configuration, proposed (1925) by the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli to account for the observed patterns of light emission from atoms. The exclusion principle subsequently has been

  • exclusion, principle of (mathematics)

    combinatorics: The principle of inclusion and exclusion: derangements: This is the principle of inclusion and exclusion expressed by Sylvester.

  • exclusion, right of (Roman Catholic history)

    conclave: History: …church had tacitly accepted a right of veto, or exclusion, in papal elections by the Catholic kings of Europe. Typically, a cardinal who was charged with the mission by his home government would inform the conclave of the inadmissability of certain papal candidates. The royal right of exclusion prevented the…

  • exclusionary rule (American law)

    Exclusionary rule, in U.S. law, the principle that evidence seized by police in violation of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution may not be used against a criminal defendant at trial. The Fourth Amendment guarantees freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures—that is, those made

  • Exclusionist (Australian history)

    Exclusive, in Australian history, member of the sociopolitical faction of free settlers, officials, and military officers of the convict colony of New South Wales, formed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Exclusives sought to exclude Emancipists (former convicts) from full civil r

  • Exclusive (album by Brown)

    Chris Brown: …also released his second album, Exclusive, which was lauded for showcasing Brown’s growing maturity while still appealing to his target teen demographic. Exclusive featured collaborations with such big names as Lil Wayne and Kanye West, and its single “Kiss Kiss,” featuring singer-rapper T-Pain, reached the top of the Billboard Hot…

  • Exclusive (Australian history)

    Exclusive, in Australian history, member of the sociopolitical faction of free settlers, officials, and military officers of the convict colony of New South Wales, formed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Exclusives sought to exclude Emancipists (former convicts) from full civil r

  • Exclusive Agreement (British history)

    Abu Dhabi: By the terms of the Exclusive Agreement of 1892, its foreign affairs were placed under British control. During the long rule of Sheikh Zayd ibn Khalīfah (1855–1908), Abu Dhabi was the premier power of the Trucial Coast, but in the early 20th century it was outpaced by Al-Shāriqah and Dubai.…

  • Exclusive Brethren (religious community)

    Plymouth Brethren: …churches and were known as Exclusive Brethren; the others, called Open Brethren, maintained a congregational form of church government and less rigorous standards for membership. Exclusive Brethren have suffered further divisions.

  • exclusive disjunction (logic)

    disjunction: For clarity, exclusive disjunction (either x or y, but not both), symbolized x ? y, must be distinguished from inclusive disjunction (either x or y, or both x and y), symbolized x ∨ y. See also implication.

  • exclusive economic zone (international law)

    conservation: Fishing: …stocks are within the country’s exclusive economic zone, or EEZ. (Beyond its territorial waters, every coastal country may establish an EEZ extending 370 km [200 nautical miles] from shore. Within the EEZ the coastal state has the right to exploit and regulate fisheries and carry out various other activities to…

  • exclusive monotheism (religion)

    monotheism: Exclusive monotheism: For exclusive monotheism only one god exists; other gods either simply do not exist at all or, at most, are false gods or demons—i.e., beings that are acknowledged to exist but that cannot be compared in power or any other way with the…

  • exclusivism (religion)

    Christianity: Contemporary views: According to exclusivism, there is salvation only for Christians. This theology underlay much of the history outlined above, expressed both in the Roman Catholic dogma extra ecclesiam nulla salus (“outside the church no salvation”) and in the assumption of the 18th- and 19th-century Protestant missionary movements. The…

  • excommunication (religion)

    Excommunication, form of ecclesiastical censure by which a person is excluded from the communion of believers, the rites or sacraments of a church, and the rights of church membership but not necessarily from membership in the church as such. Some method of exclusion belongs to the administration

  • excrement (biology)

    Feces, solid bodily waste discharged from the large intestine through the anus during defecation. Feces are normally removed from the body one or two times a day. About 100 to 250 grams (3 to 8 ounces) of feces are excreted by a human adult daily. Normally, feces are made up of 75 percent water and

  • excretion (biology)

    Excretion, the process by which animals rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the

  • excretion rate (physiology)

    renal system: Quantitative tests: …is not the same as excretion rate. The clearance of inulin and some other compounds is not altered by raising its plasma concentration, because the amount of urine completely cleared of the agent remains the same. But the excretion rate equals total quantity excreted per millilitre of filtrate per minute,…

  • excurrent branching (plant anatomy)

    tree: The anatomy and organization of wood: …with smaller lateral branches (excurrent branching). Many angiosperms show for some part of their development a well-defined central axis, which then divides continually to form a crown of branches of similar dimensions (deliquescent branching). This can be found in many oaks, the honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), the silver linden…

  • Excursion to Tilsit, The (work by Sudermann)

    Hermann Sudermann: …girl, and Litauische Geschichten (1917; The Excursion to Tilsit), a collection of stories dealing with the simple villagers of his native region, are notable. Das Bilderbuch meiner Jugend (1922; The Book of My Youth) is a vivid account of his early years in East Prussia.

  • Excursion, The (poem by Wordsworth)

    William Wordsworth: The Recluse and The Prelude: …was published in 1814 as The Excursion and consisted of nine long philosophical monologues spoken by pastoral characters. The first monologue (Book I) contained a version of one of Wordsworth’s greatest poems, “The Ruined Cottage,” composed in superb blank verse in 1797. This bleak narrative records the slow, pitiful decline…

  • Exe, River (river, England, United Kingdom)

    River Exe, river in southwest England, rising from its source on Exmoor in Somerset, only 5 mi (8 km) from the Bristol Channel, and flowing southward 60 mi across Devon to its estuary beginning at Exeter and into the English Channel at Exmouth. The Exe is an important river for angling (salmon and

  • Execias (Greek artist)

    Exekias, Greek potter and painter who, with the Amasis Painter, is considered the finest and most original of black-figure masters of the mid-6th century bc and is one of the major figures in the history of the art. He signed 13 vases (2 as painter and potter and 11 as potter). The commonest

  • Execration Texts (ancient Egyptian literature)

    Palestine: Middle Bronze Age: …region, and the 20th–19th-century “Execration Texts,” inscriptions of Egypt’s enemies’ names on pottery, which was ceremonially broken to invoke a curse.) The culture introduced at this stage was essentially the same as the culture found by the Israelites who moved into Palestine in the 14th and 13th centuries bce.

  • executed parol license (property law)

    license: …may be called an “executed parol license,” though it is more accurately called a servitude created by estoppel, a term that better describes both the process used to create the right and the resulting right itself. An executed parol license creates a right that runs with the land indefinitely,…

  • execution (law)

    Capital punishment, execution of an offender sentenced to death after conviction by a court of law of a criminal offense. Capital punishment should be distinguished from extrajudicial executions carried out without due process of law. The term death penalty is sometimes used interchangeably with

  • Execution of Mayor Yin, The (work by Ch’en Jo-hsi)

    Chinese literature: Literature in Taiwan after 1949: …of stories Yin hsien-chang (1976; The Execution of Mayor Yin) by Ch’en Jo-hsi, are given broad exposure.

  • Executioner’s Song, The (televsion film by Schiller [1982])

    Tommy Lee Jones: …of Norman Mailer’s biographical novel The Executioner’s Song. He was also acclaimed for his convincing depiction of a former Texas Ranger in the much-watched television miniseries Lonesome Dove (1989), adapted from Larry McMurtry’s western novel of the same name. Jones then played Clay Shaw, a Louisiana businessman suspected of conspiring…

  • Executioner’s Song, The (work by Mailer)

    American literature: New fictional modes: …Pulitzer Prize-winning “true life novel” The Executioner’s Song (1979). When he returned to fiction, his most effective work was Harlot’s Ghost (1991), about the Central Intelligence Agency. His final novels took Jesus Christ (The Gospel According to the Son [1997]) and Adolf Hitler (The Castle in the Forest [2007]) as…

  • Executioner, The (American boxer)

    Bernard Hopkins, American boxer who dominated the middleweight division in the early 2000s with a combination of speed and precision that earned him the nickname “The Executioner.” Hopkins was involved in street crime as a teenager, and at age 17 he was convicted of armed robbery and sentenced to

  • executive (government)

    Executive, In politics, a person or persons constituting the branch of government charged with executing or carrying out the laws and appointing officials, formulating and instituting foreign policy, and providing diplomatic representation. In the U.S., a system of checks and balances keeps the

  • executive (business)

    business organization: Executive management: The markets that corporations serve reflect the great variety of humanity and human wants; accordingly, firms that serve different markets exhibit great differences in technology, structure, beliefs, and practice. Because the essence of competition and innovation lies in differentiation and change, corporations are…

  • executive action (United States government)

    Executive order, principal mode of administrative action on the part of the president of the United States. The executive order came into use before 1850, but the current numbering system goes back only to the administration of Pres. Abraham Lincoln. One of the earliest executive orders still in

  • executive agreement (international law)

    Executive agreement, an agreement between the United States and a foreign government that is less formal than a treaty and is not subject to the constitutional requirement for ratification by two-thirds of the U.S. Senate. The Constitution of the United States does not specifically give a president

  • executive attention (psychology)

    memory: Executive attention: In its role of managing information in short-term memory, executive attention is highly effective in blocking potentially distracting information from the focus of attention. This is one way in which the brain is able to keep information active and in focus. Yet there are…

  • executive branch (government)

    Executive, In politics, a person or persons constituting the branch of government charged with executing or carrying out the laws and appointing officials, formulating and instituting foreign policy, and providing diplomatic representation. In the U.S., a system of checks and balances keeps the

  • Executive Commission (Filipino history)

    Philippines: World War II: An Executive Commission made up of more than 30 members of the old Filipino political elite had been cooperating with Japanese military authorities in Manila since January.

  • Executive Committee of Security (Austrian history)

    Adolf Fischhof: …1848) elected president of the Executive Committee of Security, the ruling force in the Austrian capital through the summer of 1848. A leading member of the short-lived parliaments at Vienna and Kremsier (now Kromě?í?, Czech Republic), he played a major role in the drafting of the ill-fated Kremsier constitution. With…

  • Executive Council (Australian government)

    Victoria: Constitutional framework: …ministers become members of the Executive Council, which advises the governor, who is regarded as the trustee of the constitution and stands above party politics. The governor summons and prorogues Parliament, outlines the government’s legislative program at the beginning of each session, and gives assent to bills that do not…

  • executive discretion (government)

    William Barr: Attorney general for the Trump administration: …a “facially-lawful” exercise of “Executive discretion” and that obstruction would not apply unless Trump had already been found guilty of an underlying crime. Such arguments were advanced by many Trump supporters as well as by advocates of increased presidential authority.

  • Executive House (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    construction: Use of reinforced concrete: …walls to build the 39-story Executive House in Chicago to a height of 111 metres (371 feet).

  • executive information system (computer science)

    information system: Executive information systems: Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form, typically via a graphical digital dashboard. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are only…

  • Executive Mansion (presidential office and residence, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    White House, the official office and residence of the president of the United States at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W. in Washington, D.C. The White House and its landscaped grounds occupy 18 acres (7.2 hectares). Since the administration of George Washington (1789–97), who occupied presidential

  • executive order (United States government)

    Executive order, principal mode of administrative action on the part of the president of the United States. The executive order came into use before 1850, but the current numbering system goes back only to the administration of Pres. Abraham Lincoln. One of the earliest executive orders still in

  • Executive Order 10730 (United States history)
  • Executive Order 11905 (United States history)

    Executive Order 11905, executive order issued February 19, 1976, by U.S. President Gerald Ford, which prohibited any member of the U.S. government from engaging or conspiring to engage in any political assassination anywhere in the world. Promulgated in the wake of revelations that the Central

  • Executive Order 12036 (United States history)

    Executive Order 11905: It was successively superseded by Executive Order 12036 (issued by President Jimmy Carter on January 26, 1978) and Executive Order 12333 (issued by President Ronald Reagan on December 4, 1981), both of which affirmed the ban in the same language, which differed only slightly from that of Ford’s order.

  • Executive Order 12333 (United States history)

    Executive Order 11905: …on January 26, 1978) and Executive Order 12333 (issued by President Ronald Reagan on December 4, 1981), both of which affirmed the ban in the same language, which differed only slightly from that of Ford’s order.

  • Executive Order 13780 (United States history)

    MS St. Louis: Donald Trump signed an executive order that suspended immigration from certain Muslim countries. The following year Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau formally apologized for his country’s failure to grant asylum to the Jews on board the St. Louis.

  • Executive Order 8802 (United States history)

    Executive Order 8802, executive order enacted on June 25, 1941, by U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt that helped to eliminate racial discrimination in the U.S. defense industry and was an important step toward ending it in federal government employment practices overall. Even before the Japanese

  • Executive Order 9066 (United States history)

    Executive Order 9066, (February 19, 1942), executive order issued by U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, which granted the secretary of war and his commanders the power “to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which

  • Executive Order 9102 (United States history)

    Executive Order 9066: Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9102 on March 18, 1942, creating the War Relocation Authority, a civilian agency tasked with speeding the process along. A few days later the first wave of “evacuees” arrived at Manzanar War Relocation Center, a collection of tar-paper barracks in the California desert,…

  • Executive Order 9981 (United States history)

    Executive Order 9981, executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by U.S. Pres. Harry S. Truman that abolished racial segregation in the U.S. military. Beginning with the initial skirmishes of the American Revolution, African Americans had played an important role in the armed forces of the United

  • executive privilege (government)

    Executive privilege, principle in the United States, derived from common law, that provides immunity from subpoena to executive branch officials in the conduct of their governmental duties. Although the term executive privilege was coined by the administration of Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower in the

  • Executive Suite (film by Wise [1954])

    Robert Wise: Films of the 1950s: …films of the decade was Executive Suite (1954), the chronicle of a cutthroat power struggle at a furniture company. It featured a large distinguished cast (including William Holden, Fredric March, Barbara Stanwyck, Walter Pidgeon, June Allyson, and Shelley Winters ) and several subplots, the various strands of which were shrewdly…

  • executive theory (philosophy)

    philosophy of mind: Executives, buffers, and HOTs: Executive theories, such as the theory proposed by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980), stress the role of conscious states in deliberation and planning. Many philosophers, however, doubt that all such executive activities are conscious; they suspect instead that conscious states play a more tangential…

  • executor (law)

    Executor, in law, person designated by a testator—i.e., a person making a will—to direct the distribution of his estate after his death. The system is found only in countries using Anglo-American law; in civil-law countries the estate goes directly to the heir or heirs. The executor is usually a

  • exedra (architecture)

    Exedra, in architecture, semicircular or rectangular niche with a raised seat; more loosely applied, the term also refers to the apse (q.v.) of a church or to a niche therein. In ancient Greece exedrae were commonly found in the parts of major cities that had been reserved for worship, such as t

  • exegesis (biblical interpretation)

    Exegesis, the critical interpretation of the biblical text to discover its intended meaning. Both Jews and Christians have used various exegetical methods throughout their history, and doctrinal and polemical intentions have often influenced interpretive results; a given text may yield a number of

  • Exekias (Greek artist)

    Exekias, Greek potter and painter who, with the Amasis Painter, is considered the finest and most original of black-figure masters of the mid-6th century bc and is one of the major figures in the history of the art. He signed 13 vases (2 as painter and potter and 11 as potter). The commonest

  • Exempla (work by Nepos)

    Cornelius Nepos: …invention, the universal comparative chronology; Exempla (in at least 5 books), which consisted of anecdotes; possibly a universal geography to match the Chronica; and biographies of the elder Cato and Cicero. There survive only one complete and one partial book from the De viris illustribus; the biographies in these extant…

  • exempla (literature)

    Exemplum, (Latin: “example,” ) short tale originally incorporated by a medieval preacher into his sermon to emphasize a moral or illustrate a point of doctrine. Fables, folktales, and legends were gathered into collections, such as Exempla (c. 1200) by Jacques de Vitry, for the use of preachers.

  • Exemplar Humanae Vitae (work by Acosta)

    Uriel Acosta: …after writing a short autobiography, Exemplar Humanae Vitae (1687; “Example of a Human Life”), he shot himself. Acosta’s Exemplar depicted revealed religion as disruptive of natural law and a source of hatred and superstition. In contrast, he advocated a faith based on natural law and reason.

  • exemplarism (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Bonaventure: …result, Aristotle was ignorant of exemplarism (God’s creation of the world according to ideas in his mind) and also of divine providence and government of the world. This involved Aristotle in a threefold blindness: he taught that the world is eternal, that all men share one agent intellect (the active…

  • exemplary damages (law)

    Punitive damages, legal damages a judge or a jury may grant a plaintiff to punish and make an example of the defendant. Punitive damages are generally meted out in only the most extreme circumstances, usually in breaches of obligation with significant evidence of oppression, fraud, gross

  • Exemplary Stories (work by Cervantes)

    Miguel de Cervantes: Publication of Don Quixote: The next year, the 12 Exemplary Stories were published. The prologue contains the only known verbal portrait of the author:

  • exemplum (literature)

    Exemplum, (Latin: “example,” ) short tale originally incorporated by a medieval preacher into his sermon to emphasize a moral or illustrate a point of doctrine. Fables, folktales, and legends were gathered into collections, such as Exempla (c. 1200) by Jacques de Vitry, for the use of preachers.

  • exemption (taxation)

    property tax: Theory of property taxation: …weakened by a variety of exemptions. In the United States, for example, exemptions apply to about one-third of the land area in the average locality. Most of the land exempted from a property tax comprises streets, schools, parks, and other property of local government, meaning that the application of the…

  • exenatide (drug)

    antidiabetic drug: Pramlintide, exenatide, and sitagliptin: Other antidiabetic drugs include pramlintide and exenatide. Pramlintide is an injectable synthetic hormone (based on the human hormone amylin) that regulates blood glucose levels by slowing the absorption of food in the stomach and by inhibiting glucagon, which normally stimulates liver glucose production.…

  • exequatur (law)

    Spain: Castile: …Ferdinand claimed the right of exequatur, according to which all papal bulls and breves (authorizing letters) could be published only with his permission. A letter from Ferdinand to his viceroy in Naples, written in 1510, upbraids the viceroy for permitting the pope to publish a brief in Naples, threatens that…

  • Exequias de la lengua castellana (work by Forner)

    Juan Pablo Forner: …two most important works are Exequias de la lengua castellana (1795; “Exequies of the Castilian Language”), a defense of Castilian literature; and Oración apologética por la Espa?a y su mérito literario (1786; “Arguments on Behalf of Spain and Her Literary Merits”), in which he refuted the idea that Spanish literature…

  • exercise (physical fitness)

    Exercise, the training of the body to improve its function and enhance its fitness. The terms exercise and physical activity are often used interchangeably, but this article will distinguish between them. Physical activity is an inclusive term that refers to any expenditure of energy brought about

  • exercise bicycle (exercise equipment)

    bicycle: Basic types: …front rider steering; and stationary exercise bicycles.

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