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  • Ewha Women’s University (university, Seoul, South Korea)

    Christianity: Missions to Asia: …Kim, a Korean graduate of Ewha College, built that institution into the world’s largest women’s university, and Sun Myung Moon founded the Unification Church, which teaches a unique Christian theology.

  • Ewige Bund (Swiss history)

    Everlasting League, (Aug. 1, 1291), the inaugural confederation from which, through a long series of accessions, Switzerland grew to statehood. The league was concluded by the representatives of three districts, Uri, Schwyz, and Nidwalden, for self-defense against all who might attack or trouble

  • Ewing sarcoma (pathology)

    Ewing tumour of bone, common malignant tumour of bone that occurs mainly in Caucasian males under the age of 20. This form of bone cancer appears most commonly in the shafts of long bones, such as the femur, tibia, or humerus, or in the ribs or flat bones of the pelvis, scapula, or skull. Related

  • Ewing tumour of bone (pathology)

    Ewing tumour of bone, common malignant tumour of bone that occurs mainly in Caucasian males under the age of 20. This form of bone cancer appears most commonly in the shafts of long bones, such as the femur, tibia, or humerus, or in the ribs or flat bones of the pelvis, scapula, or skull. Related

  • Ewing, A. C. (British philosopher and educator)

    A.C. Ewing, British philosopher and educator and an advocate of a Neo-Realist school of thought; he is noted for his proposals toward a general theory of personal and normative ethics (as against the purely descriptive). He proposed a theory of the intuitive knowledge of good and duty

  • Ewing, Alfred Cyril (British philosopher and educator)

    A.C. Ewing, British philosopher and educator and an advocate of a Neo-Realist school of thought; he is noted for his proposals toward a general theory of personal and normative ethics (as against the purely descriptive). He proposed a theory of the intuitive knowledge of good and duty

  • Ewing, Frederick R. (American author)

    Theodore Sturgeon, American science-fiction writer who emphasized romantic and sexual themes in his stories. After dropping out of high school, Sturgeon worked at a variety of jobs. He sold his first short story in 1937 and began to publish in science-fiction magazines under several pseudonyms. He

  • Ewing, James (British scientist)

    Ewing tumour of bone: It is named after James Ewing, who described the disease in 1921.

  • Ewing, Juliana (British author)

    children's literature: Prehistory (early Middle Ages to 1712): Overtheway (in Juliana Ewing’s Mrs. Overtheway’s Remembrances, 1869), recalling her childhood reading, refers to it as “that book of wondrous fascination.” A softened Puritanism also reveals itself in Bunyan’s Book for Boys and Girls: or, Country Rhymes for Children (1686), as well as the Divine and Moral…

  • Ewing, Maurice (American geophysicist)

    Maurice Ewing, U.S. geophysicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding of marine sediments and ocean basins, using seismic methods. Studying the structure of the Earth’s crust and mantle and making seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic basins, along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,

  • Ewing, Patrick (American basketball player)

    Patrick Ewing, Jamaican-born American basketball player and coach who was one of the dominant stars of his era, primarily while playing for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Ewing arrived in the United States at age 11, and he was introduced to basketball relatively

  • Ewing, Patrick Aloysius (American basketball player)

    Patrick Ewing, Jamaican-born American basketball player and coach who was one of the dominant stars of his era, primarily while playing for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Ewing arrived in the United States at age 11, and he was introduced to basketball relatively

  • Ewing, Rufus (prime minister of Turks and Caicos Islands)

    Turks and Caicos Islands: History: The PNP’s leader, Rufus Ewing, became premier. After the December 2016 election, power shifted as the PDM won 10 of the 15 directly elected seats to the PNP’s five. The PDM’s Sharlene Cartwright Robinson became premier; she was the first woman to hold the position.

  • Ewing, Sir Alfred (British physicist)

    Sir Alfred Ewing, British physicist who discovered and named hysteresis, the resistance of magnetic materials to change in magnetic force. Ewing was professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Tokyo (1878–83) and professor of mechanism and applied mechanics at King’s College, Cambridge

  • Ewing, Sir James Alfred (British physicist)

    Sir Alfred Ewing, British physicist who discovered and named hysteresis, the resistance of magnetic materials to change in magnetic force. Ewing was professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Tokyo (1878–83) and professor of mechanism and applied mechanics at King’s College, Cambridge

  • Ewing, Thomas (United States government official)

    William Tecumseh Sherman: Early life and career: Thomas Ewing, a family friend and a Whig political force in Ohio, adopted the boy, and his foster mother added William to his name. When Sherman was 16, Ewing obtained an appointment to West Point for him. Sherman graduated near the head of his class…

  • Ewing, William Maurice (American geophysicist)

    Maurice Ewing, U.S. geophysicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding of marine sediments and ocean basins, using seismic methods. Studying the structure of the Earth’s crust and mantle and making seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic basins, along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,

  • éwondo (people)

    Yaunde, a Bantu-speaking people of the hilly area of south-central Cameroon who live in and around the capital city of Yaoundé. The Yaunde and a closely related people, the Eton, comprise the two main subgroups of the Beti, which in turn constitute one of the three major subdivisions of the cluster

  • Ewostatewos (Ethiopian saint)

    Ewostatewos, Ethiopian saint and founder of one of the two great Ethiopian monastic communities. Ewostatewos and his disciples respected the traditional Judaic customs of the Ethiopian Church concerning the sabbath and impure meats and held the view that the anointing of Jesus after his death

  • Ewry, Ray C. (American athlete)

    Ray C. Ewry, American track athlete, the only Olympic athlete to win eight gold medals in individual events. As a boy, Ewry contracted polio and was expected never to walk again. He began his career as a jumper in a successful attempt to regain the use of his legs. Lean and tall at 1.9 metres (6

  • Ewuare the Great (African king)

    Benin: …under the most famous oba, Ewuare the Great (reigned c. 1440–80), who was described as a great warrior and magician. He established a hereditary succession to the throne and vastly expanded the territory of the Benin kingdom, which by the mid-16th century extended from the Niger River delta in the…

  • EX (IUCN species status)

    endangered species: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

  • ex cathedra declaration (Roman Catholicism)

    papal infallibility: …to have spoken infallibly, or ex cathedra (“from his chair” as supreme teacher). It is prerequisite that the pope intend to demand irrevocable assent from the entire church in some aspect of faith or morals. Despite the rarity of recourse to this claim, and despite the emphasis given to the…

  • ex dividend (finance)

    dividend: …stock is said to sell ex dividend, or “without dividend.” When a stock sells ex dividend, its price is usually reduced by the amount of the dividend.

  • Ex Machina (Canadian theatre company)

    Robert Lepage: Ex Machina: …found a new theatre company, Ex Machina, having left his position at the National Arts Centre the previous year. The company’s first production, The Seven Streams of the River Ota (1994), used the bombing of Hiroshima as a metaphor for contemporary problems such as AIDS. The play, set in the…

  • ex parte (law)

    Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act: …property without notice upon an ex parte application of probable cause that the property is associated with criminal activity. In this case, criminal charges need not be provided against a defendant. In contrast to criminal prosecutions, where the burden of proof is beyond a reasonable doubt, only the lesser standard…

  • Ex parte Endo (United States Supreme Court decision [1944])

    Japanese American internment: Life in the camps: …decision, in its ruling on Ex parte Endo, the Supreme Court skirted the constitutionality of internment as a policy but determined that the government could not detain a U.S. citizen whose loyalty was recognized by the U.S. government.

  • ex post facto law

    Ex post facto law, law that retroactively makes criminal conduct that was not criminal when performed, increases the punishment for crimes already committed, or changes the rules of procedure in force at the time an alleged crime was committed in a way substantially disadvantageous to the accused.

  • Ex quo singulari (papal bull)

    Benedict XIV: In his bulls Ex quo singulari (1742) and Omnium sollicitudinum (1744), he prohibited certain traditional practices that the Jesuits had allowed converts to retain in China and India. This ban set back the winning of converts in Asia and was partially reversed in 1939, when the church allowed…

  • Ex, the (Canadian fair)

    Canadian National Exhibition (CNE), fair held annually since 1879 in Toronto. Generally lasting 18 days and ending on Labour Day (the first Monday in September), the event has historically showcased Canadian commercial and technological innovations, in addition to providing a wide variety of

  • Ex-Im Bank (United States government agency)

    Export-Import Bank of the United States, one of the principal agencies of the U.S. government in international finance, originally incorporated as the Export-Import Bank of Washington on February 12, 1934, to assist in financing the export of American-made goods and services. Its name was changed

  • ex-voto offering (religion)

    folk art: Painting: …notably as the ex-voto, or votive offering, hung in churches and chapels, and in America, where portraits and local scenes were executed in oil, pastel, or watercolour. More typically, the painted depictions that occur in folk art are incorporated into other objects; for example, the American clock faces bearing local…

  • exact differential equation

    Exact equation, type of differential equation that can be solved directly without the use of any of the special techniques in the subject. A first-order differential equation (of one variable) is called exact, or an exact differential, if it is the result of a simple differentiation. The equation

  • exact equation

    Exact equation, type of differential equation that can be solved directly without the use of any of the special techniques in the subject. A first-order differential equation (of one variable) is called exact, or an exact differential, if it is the result of a simple differentiation. The equation

  • exacta (gambling)

    horse racing: Wagers: …of the first two races), perfecta (win and place winners in order in one race), quiniela (as in the perfecta but not in order), and trifecta (win, place, and show winners in order in one race). Other specialty wagers, sometimes offering extremely high payouts, require the bettor to select multiple…

  • Exacum (plant genus)

    Gentianaceae: Major genera and species: …with blue star-shaped flowers, and Exacum, a tropical indoor ornamental, are other attractive members of the family.

  • EXAFS (physics)

    spectroscopy: Applications: In extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), interference effects generated by near neighbours of an atom that has absorbed an X-ray, and the resulting oscillation frequencies, are analyzed so that distances to the near-neighbour atoms can be accurately determined. The technique is sensitive enough to…

  • Exagéré (French political history)

    Hébertist, any of the group of extremists of the French Revolution, followers of Jacques-René Hébert, who demanded a Revolutionary government that was anti-Christian and dedicated to the eradication of Girondists and other moderates. The faction arose during the violence of August 1792, when Louis

  • exaltacíon (dance section)

    Latin American dance: Folk and popular dances: …of the dances was the exaltación, which included spins and turns by the dancers, who remained separate. The Spanish seguidilla ended with a turn and a bien parado (final pose) with the couple side-by-side or facing each other.

  • exaltados (Spanish radicals)

    Spain: The failure of liberalism: Thus, the extreme radicals (exaltados) gained control by means of demonstrations in the streets, organized by clubs run on the lines of the Jacobins of the French Revolution. The conservative reaction developed in the north around the regency set up at Seo de Urgel. Without French help, the movement…

  • exaltation (astrology)

    astrology: Astrology in the Hellenistic period (3rd century bc to 3rd century ad): …are the planets’ degrees of exaltation (high influence), opposite to which are their degrees of dejection (low influence). Various arcs of the zodiac, then, are either primarily or secondarily subject to each planet, whose strength and influence in a geniture (nativity) depend partially on its position relative to these arcs…

  • Examen (work by du Chatelet)

    Voltaire: Life with Mme du Chatelet: …du Chatelet herself wrote an Examen, highly critical of the two Testaments. It was at Cirey that Voltaire, rounding out his scientific knowledge, acquired the encyclopaedic culture that was one of the outstanding facets of his genius.

  • Examen concilii tridentini (work by Chemnitz)

    Martin Chemnitz: …(1570); Examen concilii tridentini (1565–73; Examination of the Council of Trent), the standard Lutheran analysis of the doctrinal decisions of the Council of Trent (1545–63); and a partial presentation of his theology in the form of a commentary on Melanchthon’s Loci communes (1591).

  • examination (education)

    pedagogy: Foreknowledge about students and objectives: Numerous agencies produce test material for those purposes, and in many countries the idea has been widely applied to selection for entry to secondary and higher schools; one of the purposes of so-called leaving examinations is to grade students as to their suitability for further stages of education.…

  • examination (law)

    Examination, in law, the interrogation of a witness by attorneys or by a judge. In Anglo-American proceedings an examination usually begins with direct examination (called examination in chief in England) by the party who called the witness. After direct examination the attorney for the other party

  • Examination (work by Benton)

    Thomas Hart Benton: He produced a learned Examination of the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision in 1858 (which reaffirmed that the status of slaves, as property, could not be affected by federal legislation), and his 16-volume Abridgement of the Debates of Congress through 1850 is still useful.

  • Examination of Dogmatic Theology, An (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Conversion and religious beliefs: …Issledovaniye dogmaticheskogo bogosloviya (written 1880; An Examination of Dogmatic Theology), Soyedineniye i perevod chetyrokh yevangeliy (written 1881; Union and Translation of the Four Gospels), and V chyom moya vera? (written 1884; What I Believe); he later added Tsarstvo bozhiye vnutri vas (1893; The Kingdom of God Is Within You) and…

  • Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy (work by Mill)

    John Stuart Mill: The later years: …1865 he published both his Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy and his Auguste Comte and Positivism, but in both writings his motives were largely political. It was because he regarded the writings and sayings of Sir William Hamilton as the great fortress of intuitional philosophy in Great Britain that…

  • Examination of the Council of Trent (work by Chemnitz)

    Martin Chemnitz: …(1570); Examen concilii tridentini (1565–73; Examination of the Council of Trent), the standard Lutheran analysis of the doctrinal decisions of the Council of Trent (1545–63); and a partial presentation of his theology in the form of a commentary on Melanchthon’s Loci communes (1591).

  • Examiner (British magazine)

    John Forster: …he was editor of The Examiner (1847–55). In 1855 he became secretary to the lunacy commissioners and in 1861 became a commissioner. Apart from his Dickens study, Forster’s Life and Adventures of Oliver Goldsmith (1848; expanded into The Life and Times . . . , 1854), his Walter Savage Landor…

  • Examiner (British newspaper)

    English literature: Discursive prose: …outspoken journalism, particularly in his Examiner (begun 1808), was of wide influence, and by William Cobbett, whose Rural Rides (collected in 1830 from his Political Register) gives a telling picture, in forceful and clear prose, of the English countryside of his day.

  • examining justice (English law)

    magistrates' court: …the magistrates sit as “examining justices,” whereby they carry out inquiries preliminary to trial in serious matters that may require committal of the accused to a higher court for trial. All criminal charges are initially brought before magistrates’ courts. More serious charges are subsequently committed for trial at the…

  • examining magistrates (English law)

    magistrates' court: …the magistrates sit as “examining justices,” whereby they carry out inquiries preliminary to trial in serious matters that may require committal of the accused to a higher court for trial. All criminal charges are initially brought before magistrates’ courts. More serious charges are subsequently committed for trial at the…

  • exanthem subitum (disease)

    Roseola infantum, infectious disease of early childhood marked by rapidly developing high fever (to 106° F) lasting about three days and then subsiding completely. A few hours after the temperature returns to normal, a mildly itchy rash develops suddenly on the trunk, neck, and behind the ears but

  • exanthematous viral infection (pathology)

    childhood disease and disorder: Classic infectious diseases of childhood: …diseases of childhood include the exanthematous viral infections (i.e., measles, chicken pox, German measles, and other viral infections that produce skin eruptions) and mumps. The incidence of these diseases, which were once endemic among childhood populations throughout much of the world, now varies markedly. Smallpox, the most serious of the…

  • exarate pupa (zoology)

    insect: Types of larvae: …less glued to the body; exarate, with the appendages free and not glued to the body; and coarctate, which is essentially exarate but remaining covered by the cast skins (exuviae) of the next to the last larval instar (name given to the form of an insect between molts).

  • exarch (Byzantine government official)

    Italy: Lombards and Byzantines: …appointed from Constantinople and called exarch from about 590. Exarchs were changed quite frequently, probably because military figures far from the centre of the empire who developed a local following might revolt (as happened in 619 and 651) or else turn themselves into autonomous rulers. But the impermanence of the…

  • Excalfactoria (bird)

    galliform: Size range and diversity of structure: …the order are the sparrow-sized painted quail (Excalfactoria), about 13 cm (5 inches) long and about 45 grams (about 1.5 ounces) in weight. The heaviest galliform is the common, or wild, turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild specimens of which may weigh up to 11 kg (about 24 pounds); the longest is…

  • Excalibur (film by Boorman [1981])

    John Boorman: …commercial and critical success with Excalibur (1981), an ambitious production that featured breathtaking cinematography and a top-notch cast: Nicol Williamson, Patrick Stewart, Helen Mirren, and Liam Neeson. Just as visually distinctive—and oddly mystical—was The Emerald Forest (1985), the story of a boy (Charley Boorman, John’s son, in a strong

  • Excalibur (Arthurian legend)

    Excalibur, in Arthurian legend, King Arthur’s sword. As a boy, Arthur alone was able to draw the sword out of a stone in which it had been magically fixed. This account is contained in Sir Thomas Malory’s 15th-century prose rendering of the Arthurian legend, but another story in the same work

  • Excavata (biology)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: Excavata Predominantly heterotrophic organisms possessing a distinctive suspension feeding groove (ventral cytostome) and a recurrent flagellum (often beats over cytostome with a slow undulating motion). Placement of Heterolobosea and Euglenozoa within Excavata remains a source of debate, due to confounding morphological and genetic evidence. Fornicata…

  • excavating machine (engineering)

    Excavating machine, any machine, usually self-powered, that is used in digging or earth-moving operations of some kind; the power shovel, bulldozer, and grader (qq.v.) are

  • excavation (technology)

    tunnels and underground excavations: excavations, horizontal underground passageway produced by excavation or occasionally by nature’s action in dissolving a soluble rock, such as limestone. A vertical opening is usually called a shaft. Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road vehicles, trains, subways, and canals—and for conducting…

  • excavation (archaeology)

    Excavation, in archaeology, the exposure, recording, and recovery of buried material remains. In a sense, excavation is the surgical aspect of archaeology: it is surgery of the buried landscape and is carried out with all the skilled craftsmanship that has been built up in the era since

  • Excavation (painting by de Kooning)

    Willem de Kooning: Early life and work: …Asheville (1948–49), Attic (1949), and Excavation (1950), which reintroduced colour and seem to sum up with taut decisiveness the problems of free-associative composition he had struggled with for many years.

  • Excedrin Migraine (drug)

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Company: …the company permission to market Excedrin Migraine, the first migraine headache pain medication available to consumers without a prescription. Following its sale of the hair-products company Clairol to Procter & Gamble Co., Bristol-Myers acquired the DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company from the DuPont Company in 2001.

  • Excelsior Diamond (gem)

    Excelsior diamond, until the discovery of the Cullinan diamond in 1905, the world’s largest-known uncut diamond. When found by a worker loading a truck in the De Beers mine at Jagersfontein, Orange Free State, on June 30, 1893, the blue-white stone weighed about 995 carats. After long study the

  • Excelsior Springs (Missouri, United States)

    Excelsior Springs, city, astride the Ray-Clay county line, western Missouri, U.S., 12 miles (19 km) northeast of Kansas City. Founded in 1880, it developed as a health resort noted for its mineral waters. Today, while mainly residential, it still maintains ties with its past through its Hall of

  • Excerpta ex Theodoto (work by Clement of Alexandria)

    Saint Clement of Alexandria: Early life and career: …Gnostic), with commentary by Clement, Excerpta ex Theodoto; the Eclogae Propheticae (or Extracts), in the form of notes; and a few fragments of his biblical commentary Hypotyposeis (Outlines).

  • excess Gibbs free energy (thermodynamics)

    liquid: Activity coefficients and excess functions: …designated by GE, called the excess Gibbs (or free) energy. The significance of the word excess lies in the fact that GE is the Gibbs energy of a solution in excess of what it would be if it were ideal.

  • excess ionium (geochronology)

    dating: Thorium-230 dating: This is defined as excess thorium-230 because its abundance exceeds the equilibrium amount that should be present. With time, the excess decays away and the age of any horizon in a core sample can be estimated from the observed thorium-230-to-thorium-232 ratio in the seawater-derived component of the core. Sedimentation…

  • excess thorium-230 (geochronology)

    dating: Thorium-230 dating: This is defined as excess thorium-230 because its abundance exceeds the equilibrium amount that should be present. With time, the excess decays away and the age of any horizon in a core sample can be estimated from the observed thorium-230-to-thorium-232 ratio in the seawater-derived component of the core. Sedimentation…

  • excess volatile (Earth science)

    hydrosphere: The early hydrosphere: …water vapour, have been called excess volatiles because their masses cannot be accounted for simply by rock weathering. These volatiles are thought to have formed the early atmosphere of Earth. At an initial crustal temperature of about 600 °C (about 1,100 °F), almost all of these compounds, including water (H2O),…

  • excess-of-loss treaty (reinsurance)

    insurance: Reinsurance: …of treaties exist—pro rata and excess-of-loss treaties. In the former, all premiums and losses may be divided according to stated percentages. In the latter, the originating insurer accepts the risk of loss up to a stated amount, and above this amount the reinsurers divide any losses. Reinsurance is also frequently…

  • excess-profits tax (finance)

    Excess-profits tax, a tax levied on profits in excess of a stipulated standard of “normal” income. There are two principles governing the determination of excess profits. One, known as the war-profits principle, is designed to recapture wartime increases in income over normal peacetime profits of

  • exchange (trade)

    Barter, the direct exchange of goods or services—without an intervening medium of exchange or money—either according to established rates of exchange or by bargaining. It is considered the oldest form of commerce. Barter is common among traditional societies, particularly in those communities with

  • exchange (economics)

    international payment and exchange: exchange, international exchange also called foreign exchange, respectively, any payment made by one country to another and the market in which national currencies are bought and sold by those who require them for such payments. Countries may make payments in settlement of a trade debt,…

  • exchange bank (banking)

    bank: Specialization: …be divided into two classes: exchange banks and banks of deposit. The last were banks that, besides receiving deposits, made loans and thus associated themselves with the trade and industries of a country. The exchange banks included in former years institutions such as the Bank of Hamburg and the Bank…

  • exchange coefficient (physics)

    Austausch coefficient, in fluid mechanics, particularly in its applications to meteorology and oceanography, the proportionality between the rate of transport of a component of a turbulent fluid and the rate of change of density of the component. In this context, the term component signifies not

  • exchange control (government restrictions)

    Exchange control, governmental restrictions on private transactions in foreign exchange (foreign money or claims on foreign money). The chief function of most systems of exchange control is to prevent or redress an adverse balance of payments by limiting foreign-exchange purchases to an amount not

  • exchange distribution (business)

    security: Trading procedures: In an exchange distribution a member firm accumulates the necessary buy orders and then crosses them on the floor. This is distinguished from an ordinary “cross” because the selling broker may provide extra compensation to his own registered representatives and to other participating firms. A special offering…

  • exchange economy (trade)

    Barter, the direct exchange of goods or services—without an intervening medium of exchange or money—either according to established rates of exchange or by bargaining. It is considered the oldest form of commerce. Barter is common among traditional societies, particularly in those communities with

  • exchange force (physics)

    crystal: Antiferromagnetic materials: The exchange interaction between ions in this case has the opposite sign and favours the alternate arrangements of spins. The sign of the exchange interaction between ions depends on the length of the covalent bond and the bonding angles; it may have either orientation. The characteristic…

  • exchange interaction (physics)

    crystal: Antiferromagnetic materials: The exchange interaction between ions in this case has the opposite sign and favours the alternate arrangements of spins. The sign of the exchange interaction between ions depends on the length of the covalent bond and the bonding angles; it may have either orientation. The characteristic…

  • exchange marriage (sociology)

    Exchange marriage, form of marriage involving an arranged and reciprocal exchange of spouses between two groups. Exchange marriage is most common in societies that have a unilineal descent system emphasizing the male line (patrilineality) and a consistent expectation of postmarital residence with

  • exchange pool (ecosystem)

    biogeochemical cycle: …slow-moving, usually abiotic portion—and an exchange (cycling) pool—a smaller but more-active portion concerned with the rapid exchange between the biotic and abiotic aspects of an ecosystem.

  • exchange rate (finance)

    Exchange rate, the price of a country’s money in relation to another country’s money. An exchange rate is “fixed” when countries use gold or another agreed-upon standard, and each currency is worth a specific measure of the metal or other standard. An exchange rate is “floating” when supply and

  • exchange reaction (chemistry)

    isotope: Chemical effects of isotopic substitution: The exchange reaction H2 + D2 → 2HD provides an example of random behaviour at high temperature and isotope-specific behaviour at lower ones. If two volumes of gas consisting, respectively, of H2 and D2 only, are mixed, the hydrogen–hydrogen and deuterium–deuterium bonds will gradually break and…

  • exchange transfusion (medicine)

    blood transfusion: Transfusion procedures and blood storage: Exchange transfusion, in which all or most of the patient’s blood is removed while new blood is simultaneously transfused, is of use in treating erythroblastosis fetalis and leukemia and in removing certain poisons from the body.

  • exchange value (economics)

    Carl Menger: …disprove the Aristotelian view that exchange involves a transaction of equal value for equal value. In exchange, Menger pointed out, people will give up what they value less in return for what they value more, which is why both sides can gain from an exchange. That led him to the…

  • exchange, bill of (banking)

    Bill of exchange, short-term negotiable financial instrument consisting of an order in writing addressed by one person (the seller of goods) to another (the buyer) requiring the latter to pay on demand (a sight draft) or at a fixed or determinable future time (a time draft) a certain sum of money

  • exchange, equation of (economics)

    monetarism: …the monetarist theory is the equation of exchange, which is expressed as MV = PQ. Here M is the supply of money, and V is the velocity of turnover of money (i.e., the number of times per year that the average dollar in the money supply is spent for goods…

  • exchange, international (economics)

    international payment and exchange: exchange, international exchange also called foreign exchange, respectively, any payment made by one country to another and the market in which national currencies are bought and sold by those who require them for such payments. Countries may make payments in settlement of a trade debt,…

  • exchange, medium of (economics)

    money: …that sustains money as a medium of exchange breaks down, people will then seek substitutes—like the cigarettes and cognac that for a time served as the medium of exchange in Germany after World War II. New money may substitute for old under less extreme conditions. In many countries with a…

  • exchange, ritual (social custom)

    Gift exchange, the transfer of goods or services that, although regarded as voluntary by the people involved, is part of the expected social behaviour. Gift exchange may be distinguished from other types of exchange in several respects: the first offering is made in a generous manner and there is

  • Exchequer (British government department)

    Exchequer, in British history, the government department that was responsible for receiving and dispersing the public revenue. The word derives from the Latin scaccarium, “chessboard,” in reference to the checkered cloth on which the reckoning of revenues took place. The Exchequer was constituted

  • Exchequer, Chancellor of the (British government official)

    government budget: The United Kingdom: …submitted to Parliament by the chancellor of the Exchequer, who is responsible for its preparation. The emphasis of the chancellor’s budget speech is on taxation and the state of the economy, rather than on the detail of expenditures; public discussion is devoted mainly to the chancellor’s tax proposals. The estimates…

  • Exchequer, Court of (British law)

    Court of Common Pleas: …of King’s Bench and the Court of Exchequer for common-law business. The result was an accumulation of many complicated and overlapping jurisdictional rules. By the 19th century the multiple form of writs and competing jurisdictions had become unbearable, and the Judicature Act of 1873 brought about a replacement of the…

  • excinuclease (enzyme)

    Aziz Sancar: …of an enzyme known as uvrABC nuclease (excision nuclease, or excinuclease) in E. coli. The enzyme specifically targeted DNA that had been damaged by UV or chemical exposure, cutting the affected DNA strand at each end of the damaged region and thereby enabling the removal of the damaged nucleotides.

  • excise tax (economics)

    sales tax: Sales and excise taxes in various countries: Excise tax revenue in most countries comes primarily from excises on automobiles, motor fuels, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages. Many other special excises are in use, such as taxes on coffee, sugar, salt, vinegar, matches, and amusements. Historically, communist countries derived…

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