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  • euroland (region, Europe)

    Estonia: Independence restored: …for Estonia to join the euro zone in 2011. Ansip, his personal popularity slipping, stepped down in February 2014. He was succeeded as prime minister by Taavi R?ivas, who formed a coalition government with the centre-left Social Democratic Party. In foreign affairs, the country sought to improve its often tense…

  • Euroleon nostras (insect)

    Antlion, (family Myrmeleontidae), any of a group of insects (order Neuroptera) that are named for the predatory nature of the larva, which trap ants and other small insects in pits dug into the ground. Antlions are found throughout the world, primarily in dry, sandy regions. The antlion larva digs

  • Euromaidan (Ukrainian protest)

    Kyiv: City layout: …of the Maidan (also called Euromaidan) protest movement that led to Ukrainian Pres. Viktor Yanukovych’s being deposed in February 2014. Among important buildings on the street is that of the city council, where the elected deputies hold their meetings.

  • Euromaidan and the Conflict in Ukraine in 2013–14

    From November 2013 to late February 2014, Protesters gathered on Kiev’s Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in a series of demonstrations that came to be known as the Euromaidan. Those protests involved several distinct stages, culminating in the removal of Pres. Viktor Yanukovych, which in

  • Euroméditerranée (French government program)

    Marseille: The city layout: …urban renewal known as the Euroméditerranée, designed to refurbish existing buildings, provide new housing and office floor space, and create a new university site.

  • Euromissile (European company)

    European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company: Aerospatiale Matra: …subsidiary Lenkflugk?rper GmbH to form Euromissile. Successful guided missile systems developed by Euromissile include the medium-range Milan and long-range HOT antitank weapons and the Roland air-defense missile.

  • Euronext (European stock exchange)

    Belgium: Finance: …Paris stock exchanges to form Euronext—the first fully integrated cross-border equities market. Belgium has long been a target of significant foreign investment. Foreign investments in the energy, finance, and business-support sectors are of particular significance in 21st-century Belgium.

  • Europa (Greek mythology)

    Europa, in Greek mythology, the daughter either of Phoenix or of Agenor, king of Phoenicia. The beauty of Europa inspired the love of Zeus, who approached her in the form of a white bull and carried her away from Phoenicia to Crete. There she bore Zeus three sons: Minos, ruler of Crete;

  • Europa (film by Von Trier [1991])

    Lars von Trier: …allegory about a plague, and Europa (1991; released in the U.S. as Zentropa), an examination of life in post-World War II Germany. In 1994 von Trier wrote and directed a Danish television miniseries called Riget (The Kingdom), which was set in a hospital and focused on the supernatural and macabre.…

  • Europa (satellite of Jupiter)

    Europa, the smallest and second nearest of the four large moons (Galilean satellites) discovered around Jupiter by the Italian astronomer Galileo in 1610. It was probably also discovered independently that same year by the German astronomer Simon Marius, who named it after Europa of Greek

  • Europa (ship)

    ship: Passenger liners in the 20th century: …days in 1928 of the Europa and the Bremen. But by the end of 1929 the Great Depression had begun; it made transatlantic passage a luxury that fewer and fewer could afford and rendered immigration to the United States impractical.

  • Europa ’51 (film by Rossellini [1952])

    Ingrid Bergman: Scandal and later films: …and French films such as Europa ’51 (1952; The Greatest Love) and Viaggio in Italia (1954; Journey to Italy). During this time she married (1950–57) Rossellini, and the couple had two more children, including Isabella Rossellini, who became a noted model and actress.

  • Europa and the Bull (sculpture by Milles)

    Halmstad: …stands Carl Milles’s sculptural fountain Europa and the Bull. There are many parks and a large preserved natural forest—Galgberget, which contains an open-air museum of old peasant cottages, Hallandsg?rden, which is part of the Halland Art Museum. Tyl?sand is a popular seaside resort.

  • Europa Canal (canal, Germany)

    Main-Danube Canal, commercial waterway in the southern German state of Bavaria. Completed in 1992, the canal is 171 km (106 miles) long and runs from Bamberg on the Main River (a tributary of the Rhine River) to Kelheim on the Danube River, permitting traffic to flow between the North Sea and the

  • Europa Peaks (mountains, Spain)

    Asturias: Geography: …the south, with the glaciated Europa Peaks established as a national park. Valleys run north to south, but Leitariegos Pass is the only easily accessible pass into the neighbouring region of Castile-León. Annual precipitation is high, exceeding 40 inches (1,000 mm). The climate is oceanic, with relatively even precipitation throughout…

  • Europa’s Lover (poetry by Dunn)

    Douglas Dunn: Europa’s Lover (1982) is a long poem celebrating the best of European values.

  • Europa-Kanal (canal, Germany)

    Main-Danube Canal, commercial waterway in the southern German state of Bavaria. Completed in 1992, the canal is 171 km (106 miles) long and runs from Bamberg on the Main River (a tributary of the Rhine River) to Kelheim on the Danube River, permitting traffic to flow between the North Sea and the

  • Europa-Linofilm (typesetter)

    printing: Functional phototypesetters: The Europa-Linofilm drum is composed of four superimposed levels, each containing 120 duplex type matrices—for example, with the same letter in both roman and italic—easily interchangeable in order, since their identification is not linked to their place.

  • Europ?ische Union (European organization)

    European Union (EU), international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. Originally confined to western Europe, the EU undertook a robust expansion into central and eastern Europe in the early 21st century. The EU’s members are

  • Europasaurus (dinosaur)

    Europasaurus, genus representing one of the smallest known sauropod dinosaurs, characterized by a distinctive arched head, proportionally long neck, and elevated shoulders. Europasaurus is known from a single quarry in northern Germany, in deposits dated to the Late Jurassic (some 150 million years

  • Europe (continent)

    Europe, second smallest of the world’s continents, composed of the westward-projecting peninsulas of Eurasia (the great landmass that it shares with Asia) and occupying nearly one-fifteenth of the world’s total land area. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the Atlantic

  • Europe (poetry by Dudek)

    Louis Dudek: …Ezra Pound is evident in Europe (1954; rev. ed. 1991), a travelogue poem in 99 cantos inspired by observations of several countries on the European continent. Another anthology, Cross Section (1980), contains poems written between 1940 and 1980. His other verse works include the long poems Continuation I (1981) and…

  • Europe, A Prophecy (work by Blake)

    Urizen: In an engraving from Europe, a Prophecy (1794), Blake depicts Urizen as a grim scientist, creating the Earth with a huge pair of compasses.

  • Europe, Concert of (European history)

    Concert of Europe, in the post-Napoleonic era, the vague consensus among the European monarchies favouring preservation of the territorial and political status quo. The term assumed the responsibility and right of the great powers to intervene and impose their collective will on states threatened

  • Europe, Congress of (European history)

    history of Europe: Ever closer union?: …in London, staged a full-scale Congress of Europe in The Hague. Attended by 750 statesmen from throughout western Europe, including Spaak, De Gasperi, Churchill, Schuman, Adenauer, and a young French Resistance worker named Fran?ois Mitterrand, it called for political and economic union, a European Assembly, and a European Court of…

  • Europe, Council of (European organization)

    Council of Europe, organization of European countries that seeks to protect democracy and human rights and to promote European unity by fostering cooperation on legal, cultural, and social issues. The council is headquartered in Strasbourg, France. (The Council of Europe should not be confused with

  • Europe, history of

    History of Europe, history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates. Its western frontiers seem clearly defined by its

  • Europe, James Reese (American composer and bandleader)

    James Reese Europe, American bandleader, arranger, and composer, a major figure in the transition from ragtime to jazz. Europe studied piano and violin in his youth. About 1904 he settled in New York City, where he directed musical comedies. In 1910 he helped organize the Clef Club, a union of

  • Europe, Jim (American composer and bandleader)

    James Reese Europe, American bandleader, arranger, and composer, a major figure in the transition from ragtime to jazz. Europe studied piano and violin in his youth. About 1904 he settled in New York City, where he directed musical comedies. In 1910 he helped organize the Clef Club, a union of

  • European Advisory Commission

    World War II: Allied policy and strategy: Octagon (Quebec II) and Moscow, 1944: …and Churchill together approved the European Advisory Commission’s scheme for the division of defeated Germany into U.S., British, and Soviet zones of occupation (the southwest, the northwest, and the east, respectively) and also the radical plan elaborated by the U.S. secretary of the treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., for turning Germany…

  • European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (European consortium)

    European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS), major European aerospace company that builds commercial and military aircraft, space systems, propulsion systems, missiles, and other defense products. It was formed in 2000 from the merger of three leading European aerospace firms: Aerospatiale

  • European alder (plant)

    alder: The European alder (A. glutinosa), sometimes known as black alder for its dark bark and cones, is widespread throughout Eurasia and is cultivated in several varieties in North America. The name black alder is also applied to winterberry, a type of holly. The green alder (A.…

  • European ash (tree)

    ash: Major species: The European ash (F. excelsior), with 7 to 11 leaflets, is a timber tree of wide distribution throughout Europe. A number of its varieties have been cultivated and used in landscaping for centuries. Notable among these are forms with dwarflike or weeping habits, variegated foliage, warty…

  • European aspen (plant)

    aspen: The common European aspen (P. tremula) and the American quaking, or trembling, aspen (P. tremuloides) are similar, reaching a height of 27 metres (90 feet). P. tremuloides is distinguished by its leaves, which have more pointed tips, and it grows by root suckers. Individual clones of the…

  • European aspic viper (snake)

    asp: European aspic vipers (Vipera aspis) of France, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy are often referred to as asps. Adult aspic vipers may reach 50 cm (20 inches) in total length, although most are smaller. They live in a variety of habitats ranging from sea level to…

  • European Association of Aerospace Industries (European organization)

    aerospace industry: Character of the industry: …parallel in Europe is the European Association of Aerospace Industries (AECMA). Based in Brussels, AECMA interfaces with member countries as well as the European Union. In addition, Europe has several organizations at the national level. Other notable associations are the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies (SJAC) and the Aerospace Industries…

  • European Association of Social Anthropologists (European organization)

    anthropology: Social anthropology: …1980s, it took the title European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA) and called its journal Social Anthropology.

  • European Astronaut Centre (training centre, Cologne, Germany)

    European Space Agency: …retrieved and distributed, (4) the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), located in Cologne, Germany, which is a training centre, and (5) the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), located in Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid, Spain, which holds scientific operations centres as well as archives. ESA also operates the Guiana Space Centre (CSG),…

  • European Atomic Energy Community

    European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), international organization established by one of the Treaties of Rome in 1958 to form a common market for the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The original members were Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the

  • European badger (mammal)

    badger: The European badger (Meles meles) is omnivorous, consuming earthworms, insects, small mammals, birds and their eggs, and also fruits and nuts. It is grayish, with large black-and-white facial stripes. It is 30 cm tall and 56–81 cm long, excluding the 12–20-cm tail, and weighs 8–10 kg…

  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), organization established in 1991 to develop a private business sector in the countries of central and eastern Europe after the collapse of communism in the region. The EBRD provides project financing for banks, industries, and businesses in

  • European bass (fish)

    sea bass: The better-known moronids include the European bass (Morone, or Dicentrarchus, labrax), found from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, often in river mouths; the striped bass, or striper, a renowned American food and sport fish striped with black and growing to about 14 kg (30 pounds); the white bass (M. chrysops), a…

  • European beach grass (plant)

    beach grass: European beach grass (A. arenaria) is native to temperate coasts in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia and has been introduced in many places as a dune stabilizer. While native beach grass is protected by law in some areas, both species are considered invasive species…

  • European bee-eater (bird)

    bee-eater: …Africa, and Australasia (one species, Merops apiaster, occasionally reaches the British Isles), bee-eaters range in length from 15 to 35 cm (6 to 14 inches).

  • European beech (plant)

    beech: …eastern North America, and the European beech (F. sylvatica), distributed throughout England and Eurasia, are the most widely known species. Both are economically important timber trees and are often planted as ornamentals in Europe and North America; they may grow as tall as 30 metres (100 feet). The narrow, coarsely…

  • European birthwort (plant)

    Aristolochiaceae: The European birthwort (A. clematitis) bears pale yellow trumpet-shaped flowers in clusters of two to eight. The plant has heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed edges and pear-shaped hanging fruits. The plant is poisonous, but an extract from it has been used in the past to facilitate…

  • European bison (mammal)

    Belovezhskaya Forest: …I, the European bison, or wisent, was reintroduced to the Belovezhskaya with zoo-bred animals. The forest remains the European bison’s most notable home, though the animals are now also found again in other parts of Europe, including Lithuania, Russia, and Ukraine. Once the hunting grounds of kings and tsars, the…

  • European blastomycosis (pathology)

    Cryptococcosis, a chronic fungal infection of humans caused by Cryptococcocus neoformans and C. bacillispora. The organism may be present in soil or dust and is often found in pigeon droppings, with resulting high concentrations on window ledges and around other nesting places. How humans become

  • European Bridge League (European organization)

    bridge: Bridge tournaments: …championships were conducted by the European Bridge League (EBL), founded the same year. These tournaments continued through 1937 and were resumed in 1946. At the annual tournament of the EBL held in Oslo, Norway, in 1958, the World Bridge Federation was formed to control the world championship matches as previously…

  • European Broadcasting Union

    broadcasting: International organizations: …unworkable, a strong organization, the European Broadcasting Union, was created by the countries of western Europe in 1950, with its administrative headquarters in Geneva. It has a membership of more than 30 nations that includes not only all nations of western Europe but also others such as Algeria, Israel, Jordan,…

  • European buckthorn (plant)

    buckthorn: The common, or European, buckthorn (R. cathartica), about 3.5 m (12 feet) high, native to Eurasia, is widely naturalized. It has dark bark, often bears spines, and has dark green, oval leaves. The bark yields a yellow dye, and the small black fruits provide a purgative.…

  • European cabbage butterfly (insect)

    white butterfly: …in North America is the European cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae), whose larva is an important economic pest of cabbage and related plants. It was introduced into North America about 1860.

  • European caperbush (plant species)

    caper: The European caperbush (Capparis spinosa) is known for its flower buds, which are pickled in vinegar and used as a pungent condiment; the term caper also refers to one of the pickled flower buds. The buds and fruits of karira (C. decidua) are eaten as vegetables,…

  • European cat snake (reptile)

    cat snake: European cat snakes (T. fallax) occur in six subspecies. They are moderately sized at 0.5–0.7 metre (1.6–2.3 feet) long, though some may reach 1.3 metres (about 4 feet). Clutch sizes in this species range from 4 to 6 eggs.

  • European Central Bank (bank, Europe)

    European Central Bank (ECB), central banking authority of the euro zone, which consists of the 19 European Union (EU) member states that have adopted the euro as their common currency. The main task of the European Central Bank (ECB) is to conduct monetary policy in the region by managing the

  • European Central Bank Flexes Its Muscles, The

    On June l, 2013, the European Central Bank (ECB) commemorated its 15th birthday, five years after it found itself centre stage during the global financial crisis. In 2008 the euro was under extreme pressure, and its survival was threatened. The overriding purpose of the ECB was to manage the euro

  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European organization)

    Zsuzsanna Jakab: …served as director of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) from 2005 to 2010.

  • European Championship (football tournament)

    European Championship, in football (soccer), a quadrennial tournament held between the member countries of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). The European Championship is second in prestige to the World Cup among international football tournaments. The first final of the European

  • European Championships (figure skating)

    figure skating: European and Four Continents championships: The European championships have been held since 1891 and are open to all countries in Europe. In 1948 no such restriction was stated, and two North Americans, American Dick Button and Canadian Barbara Ann Scott, both entered and won the competition as singles skaters. In Olympic…

  • European chestnut (plant)

    chestnut: Species and uses: The European chestnut (C. sativa), 30 metres (100 feet) tall, is native to Eurasia and northern Africa; it is often called sweet, Spanish, or Eurasian chestnut. The Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), usually less than 18 metres (about 60 feet) tall, grows at altitudes up to 2,440…

  • European chicken flea (insect)

    flea: Importance: … may be parasitized by the European chicken flea (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and, in the United States, by the western chicken flea (Ceratophyllus niger).

  • European chub (fish)

    chub: The European chub (Leuciscus cephalus) is a popular, though not especially palatable, game fish found in Europe and Great Britain, primarily in rivers. A large-mouthed fish with large, black-edged scales, it attains a maximum length and weight of about 60 cm (2 feet) and 7–8 kg…

  • European Citizens’ Initiative

    Lisbon Treaty: …the Lisbon Treaty introduced the European Citizens’ Initiative, a process by which EU citizens could directly petition the European Commission (the EU’s main executive body) by gathering one million signatures from a number of member states.

  • European Coal and Steel Community (European organization)

    European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), administrative agency established by a treaty ratified in 1952, designed to integrate the coal and steel industries in western Europe. The original members of the ECSC were France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The

  • European columbine (plant)

    columbine: The common European columbine (A. vulgaris) grows 45–75 cm (18–30 inches) tall along roadsides and woodland edges. The species and its several hybrids, which are known for their nodding flowers with short incurved spurs, are cultivated widely in North America. From A. caerulea and A. chysantha, both…

  • European Commission (European organization)

    European Commission (EC), an institution of the European Union (EU) and its constituent entities that makes up the organization’s executive arm. The EC also has legislative functions, such as proposing new laws for the European Parliament, and judicial functions, such as finding legal solutions to

  • European Commission of Human Rights (Europe [1954])

    European Court of Human Rights: …of Human Rights and the European Commission of Human Rights, which was established in 1954, were merged in 1998 into a reconstituted court and enabled to hear individual cases without the prior assent of the individual’s national government. Despite these changes the ECHR’s backlog continued to grow, prompting the adoption…

  • European common adder (snake)

    adder: The European common adder, or European viper (V. berus), a serpent often mentioned in works of literature, is a stout-bodied snake that is widely distributed across Europe and Asia. It even ranges north of the Arctic Circle in Norway. It grows to a maximum length of approximately 85 cm (33…

  • European common peony (plant)

    peony: lactiflora) and the European common peony (P. officinalis) have given rise to most of the familiar garden peonies. P. lactiflora has provided hundreds of cultivated varieties, including the Japanese types, with one or two rows of petals surrounding a cluster of partially formed petals in the centre (petaloid…

  • European common swift (bird)

    animal behaviour: Function: …European, or common, swift (Apus apus). At first glance, swifts appear to voluntarily restrict their own reproduction. When Lack removed the eggs laid each day from a pair’s nest he discovered that the female could lay up to 72 or more eggs in a season. Yet, surprisingly, she usually…

  • European Community (European economic association)

    European Community (EC), former association designed to integrate the economies of Europe. The term also refers to the “European Communities,” which originally comprised the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC; dissolved in 2002), and the European Atomic

  • European Conference on Posts and Telecommunications (European organization)

    telephone: Personal communication systems: Meanwhile, the European Conference on Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT) had begun work on another personal communication system, known as DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications, formerly Digital European Cordless Telephone). The DECT system was designed initially to provide cordless telephone service for office environments, but its scope soon…

  • European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Europe [1950])

    European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), convention adopted by the Council of Europe in 1950 to guard fundamental freedoms and human rights in Europe. Together with its 11 additional protocols, the convention—which entered into force on September 3, 1953—represents the most advanced and

  • European Convention on Human Rights (Europe [1983])

    capital punishment: The abolition movement: Optional protocols to the European Convention on Human Rights (1983) and to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1989) have been established, under which countries party to the convention and the covenant undertake not to carry out executions. The Council of Europe (1994) and the EU (1998)…

  • European Convention on Human Rights (Europe [1950])

    European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), convention adopted by the Council of Europe in 1950 to guard fundamental freedoms and human rights in Europe. Together with its 11 additional protocols, the convention—which entered into force on September 3, 1953—represents the most advanced and

  • European coot (bird)

    coot: The European coot (F. atra) breeds abundantly in many northern parts of the Old World, in winter resorting to river mouths or shallow bays of the sea. About 45 centimetres (18 inches) long and sometimes more than 900 grams (2 pounds) in weight, the seemingly short-winged…

  • European corn borer (insect)

    insect: Ecological factors: … (Icerya purchasi) of citrus, the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis; also called Ostrinia nubilalis), and others. The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which caused appalling destruction to the cultivated potato in the United States beginning about 1840, was a native insect of semidesert country. The beetle, which fed on the

  • European Council (EU)

    European Central Bank: …members are appointed by the European Council.

  • European Court of Human Rights

    European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), judicial organ established in 1959 that is charged with supervising the enforcement of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950; commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights), which was drawn up by the

  • European Court of Justice

    Court of Justice of the European Union ((CJEU)), the judicial branch of the European Union (EU). Its basic mission is to ensure the observance and uniform application and interpretation of EU law within EU member states and institutions. Its headquarters are in Luxembourg. The CJEU originated in

  • European cranberry (plant)

    viburnum: The European cranberry, highbush cranberry, or water elder (V. opulus), a small tree reaching 4 metres (13 feet), is native to northern Europe and North Africa. It has three- to five-lobed, maplelike leaves and round heads of white flowers that are followed by hanging clusters of…

  • European cuckoo (bird)

    cuckoo: …modifiers, refers to the most common local form, elsewhere called the common, or European, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Many cuckoos have specialized names, such as ani, coua, coucal, guira, and roadrunner. Members of the subfamily Neomorphinae are called ground cuckoos.

  • European Currency Unit (international finance)

    Ecu, a notional unit of exchange, conceived in 1979, based on a “basket,” or weighted combination, of the currencies of nations that belonged to the European Economic Community (EEC; ultimately replaced by the European Union). The principal currencies involved were the German mark, the French

  • European dace (fish)

    dace: …and Europe, the dace is Leuciscus leuciscus, a relative of the chub. Usually found in moderately swift streams and rivers, the European dace is a rather small-headed, silvery fish attaining a usual length and weight of 25–30 cm (10–12 inches) and 0.5–0.7 kg (1–1 12 pounds). It lives in schools…

  • European Defense Community

    European Defense Community (EDC), an abortive attempt by western European powers, with United States support, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by the formation of a supranational European army and, in the process, to subsume West

  • European dittany (plant species)

    Gas plant, (Dictamnus albus), gland-covered herb of the rue family (Rutaceae). Gas plant is native to Eurasia and is grown as an ornamental in many places. The flowers (white or pink) and the leaves give off a strong aromatic vapour that can be ignited—hence the names gas plant and burning bush.

  • European domestic honeybee (insect)

    beekeeping: Colony collapse disorder: …appears to affect only the European honeybee (Apis mellifera).

  • European Drugs Unit (international organization)

    police: International police organizations: The European Police Office (Europol), established in 1992 as the European Drugs Unit, supports the law enforcement agencies of all countries in the EU by gathering and analyzing intelligence about members or possible members of international criminal organizations. Headquartered in The Hague, Europol is far removed from police field…

  • European Economic Area (free-trade zone)

    European Free Trade Association: …zone among themselves called the European Economic Area (EEA), which came into effect on January 1, 1994. At that time Switzerland (which did not ratify the agreement) and Liechtenstein (bound by its union with Switzerland) did not join the EEA, but the following year Liechtenstein, after a series of negotiations…

  • European Economic Co-operation, Organisation for

    Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, organization set up by a convention signed in Paris in April 1948 to coordinate efforts to restore Europe’s economy under the European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan). Among its many functions, the OEEC helped abolish quantitative trade restrictions

  • European Economic Community (European economic association)

    European Community (EC), former association designed to integrate the economies of Europe. The term also refers to the “European Communities,” which originally comprised the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC; dissolved in 2002), and the European Atomic

  • European eel (fish)

    eel: Natural history: …about 10 years in the European freshwater eel (A. anguilla) but possibly much earlier in tropical marine species. The process of growth and maturation has been most closely studied in the European freshwater eel. In this species, both sexes pass through successive phases of neutrality, precocious feminization, and juvenile hermaphroditism…

  • European eelpout (fish)

    eelpout: …eggs; others, including the abundant European eelpout, or viviparous blenny (Zoarces viviparus), give birth to live young.

  • European Environment Agency (European organization)

    regime: …of labour conditions and the European Environment Agency and its regulation of the environment. These have a different set of resources—economic, political, and social—to draw on than national governments do, and their activities can either empower or constrain individual nation-states. The second alternative use of the regime concept is in…

  • European Environment and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils

    European Environment and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC), network of advisory councils from several European countries established to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental and sustainable-development policies. Cooperation between the councils, which were

  • European exploration

    European exploration, exploration of regions of Earth for scientific, commercial, religious, military, and other purposes by Europeans, beginning about the 4th century bce. The motives that spur human beings to examine their environment are many. Strong among them are the satisfaction of curiosity,

  • European fan palm (plant)

    palm: Distribution: The northernmost palm is the European fan palm (Chamaerops humilis), which grows about the Mediterranean in Europe and North Africa; the southernmost is the nikau palm (Rhopalostylis sapida), of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Although there are species with extensive ranges, especially in America, most are restricted in range,…

  • European Federation of Iron and Steel Industries (economic organization, Europe)

    European Coal and Steel Community: …international group of steelmakers, the European Federation of Iron and Steel Industries (Eurofer), was formed in 1977 to rationalize the industry. The headquarters of the ECSC were in Brussels.

  • European filbert (plant)

    hazelnut: An oil from the European filbert, or common hazel (Corylus avellana), is used in food products, perfumes, and soaps; the tree yields a reddish white soft timber, useful for small articles such as tool handles and walking sticks.

  • European Financial Stability Facility (monetary fund, European Union)

    Slovakia: History: …over the expansion of the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF), the euro zone’s primary bailout mechanism, toppled the Radi?ová government. After the government’s collapse, Radi?ová opened talks with Smer, and Fico pledged his support for the EFSF in exchange for early elections.

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