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  • etrogim (ritual plant)

    Etrog, (Hebrew: “citron”) one of four species of plants used during the Jewish celebration of Sukkoth (Feast of Booths), a festival of gratitude to God for the bounty of the earth that is celebrated in autumn at the end of the harvest festival. For ritual purposes the etrog must be perfect in stem

  • Etruria (ancient country, Italy)

    Etruria, Ancient country, central Italy. It covered the region that now comprises Tuscany and part of Umbria. Etruria was inhabited by the Etruscans, who established a civilization by the 7th century bc. Their chief confederation, traditionally including 12 cities, developed a culture that reached

  • Etruria, Kingdom of (historical kingdom, Europe)

    house of Bourbon: The Bourbon sovereignties: The Kingdom of Etruria (1801–07) was a contrivance of the Napoleonic period. Devised by the French for the house of Bourbon-Parma in compensation for the impending annexation of Parma to France at a time when France still needed the goodwill of the Spanish Bourbons, it was…

  • Etrusca disciplina (divination rules)

    ancient Italic people: Religion and mythology: …what the Romans called the Etrusca disciplina.

  • Etruscan (people)

    Etruscan, member of an ancient people of Etruria, Italy, between the Tiber and Arno rivers west and south of the Apennines, whose urban civilization reached its height in the 6th century bce. Many features of Etruscan culture were adopted by the Romans, their successors to power in the peninsula. A

  • Etruscan alphabet

    Etruscan alphabet, writing system of the Etruscans, derived from a Greek alphabet (originally learned from the Phoenicians) as early as the 8th century bc. It is known to modern scholars from more than 10,000 inscriptions. Like the alphabets of the Middle East and the early forms of the Greek

  • Etruscan art

    Etruscan art, (c. 8th–4th century bc) Art of the people of Etruria. The art of the Etruscans falls into three categories: funerary, urban, and sacred. Because of Etruscan attitudes toward the afterlife, most of the art that remains is funerary. Characteristic achievements are the wall

  • Etruscan language

    Etruscan language, language isolate spoken by close neighbours of the ancient Romans. The Romans called the Etruscans Etrusci or Tusci; in Greek they were called Tyrsenoi or Tyrrhenoi; in Umbrian and Italic language their name can be found in the adjective turskum. The Etruscans’ name for

  • Etruscan religion

    ancient Italic people: Religion and mythology: The essential ingredient in Etruscan religion was a belief that human life was but one small meaningful element in a universe controlled by gods who manifested their nature and their will in every facet of the natural world as well as in objects created by humans. This belief permeates…

  • Etruscan shrew (mammal)

    insectivore: Natural history: The white-toothed pygmy shrew (Suncus etruscus), however, weighs less than 2.5 grams (0.09 ounce) and is perhaps the smallest living mammal. Other insectivores, such as the moonrat (Echinosorex gymnura) and the tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus), attain the size of a small rabbit. Most insectivores are either…

  • Etrusci (people)

    Etruscan, member of an ancient people of Etruria, Italy, between the Tiber and Arno rivers west and south of the Apennines, whose urban civilization reached its height in the 6th century bce. Many features of Etruscan culture were adopted by the Romans, their successors to power in the peninsula. A

  • Etsch River (river, Italy)

    Adige River, longest stream of Italy after the Po River. The Adige rises in the north from two Alpine mountain lakes below Resia Pass and flows rapidly through the Venosta Valley south and east past Merano and Bolzano. Having received the waters of the Isarco River at Bolzano, the Adige turns south

  • Etsi Judaeis (papal bull)

    Calixtus II: His bull Etsi Judaeis (1120) gave a considerable measure of protection to Roman Jews.

  • Etsy (American company)

    Etsy, American e-commerce company, founded in 2005 by entrepreneur Rob Kalin and partners Chris Maguire and Haim Schoppik, that provides a global Internet marketplace for handmade and other wares. The company’s headquarters are in Brooklyn, New York. Sellers create personal shops through the Etsy

  • Etten, Henry van (French scholar)

    number game: Pioneers and imitators: In 1624 a French Jesuit, Jean Leurechon, writing under the pen name of van Etten, published Récréations mathématiques. This volume struck the popular fancy, passing through at least 30 editions before 1700, despite the fact that it was based largely on the work of Bachet, from whom he took the…

  • Etterbeek (Belgium)

    Etterbeek, municipality, Brussels-Capital Region, central Belgium. First mentioned in the early 12th century, Etterbeek is one of the 19 suburban communes that, with Brussels proper, make up Greater Brussels. Historically, Etterbeek was primarily industrial, with chemical, clothing, metalwork,

  • Ettinger, Robert Chester Wilson (American educator and innovator)

    Robert Chester Wilson Ettinger, American educator and innovator (born Dec. 4, 1918, Atlantic City, N.J.—died July 23, 2011, Clinton Township, Mich.), founded the cryonics movement, which advocates freezing bodies in anticipation of future technologies that could make resurrection possible. Ettinger

  • Ettrick, Lord Ruthven of (English army commander)

    Patrick Ruthven, earl of Forth, supreme commander of the Royalist forces of Charles I during the early phases of the English Civil Wars. A descendant of the 1st Lord Ruthven (d. 1528) in a collateral line, he distinguished himself in the service of Sweden, which he entered about 1606. As a

  • Ettrick, River (river, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    River Ettrick, river, Scottish Borders council area, Scot. The River Ettrick, noted for its trout and salmon, rises in the extreme southwest of the district and flows northeast for 32 miles (51 km) to the River Tweed. Its valley, Ettrickdale, has literary and family connections with Sir Walter

  • Ettuttokai (ancient Tamil text)

    sangam literature: …rhetoric, and eight anthologies (Ettuttokai) of poetry were compiled—Ainkurunuru, Kuruntokai, Narrinai, Akananuru, Kalittokai, Patirruppattu, Purananuru, and Paripatal. A ninth anthology, Pattupattu, consists of 10 idylls that present a picture of early Tamil life.

  • Etty, William (English painter)

    William Etty, one of the last of the English academic history painters. In 1807 he was admitted to the Royal Academy schools, and by 1818 he had developed considerable talent as a portraitist. The grand but simply conceived “Combat” (1825) brought him his first great success. During the last decade

  • étude (theatre)

    theatre: The great directors: …constructed a set of 16 études as the basis of biomechanics. These études were chosen from an eclectic range of sources, including the circus, Chinese and Japanese theatre, and sport, and they formed the basis of his extended movement vocabulary. The études were sequences of precise muscular movements intended to…

  • étude (music)

    étude, (French: “study”) in music, originally a study or technical exercise, later a complete and musically intelligible composition exploring a particular technical problem in an esthetically satisfying manner. Although a number of didactic pieces date from earlier times, including vocal solfeggi

  • étude expérimentale de l’intelligence, L’? (work by Binet)

    Alfred Binet: L’étude expérimentale de l’intelligence (1903; “Experimental Study of Intelligence”) is an investigation of the mental characteristics of his two daughters, which he developed into a systematic study of two contrasted types of personalities. Between 1905 and 1911 he and Théodore Simon developed highly influential scales…

  • études (ballet by Lander)

    Harald Lander: …compositions include the frequently performed études (1948), a one-act ballet that begins with traditional ballet exercises at a dance studio’s “barre” and ends with spectacular displays by advanced students.

  • études bibliques (biblical commentaries)

    Marie-Joseph Lagrange: …commentaries on the Bible, the études bibliques (“Biblical Studies”), to which he contributed three volumes: on the historical method of Old Testament criticism, on the Book of Judges, and on the Semitic religions.

  • études cristallographiques (work by Bravais)

    Auguste Bravais: In études cristallographiques (1866) he exhaustively analyzed the geometry of molecular polyhedra.

  • études d’exécution transcendante (work by Liszt)

    Transcendental études, series of 12 musical études by Franz Liszt, published in their final form in the early 1850s. They are highly varied and technically demanding, and they exhibit little of the sense of overall structure that someone such as Beethoven would have employed. These energetic études

  • études d’histoire religieuse (work by Renan)

    Ernest Renan: Early works: …essays, études d’histoire religieuse (1857; Studies of Religious History) and Essais de morale et de critique (1859; “Moral and Critical Essays”), first written for the Revue des Deux Mondes and the Journal des Débats. The études inculcated into a middle-class public the insight and sensitivity of the historical, humanistic approach…

  • études de Dynamique chimique (book by Hoff)

    Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff: Birth of physical chemistry: …he published the innovative book études de dynamique chimique (“Studies in Chemical Dynamics”), in which he used the principles of thermodynamics to provide a mathematical model for the rates of chemical reactions based on the changes in the concentration of reactants with time. In the études, van ’t Hoff showed…

  • études des Applications des Radio-éléments Artificiels, Société d’ (French company)

    Frédéric and Irène Joliot-Curie: He created the Société d’études des Applications des Radio-éléments Artificiels, an industrial company that gave work certificates to scientists and thus prevented their being sent to Germany. In May 1944, Irène and their children took refuge in Switzerland, and Frédéric lived in Paris under the name of Jean-Pierre…

  • études évangéliques (book by Loisy)

    Modernism: …theories on the Gospels in études évangéliques (1902; “Studies in the Gospels”) were both condemned by Fran?ois Cardinal Richard, the archbishop of Paris. In England George Tyrrell, an Irish-born Jesuit priest, was dismissed from his teaching post and from the Jesuits for his views on papal infallibility and for a…

  • Etudes geologiques sur le Maroc central et le Moyen Atlas septentrional (work by Termier)

    Henri-Fran?ois-émile Termier: …his observations and findings including études géologiques sur le Maroc central et le Moyen Atlas septentrional (1936; “Geological Studies of Central Morocco and the Northern Middle Atlas Mountains”), Paléontologie marocaine (1947–50; “Moroccan Paleontology”), Traité de géologie (1952–56; “Treatise on Geology”), Traité de stratigraphie (1964; “Treatise on Stratigraphy”), Biologie des premiers…

  • études rhythmiques (work by Hasselt)

    André van Hasselt: …most innovative work was the études rhythmiques (published in Po?mes, paraboles, odes, et études rhythmiques, 1862), a collection of some 120 poems in which he attempted to create a Romantic formalism in French verse by applying principles of Germanic prosody.

  • études sur l’histoire de l’humanité (work by Laurent)

    Fran?ois Laurent: His greatest work was études sur l’histoire de l’humanité, 18 vol. (1861–70), a political and cultural history of man that was extremely popular in France, Germany, and England. It was praised for its great erudition but criticized for its theistic scheme and contention that man’s progress is the result…

  • études sur les glaciers (work by Agassiz)

    Earth sciences: Louis Agassiz and the ice age: …and in 1840 published his études sur les glaciers (“Studies of Glaciers”), demonstrating that Alpine glaciers had been far more extensive in the past. That same year he visited the British Isles in the company of Buckland and extended the glacial doctrine to Scotland, northern England, and Ireland. In 1846…

  • études sur les moyens de communication avec les planètes (book by Cros)

    Charles Cros: In his book études sur les moyens de communication avec les planètes (1869; “Studies on the Means of Communication with the Planets”), Cros speculated on the use of a huge concave mirror with a focal length equal to the distance of Mars or Venus from Earth. Sunlight concentrated…

  • études symphoniques (work by Schumann)

    Robert Schumann: The early years: …and the études symphoniques (1834–37; Symphonic Studies), another work consisting of a set of variations. In 1834 Schumann had become engaged to Ernestine von Fricken, but long before the engagement was formally broken off (Jan. 1, 1836) he had fallen in love with the then 16-year-old Clara Wieck. Clara returned…

  • études synthétiques de géologie expérimentale (book by Daubrée)

    Gabriel-Auguste Daubrée: …and his most significant work, études synthétiques de géologie expérimentale (1879; “Synthesis Studies on Experimental Geology”), reflects his primary interest. The minerals daubreeite and daubreelite were named for him.

  • ETUF (Egyptian organization)

    Egypt: Labour and taxation: …by the government through the Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF) and umbrella organizations with close ties to the government. Hundreds of independent trade unions sprang up after President Mubarak’s removal, but board elections that would enable these unions to be formalized were continuously delayed. When elections were finally held in…

  • Etukwa (African dance step)

    African dance: Rhythm: …Nkpopi is a leaping dance; Etukwa requires the torso to be inclined to the earth as the feet drum a staccato beat; Nzaukwu Nabi is a stamping step with sudden pauses.

  • ETV

    airport: Cargo facilities: …as transfer vehicles (TVs) and elevating transfer vehicles (ETVs).

  • Etwas über die rabbinische Litteratur (work by Zunz)

    Leopold Zunz: …initiated with his seminal work, Etwas über die rabbinische Litteratur (1818; “On Rabbinic Literature”), which revealed to the interested public, for the first time, the scope and beauty of postbiblical Jewish literature. In 1819, with the noted jurist Eduard Gans and a merchant and mathematician, Moses Moser, Zunz founded the…

  • Etymologiae (work by Isidore of Sevilla)

    Spain: Culture of Muslim Spain: …have been derived from the Etymologies of Isidore of Sevilla and from other Christian writers. In the 9th century the situation changed abruptly: the Andalusians, who traveled east in order to comply with the injunction to conduct a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetimes, took advantage of…

  • Etymologiarum sive originum libri XX (work by Isidore of Sevilla)

    Spain: Culture of Muslim Spain: …have been derived from the Etymologies of Isidore of Sevilla and from other Christian writers. In the 9th century the situation changed abruptly: the Andalusians, who traveled east in order to comply with the injunction to conduct a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetimes, took advantage of…

  • Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language (dictionary by Jamieson)

    dictionary: Since 1828: …of humble origin; in his Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, his use of “mean” sources marked a turning point in the history of lexicography. Even as late as 1835 the critic Richard Garnett said that “the only good English dictionary we possess is Dr. Jamieson’s Scottish one.” Another collector,…

  • Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae (dictionary by Skinner)

    dictionary: Specialized dictionaries: …for English was Stephen Skinner’s Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae of 1671, in Latin, with a strong bias for finding a Classical origin for every English word. In the 18th century, a number of dictionaries were published that traced most English words to Celtic sources, because the authors did not realize that…

  • Etymologies (work by Isidore of Sevilla)

    Spain: Culture of Muslim Spain: …have been derived from the Etymologies of Isidore of Sevilla and from other Christian writers. In the 9th century the situation changed abruptly: the Andalusians, who traveled east in order to comply with the injunction to conduct a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetimes, took advantage of…

  • etymology (linguistics)

    Etymology, the history of a word or word element, including its origins and derivation. Although the etymologizing of proper names appears in the Old Testament and Plato dealt with etymology in his dialogue Cratylus, lack of knowledge of other languages and of the historical developments that

  • ?Etz ?ayyim (work by Aaron ben Elijah)

    Aaron ben Elijah: In the first book, ?Etz ?ayyim (1346; “Tree of Life”), modeled after the 12th-century Jewish philosopher Maimonides’ Moreh nevukhim (The Guide for the Perplexed), he attempts to create a Karaite counterpart to Maimonides’ Aristotelian outlook. In the second book, Gan Eden (1354; “The Garden of Eden”), he attempts to…

  • ?Etz ?ayyim (work by Vital)

    ?ayyim ben Joseph Vital: His major work was the ?Etz ?ayyim (“Tree of Life”), a detailed exposition of Lurian Kabbala, which also appeared in altered editions by rivals that he repudiated. His son Samuel published accounts of Vital’s dreams and visions posthumously under the title Shiv?e R. ?ayyim Vital.

  • Etzel (legendary character)

    Attila: …he appears under the name Etzel in the Nibelungenlied and under the name Atli in Icelandic sagas.

  • Etzel (Jewish right-wing underground movement)

    Irgun Zvai Leumi, (Hebrew: National Military Organization) Jewish right-wing underground movement in Palestine, founded in 1931. At first supported by many nonsocialist Zionist parties, in opposition to the Haganah, it became in 1936 an instrument of the Revisionist Party, an extreme nationalist

  • Etzel Andergast (work by Wassermann)

    Jakob Wassermann: …extended into a trilogy including Etzel Andergast (1931) and Joseph Kerkhovens dritte Existenz (1934; Kerkhoven’s Third Existence). Mein Weg als Deutscher und Jude (1921; My Life as German and Jew) is Wassermann’s autobiography.

  • Etzioni, Amitai (sociologist)

    communitarianism: Varieties of communitarianism: …Avner de-Shalit, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Amitai Etzioni, William A. Galston, Alasdair MacIntyre, Philip Selznick, and Michael Walzer.

  • EU (European organization)

    European Union (EU), international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. Originally confined to western Europe, the EU undertook a robust expansion into central and eastern Europe in the early 21st century. The EU’s members are

  • Eu (chemical element)

    Europium (Eu), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Europium is the least dense, the softest, and the most volatile member of the lanthanide series. The pure metal is silvery, but after even a short exposure to air it becomes dull, because it readily

  • EU ETS (international agreement)

    carbon offset: Carbon-offsetting process: (UNFCCC) Kyoto Protocol or the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS; a regional carbon market where European countries can trade carbon allowances to meet regional emission-reduction goals). A benefit of carbon offsetting within such compliance schemes is that it enables emission reductions to occur where costs are lower, leading…

  • EU’s Migration Burden, The

    At a European Union summit in Brussels in June 2015, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi denounced fellow EU leaders for failing to share the financial burden and other pressures of a refugee crisis that was growing by the day. More than 50,000 people had arrived in his country since the start of

  • ?Eua (island, Tonga)

    ?Eua, volcanic and limestone island in the Tongatapu Group of Tonga, southwestern Pacific Ocean. The second largest of the group, ?Eua is hilly and rises to an elevation of 1,078 feet (329 metres). Sighted in 1643 by the Dutch navigator Abel Janszoon Tasman, the island was originally named

  • Euanthe (genus of orchid)
  • Euasterid I (plant clade)

    angiosperm: Annotated classification: Lamiids The following 8 orders. Order Boraginales Family: Boraginaceae. Order Garryales Families: Eucommiaceae, Garryaceae. Order

  • EUB (American church)

    Evangelical United Brethren Church (EUB), Protestant church formed in 1946 by the merger of the Evangelical Church and the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Both of these churches were essentially Methodist in doctrine and church government, and both originated among German-speaking people

  • eubacteria (bacteria)

    Eubacterium, term formerly used to describe and differentiate any of a group of prokaryotic true bacteria from the archaebacteria. Today, true bacteria form the domain Bacteria. Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified in the other two domains of life, Archaea

  • Eubacteriales (bacteria)

    Eubacterium, term formerly used to describe and differentiate any of a group of prokaryotic true bacteria from the archaebacteria. Today, true bacteria form the domain Bacteria. Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified in the other two domains of life, Archaea

  • eubacterium (bacteria)

    Eubacterium, term formerly used to describe and differentiate any of a group of prokaryotic true bacteria from the archaebacteria. Today, true bacteria form the domain Bacteria. Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified in the other two domains of life, Archaea

  • Eubalaena (whale genus)

    right whale: …the whales of the genus Eubalaena (though originally only to E. glacialis). The bowhead has a black body, a white chin and throat, and, sometimes, a white belly. It can grow to a length of about 20 metres (65.6 feet), up to 40 percent of which is the strongly arched…

  • Eubalaena australis (mammal)

    right whale: …Hemisphere, referred to as the southern right whale. Whether found in northern or southern latitudes, these right whales are estimated to reach a maximum length of about 18 metres. They may or may not have white on the undersides, and they resemble the bowhead in form but have a smaller,…

  • Eubalaena glacialis (Atlantic sea mammal)

    right whale: …classified into three different species: E. glacialis of the North Atlantic and E. japonica of the North Pacific, both commonly called northern right whales, and E. australis of the Southern Hemisphere, referred to as the southern right whale. Whether found in northern or southern latitudes, these right whales are estimated…

  • Eubalaena japonica (Pacific sea mammal)

    right whale: … of the North Atlantic and E. japonica of the North Pacific, both commonly called northern right whales, and E. australis of the Southern Hemisphere, referred to as the southern right whale. Whether found in northern or southern latitudes, these right whales are estimated to reach a maximum length of about…

  • Eubank, Chris (British boxer)

    Joe Calzaghe: …and in 1997 he defeated Chris Eubank to win the World Boxing Organization (WBO) super middleweight championship. He went on to win the International Boxing Federation (IBF) title in 2006.

  • Eubie! (American musical)

    Gregory Hines: …starred with his brother in Eubie!, a tribute to American ragtime pianist and composer Eubie Blake that was choreographed by Le Tang. The production was a great success and sparked new interest in tap dancing. Hines received a Tony Award nomination, and other nominations followed for performances in Comin’ Uptown…

  • Eublepharinae (reptile subfamily)

    lizard: Annotated classification: Subfamily Eublepharinae (banded and leopard geckos) Geckos with movable eyelids and no adhesive toe pads. In general, they use an active foraging mode. They live in southwestern North America, Central America, southern Asia, and Africa south of the Sahara. 6 genera and about 25 species are…

  • Euboea (island, Greece)

    Euboea, island, the largest in Greece, after Crete (Modern Greek: Kríti). It is located in the Central Greece (Stereá Elláda) periféreia (region), in the Aegean Sea. It lies along the coasts of the periféreies (regions) of Western Greece (Dytikí Elláda), Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos), and Attica

  • Euboea, Gulf of (gulf, Greece)

    Gulf of Euboea, arm of the Aegean Sea, between the island of Euboea (Modern Greek: évvoia) to the northeast and the Greek mainland to the southwest. Trending northwest-southeast, the gulf is divided by the narrow Strait of Euripus, at the town of Chalkída. The northern part is about 50 miles (80

  • Euboicus (work by Dion Chrysostom)

    Dio Chrysostom: Best known is the Euboicus, depicting country life on the island of Euboea, an important document for social and economic history. A patriotic Greek who accepted Roman rule, Dio typifies the revival of Greek self-confidence under the Roman Empire that marks the beginning of the New or Second Sophistic…

  • Eubranchipus vernalis (crustacean)

    fairy shrimp: …America the most common is Eubranchipus vernalis.

  • Eubulides of Miletus (Greek philosopher)

    Eubulides Of Miletus, a member of the Megarian school of philosophy in Athens and renowned as an inventor of logical paradoxes, the most famous of which is “The Liar” (“Does a man who says that he is now lying, speak truly?”). He was a contemporary of Aristotle, whom he attacked, and tradition says

  • Eubulus (Greek statesman)

    Eubulus, Athenian statesman noted for his able financial administration. Eubulus first became prominent in 355 bc, when Athens was morally and financially exhausted from 13 years of war. From then until 346 he was the most influential politician in Athens. He used his position as chief commissioner

  • eucalyptus (plant)

    Eucalyptus, (genus Eucalyptus), large genus of more than 660 species of shrubs and tall trees of the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), native to Australia, Tasmania, and nearby islands. In Australia the eucalypti are commonly known as gum trees or stringybark trees. Many species are cultivated widely

  • Eucalyptus (plant)

    Eucalyptus, (genus Eucalyptus), large genus of more than 660 species of shrubs and tall trees of the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), native to Australia, Tasmania, and nearby islands. In Australia the eucalypti are commonly known as gum trees or stringybark trees. Many species are cultivated widely

  • Eucalyptus botryoides (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: …are the black peppermint tree; southern mahogany (E. botryoides); karri (E. diversicolor); Tasmanian bluegum; white ironbark, or yellow gum (E. leucoxylon); jarrah (E. marginata); messmate stringybark (E. obliqua); red mahogany (E. resinifera); northern gray ironbark; and others. The bark of many

  • Eucalyptus diversicolor (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: botryoides); karri (E. diversicolor); Tasmanian bluegum; white ironbark, or yellow gum (E. leucoxylon); jarrah (E. marginata); messmate stringybark (E. obliqua); red mahogany (E. resinifera); northern gray ironbark; and others. The bark of many species is used in papermaking and

  • Eucalyptus globulus (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: salicifolia) and Tasmanian bluegum (E. globulus), contain a volatile aromatic oil known as eucalyptus oil. Its chief use is medical, and it constitutes an active ingredient in expectorants and inhalants. Tasmanian bluegum, northern gray ironbark (E. siderophloia), and other species yield what is known as Botany Bay…

  • Eucalyptus leucoxylon (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: diversicolor); Tasmanian bluegum; white ironbark, or yellow gum (E. leucoxylon); jarrah (E. marginata); messmate stringybark (E. obliqua); red mahogany (E. resinifera); northern gray ironbark; and others. The bark of many species is used in papermaking and tanning.

  • Eucalyptus macrocarpa (plant)

    eucalyptus: Physical description: …inches) in diameter—are borne by mottlecah, or silverleaf eucalyptus (E. macrocarpa).

  • Eucalyptus marginata (plant species)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: leucoxylon); jarrah (E. marginata); messmate stringybark (E. obliqua); red mahogany (E. resinifera); northern gray ironbark; and others. The bark of many species is used in papermaking and tanning.

  • Eucalyptus obliqua (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: marginata); messmate stringybark (E. obliqua); red mahogany (E. resinifera); northern gray ironbark; and others. The bark of many species is used in papermaking and tanning.

  • eucalyptus oil

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: …volatile aromatic oil known as eucalyptus oil. Its chief use is medical, and it constitutes an active ingredient in expectorants and inhalants. Tasmanian bluegum, northern gray ironbark (E. siderophloia), and other species yield what is known as Botany Bay kino, an astringent dark reddish resin, obtained in a semifluid state…

  • Eucalyptus regnans (tree)

    eucalyptus: Physical description: The giant gum tree, or mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans), of Victoria and Tasmania, is one of the largest species and attains a height of about 90 metres (300 feet) and a circumference of 7.5 metres (24.5 feet). Many species continually shed the dead outermost layer of…

  • Eucalyptus resinifera (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: obliqua); red mahogany (E. resinifera); northern gray ironbark; and others. The bark of many species is used in papermaking and tanning.

  • Eucalyptus siderophloia (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: Tasmanian bluegum, northern gray ironbark (E. siderophloia), and other species yield what is known as Botany Bay kino, an astringent dark reddish resin, obtained in a semifluid state from incisions made in the tree trunk.

  • Eucarida (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Superorder Eucarida. Carapace large, fused dorsally to all thoracic segments; eyes stalked; development usually involves larval forms but is sometimes direct. Order Euphausiacea (krill) Holocene; carapace does not cover gills; thoracic limbs with 2 well-developed branches; eggs usually shed freely; first larva a nauplius; 6–81 mm;…

  • eucaryote (biology)

    Eukaryote, any cell or organism that possesses a clearly defined nucleus. The eukaryotic cell has a nuclear membrane that surrounds the nucleus, in which the well-defined chromosomes (bodies containing the hereditary material) are located. Eukaryotic cells also contain organelles, including

  • Eucera (bee genus)

    orchid: Natural history: … and Gorytes, and the bee Eucera induce the insects to attempt copulation with the apex of the lip. Those orchids pollinated by Andrena appear, for the most part, to stimulate the bee to reverse its position and copulate with the base of the lip. In the former group the pollinarium…

  • Eucestoda (tapeworm subclass)

    flatworm: Annotated classification: Subclass Eucestoda Polyzoic tapeworms with scolex (head) of varying structure; body usually with distinct external segmentation; parasitic in intestine of vertebrates. Known commonly as the “true” tapeworms; well more than 3,000 species. Order Tetraphyllidea Scolex with 4 bothridia (leaflike muscular structure); vitellaria located in lateral margins…

  • Eucharist (Christianity)

    Eucharist, in Christianity, ritual commemoration of Jesus’ Last Supper with his disciples, at which (according to tradition) he gave them bread with the words, “This is my body,” and wine with the words, “This is my blood.” The story of the institution of the Eucharist by Jesus on the night before

  • Eucharist, liturgy of the (Roman Catholicism)

    mass: …of the Word and the liturgy of the Eucharist. The first includes readings from Scripture, the homily (sermon), and intercessory prayer. The second includes the offering and the presentation of bread and wine at the altar, their consecration by the priest during the eucharistic prayer (or canon of the mass),…

  • Eucharistic Prayer IV (Christianity)

    Christianity: Liturgy: the school and feast of faith: …outstanding example is provided by Eucharistic Prayer IV in the Roman Missal of 1969–70, which has been borrowed and adapted by several other churches. Here the words and the ritual actions allow a reappropriation of the entire story of salvation:

  • Euchologion (work by Saint Sarapion)

    Saint Sarapion: …Christian public prayer is Sarapion’s Euchologion (“Collected Prayers,” or “Sacramentary”), which contains liturgical texts for various rites and blessings, including some of the earliest formulas in the Eucharist. Sarapion also created certain unique eucharistic verses invoking the divine Logos (“Word”) to consecrate the sacramental elements of bread and wine.

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