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  • ethno-ecology (anthropology)

    anthropology: Environmental and ecological studies in anthropology: The field of ethno-ecology focuses on the ways people conceptualize elements of the natural environment and human activity within it and investigates how these concepts vary culturally as well as reveal universal aspects of human cognition. Another trend in contemporary environmental studies at the turn of the 21st…

  • ethno-geographic area (anthropological concept)

    Culture area, in anthropology, geography, and other social sciences, a contiguous geographic area within which most societies share many traits in common. Delineated at the turn of the 20th century, it remains one of the most widely used frameworks for the description and analysis of cultures.

  • ethnobotany

    Ethnobotany, systematic study of the botanical knowledge of a social group and its use of locally available plants in foods, medicines, clothing, or religious rituals. Rudimentary drugs derived from plants used in folk medicines have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of many illnesses,

  • ethnocentrism (anthropology)

    race: The difference between racism and ethnocentrism: …racism must be distinguished from ethnicity and ethnocentrism. While extreme ethnocentrism may take the same offensive form and may have the same dire consequences as extreme racism, there are significant differences between the two concepts. Ethnicity, which relates to culturally contingent features, characterizes all human groups. It refers to a…

  • Ethnogenesis (poem by Timrod)

    Remembering the American Civil War: Henry Timrod: Ethnogenesis: Henry Timrod was unrecognized as a poet until the Southern secession and the Civil War. The emotions that stirred the South in 1860–61 led to a flowering of his poetic talents, and by the time the Confederacy was formed he was regarded as the…

  • ethnographic film (cinema)

    motion picture: Travelogues and ethnographic films: …all artistry be eliminated from ethnographic films so that the visual data recorded by the camera remain as fresh and uninterpreted as possible. The audience for these films typically consists of members of a university or museum community for whom entertainment is less significant than authenticity. When such films are…

  • ethnography

    Ethnography, descriptive study of a particular human society or the process of making such a study. Contemporary ethnography is based almost entirely on fieldwork and requires the complete immersion of the anthropologist in the culture and everyday life of the people who are the subject of his

  • ethnography museum

    museum: History museums: Ethnography museums have been especially important to the newer nation-states of Africa and Oceania, where they are seen as a means of contributing to national unity among different cultural groups. Among the industrialized nations, and particularly in countries that have been involved in colonization, the…

  • ethnohistory

    John Reed Swanton: …significantly developed the discipline of ethnohistory.

  • ethnolinguistics

    Ethnolinguistics, that part of anthropological linguistics concerned with the study of the interrelation between a language and the cultural behaviour of those who speak it. Several controversial questions are involved in this field: Does language shape culture or vice versa? What influence does

  • Ethnological Museum (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    Ethnological Museum, museum in Berlin, housing one of the world’s largest and most comprehensive ethnographic collections. Together with the Museum of Asian Art and the Museum of European Cultures, the Ethnological Museum is considered one of the Dahlem museums, because of its location in the

  • Ethnologisches Museum (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    Ethnological Museum, museum in Berlin, housing one of the world’s largest and most comprehensive ethnographic collections. Together with the Museum of Asian Art and the Museum of European Cultures, the Ethnological Museum is considered one of the Dahlem museums, because of its location in the

  • ethnology

    Cultural anthropology, a major division of anthropology that deals with the study of culture in all of its aspects and that uses the methods, concepts, and data of archaeology, ethnography and ethnology, folklore, and linguistics in its descriptions and analyses of the diverse peoples of the world.

  • Ethnology and Folklore, Institute of (institution, Cuba)

    Cuba: Cultural institutions: In 1959 the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore was created within the Academy of Sciences of Cuba, with the aim of collecting and classifying the Cuban cultural heritage. It formed the National Folklore Group, which performs Afro-Cuban dances throughout Cuba and abroad and gives international folklore laboratories each…

  • Ethnology of Easter Island (work by Metraux)

    Alfred Métraux: In two works, Ethnology of Easter Island (1940) and L’?le de Paques (1935; Easter Island), he argued that Easter Island’s indigenous population is Polynesian, both culturally and physically, and that the island’s well-known monolithic sculptures are native creations rather than Asian or American Indian ones.

  • Ethnology, Institute of (institution, Paris, France)

    cultural anthropology: Mauss and the sociological school: …Claude Lévi-Strauss, and founded the Institute of Ethnology of the University of Paris; he also influenced such men as the noted British cultural (or social) anthropologists Bronis?aw Malinowski and Alfred R. Radcliffe-Brown. In general it may be said that Mauss, like Boas, was insistent upon studying social phenomena as a…

  • ethnomethodology (sociology)

    sociology: The historical divide: qualitative and establishment sociology: …Harold Garfinkel coined the term ethnomethodology to designate the methods individuals use in daily life to construct their reality, primarily through intimate exchanges of meanings in conversation. These constructions are available through new methods of conversational analysis, detailed or “thick” descriptions of behaviour, “interpretive frames,” and other devices. Proponents of…

  • ethnomusicology

    Ethnomusicology, field of scholarship that encompasses the study of all world musics from various perspectives. It is defined either as the comparative study of musical systems and cultures or as the anthropological study of music. Although the field had antecedents in the 18th and early 19th

  • Ethnomusicology (work by Kunst)

    Jaap Kunst: His most influential work was Ethnomusicology (first published 1950; 3rd ed., 1959), which established the modern approach to the field of ethnomusicology (a term he invented) and which includes a bibliography of roughly 30,000 items. His work gave the field a solid foundation.

  • ethnopharmacology (medical science)

    pharmaceutical industry: Lead compounds from natural products: Ethnopharmacology is a branch of medical science in which the medicinal products used by isolated or primitive people are investigated using modern scientific techniques. In some cases chemicals with desirable pharmacological properties are isolated and eventually become drugs with properties recognizable in the natural product.…

  • ethnopsychiatry

    cultural anthropology: Distinction between physical anthropology and cultural anthropology: …of cross-cultural psychiatry, or so-called ethnopsychiatry. Conversely, the psychological sciences, particularly psychoanalysis, have offered cultural anthropology new hypotheses for an interpretation of the concept of culture.

  • ethnopsychology (anthropology)

    cultural anthropology: Cultural psychology: One development of the interwar period led certain cultural anthropologists to speak of a new subdiscipline, cultural psychology, or ethnopsychology, which is based on the idea that culture conditions the very psychological makeup of individuals (as opposed to the older notion of a…

  • ethological isolation (biology)

    evolution: Ethological (behavioral) isolation: Sexual attraction between males and females of a given species may be weak or absent. In most animal species, members of the two sexes must first search for each other and come together. Complex courtship rituals then take place, with the male often taking…

  • ethology (biology)

    Ethology, the study of animal behaviour. Although many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour through the centuries, the modern science of ethology is usually considered to have arisen as a discrete discipline with the work in the 1920s of biologists Nikolaas Tinbergen of the

  • ethos (arts)

    Ethos, in rhetoric, the character or emotions of a speaker or writer that are expressed in the attempt to persuade an audience. It is distinguished from pathos, which is the emotion the speaker or writer hopes to induce in the audience. The two words were distinguished in a broader sense by ancient

  • ethoxylene (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Epoxies (epoxy resins): Epoxies are polyethers built up from monomers in which the ether group takes the form of a three-membered ring known as the epoxide ring:

  • Ethridge, Chris (American musician)

    the Flying Burrito Brothers: …1973, Yucca Valley, California), and Chris Ethridge (b. 1947, Meridian, Mississippi, U.S.—d. April 23, 2012, Meridian). Later members included Michael Clarke (b. June 3, 1944, New York City, New York, U.S.—d. December 19, 1993, Treasure Island, Florida), Bernie Leadon (b. July 19, 1947, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.), and Rick Roberts (b.…

  • ethrog (ritual plant)

    Etrog, (Hebrew: “citron”) one of four species of plants used during the Jewish celebration of Sukkoth (Feast of Booths), a festival of gratitude to God for the bounty of the earth that is celebrated in autumn at the end of the harvest festival. For ritual purposes the etrog must be perfect in stem

  • ethrogim (ritual plant)

    Etrog, (Hebrew: “citron”) one of four species of plants used during the Jewish celebration of Sukkoth (Feast of Booths), a festival of gratitude to God for the bounty of the earth that is celebrated in autumn at the end of the harvest festival. For ritual purposes the etrog must be perfect in stem

  • ethyl (chemistry)

    radical: …as the methyl (·CH3) and ethyl (·C2H5) radicals, are capable of only the most fleeting independent existence.

  • ethyl acetoacetate (chemical compound)

    Ethyl acetoacetate (CH3COCH2COOC2H5), an ester widely used as an intermediate in the synthesis of many varieties of organic chemical compounds. Industrially it is employed in the manufacture of synthetic drugs and dyes. The ester is produced chiefly by self-condensation of ethyl acetate, brought

  • ethyl alcohol (chemical compound)

    Ethanol, a member of a class of organic compounds that are given the general name alcohols; its molecular formula is C2H5OH. Ethanol is an important industrial chemical; it is used as a solvent, in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and as an additive to automotive gasoline (forming a

  • ethyl bromide (chemical compound)

    chemical compound: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: …the proton NMR spectrum of bromoethane, the hydrogen atoms of the CH3 group appear at about 1.6 ppm and the hydrogens of the CH2 group at about 3.3 ppm. Atoms in a molecule have different chemical shifts because they experience slightly different local magnetic fields owing to the presence of…

  • ethyl chloride (chemical compound)

    Ethyl chloride (C2H5Cl), colourless, flammable gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds. At one time, ethyl chloride was a high-volume industrial chemical used in the preparation of the gasoline additive tetraethyl lead. Beginning with restrictions on leaded gasoline in the 1970s and

  • ethyl ether (chemical compound)

    Ethyl ether, well-known anesthetic, commonly called simply ether, an organic compound belonging to a large group of compounds called ethers; its molecular structure consists of two ethyl groups linked through an oxygen atom, as in C2H5OC2H5. Ethyl ether is a colourless, volatile, highly flammable

  • ethyl gasoline (chemical compound)

    petroleum refining: Octane rating: The advent of leaded, or ethyl, gasoline led to the manufacture of high-octane fuels and became universally employed throughout the world after World War II. However, beginning in 1975, environmental legislation began to restrict the use of lead additives in automotive gasoline. It is now banned in the…

  • ethyl group (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Defining characteristics: …larger homologs such as the ethyl group, C2H5, which attach to a metal atom through only one carbon atom. (Simple alkyl groups such as these are often abbreviated by the symbol R.) More elaborate organic groups include the cyclopentadienyl group, C5H5, in which all five carbon atoms can form bonds…

  • ethyl halide (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: Structure and physical properties: The boiling points of ethyl halides increase as the atomic number of the halogen increases. With increasing atomic number the halogen becomes more polarizable, meaning that the electric field associated with the atom is more easily distorted by the presence of nearby electric fields. Fluorine is the least polarizable…

  • ethyl malonate (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Polycarboxylic acids: ester, CH2(COOCH2CH3)2, called diethyl malonate. This compound is used in a synthetic process to produce a variety of monosubstituted and disubstituted derivatives of acetic acid.

  • ethyl methyl sulfide (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfides: , ethyl methyl sulfide is CH3SC2H5. In molecules with other functional groups of higher priority, the sulfide group is designated by thio- (as in thiodiacetic acid, HO2CCH2SCH2CO2H) or by methylthio- (as in methylthioacetic acid, CH3SCH2CO2H). In saturated cyclic sulfides, the prefix thi- precedes the root

  • ethyl methyl sulfoxide (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Organic compounds of polyvalent sulfur: sulfoxides and sulfones: , ethyl methyl sulfoxide, CH3S(O)C2H5), or by forming a prefix from the name of the simpler of the groups using the particle -sulfinyl- (e.g., 4-(methylsulfinyl)benzoic acid). The nomenclature of sulfones is similar to that of sulfoxides; the particle -sulfonyl- is used in complicated cases. Most sulfoxides…

  • ethyl vinyl ether (chemical compound)

    heterocyclic compound: Comparison with carbocyclic compounds: …the corresponding unsaturated ether, ethyl vinyl ether, which has the formula:

  • ethyl-2-naphthyl ether (chemical compound)

    chemical compound: Ethers and epoxides: An aromatic ether known as Nerolin II (2-ethoxynaphthalene) is used in perfumes to impart the scent of orange blossoms. Cyclic ethers, such as tetrahydrofuran, are commonly used as organic solvents. Although ethers contain two polar carbon-oxygen bonds, they are much less reactive than alcohols or phenols.

  • ethylbenzene (chemical compound)

    chemical industry: Xylene: …with them is another isomer, ethylbenzene, which has one ethyl group (―C2H5) replacing one of the hydrogen atoms of benzene. These isomers can be separated only with difficulty, but numerous separation methods have been worked out. The small letters o-, m-, and p- (standing for ortho-, meta-, and para-) preceding…

  • ethylene (chemical compound)

    Ethylene (H2C=CH2), the simplest of the organic compounds known as alkenes, which contain carbon-carbon double bonds. It is a colourless, flammable gas having a sweet taste and odour. Natural sources of ethylene include both natural gas and petroleum; it is also a naturally occurring hormone in

  • ethylene acrylic acid (chemical compound)

    polyethylene: Ethylene copolymers: Ethylene-acrylic acid and ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymers are prepared by suspension or emulsion polymerization, using free-radical catalysts. The acrylic acid and methacrylic acid repeating units, making up 5 to 20 percent of the copolymers, have the following structures:

  • ethylene bromide (chemical compound)

    Ethylene bromide (C2H4Br2), a colourless, sweet-smelling, nonflammable, toxic liquid belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds. Ethylene bromide was once used in conjunction with lead-containing antiknock agents as a component of gasoline; however, this use disappeared with the banning of

  • ethylene chloride (chemical compound)

    Ethylene chloride (C2H4Cl2), a colourless, toxic, volatile liquid having an odour resembling that of chloroform. It is denser than water, and it is practically insoluble in water. Ethylene chloride is produced by the reaction of ethylene and chlorine. The annual production of ethylene chloride

  • ethylene dibromide (chemical compound)

    Ethylene bromide (C2H4Br2), a colourless, sweet-smelling, nonflammable, toxic liquid belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds. Ethylene bromide was once used in conjunction with lead-containing antiknock agents as a component of gasoline; however, this use disappeared with the banning of

  • ethylene dichloride (chemical compound)

    Ethylene chloride (C2H4Cl2), a colourless, toxic, volatile liquid having an odour resembling that of chloroform. It is denser than water, and it is practically insoluble in water. Ethylene chloride is produced by the reaction of ethylene and chlorine. The annual production of ethylene chloride

  • ethylene glycol (chemical compound)

    Ethylene glycol, the simplest member of the glycol family of organic compounds. A glycol is an alcohol with two hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbon atoms (a 1,2-diol). The common name ethylene glycol literally means “the glycol derived from ethylene.” Ethylene glycol is a clear, sweet, slightly

  • ethylene methacrylic acid (chemical compound)

    polyethylene: Ethylene copolymers: Ethylene-acrylic acid and ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymers are prepared by suspension or emulsion polymerization, using free-radical catalysts. The acrylic acid and methacrylic acid repeating units, making up 5 to 20 percent of the copolymers, have the following structures:

  • ethylene oxide (chemical compound)

    heterocyclic compound: Three-membered rings: …oxygen, and sulfur—aziridine, oxirane (or ethylene oxide), and thiirane, respectively—and their derivatives can all be prepared by nucleophilic reactions, of the type shown. Thus, aziridine is formed by heating β-aminoethyl hydrogen sulfate with a base (in this case Y is ―OSO3H).

  • ethylene-propylene copolymer (chemical compound)

    Ethylene-propylene copolymer, a class of synthetic rubber produced by copolymerizing ethylene and propylene, usually in combination with other chemical compounds. In addition to elastic properties, ethylene-propylene copolymers display excellent resistance to electricity and ozone and an ability to

  • ethylene-propylene monomer (rubber)

    major industrial polymers: Ethylene-propylene copolymers: …are known as EPM (ethylene-propylene monomer) and the latter as EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer). The copolymers contain approximately 60 percent by weight ethylene. A pronounced advantage of EPDM is that the residual carbon-carbon double bond (i.e., the double bond that remains after polymerization) is attached to the polymer chain rather…

  • ethylene-propylene rubber (chemical compound)

    Ethylene-propylene copolymer, a class of synthetic rubber produced by copolymerizing ethylene and propylene, usually in combination with other chemical compounds. In addition to elastic properties, ethylene-propylene copolymers display excellent resistance to electricity and ozone and an ability to

  • ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (copolymer)

    major industrial polymers: Ethylene-propylene copolymers: …the latter as EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer). The copolymers contain approximately 60 percent by weight ethylene. A pronounced advantage of EPDM is that the residual carbon-carbon double bond (i.e., the double bond that remains after polymerization) is attached to the polymer chain rather than being made part of it. Carbon-carbon…

  • ethylene-vinyl acetate (chemical compound)

    polyethylene: Ethylene copolymers: Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), for instance, is produced by the copolymerization of ethylene and vinyl acetate under pressure, using free-radical catalysts. Many different grades are manufactured, with the vinyl acetate content varying from 5 to 50 percent by weight. EVA copolymers are more permeable to…

  • ethylenecarboxamide (chemical compound)

    Acrylamide, a white, odourless, crystalline substance belonging to the family of organic compounds; its molecular formula is C3H5NO. Acrylamide is produced as a result of industrial processes and is generated in certain foods as a result of cooking at high temperatures. Because acrylamide is

  • ethylenediamine (chemical compound)

    coordination compound: Ligands and chelates: …(Cu2+) and the organic compound ethylenediamine (NH2CH2CH2NH2, often abbreviated as en in formulas). The formula of the complex is

  • ethylenediaminedinitrate (explosive)

    explosive: Picric acid and ammonium picrate: …these were RDX, PETN, and ethylenediaminedinitrate (EDNA), all of which were cast with varying amounts of TNT, usually 40 to 50 percent, and used where the highest possible shattering power was desired. For example, cast 60–40 RDX-TNT, called cyclotol, develops a detonation pressure of about 270,000 atmospheres (4,000,000 pounds per…

  • ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (chemical compound)

    soap and detergent: Sequestering or chelating agents: EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) or its sodium salt has the property of combining with certain metal ions to form a molecular complex that locks up or chelates the calcium ion so that it no longer exhibits ionic properties. In hard water, calcium and magnesium ions are…

  • ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway (biochemistry)

    metabolism: Anaplerotic routes: …cellular building blocks include the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway and the methylaspartate pathway. The ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is used by organisms lacking the isocitrate lyase enzyme, such as the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In this pathway two acetyl-CoA molecules are combined to produce acetoactyl-CoA, which subsequently reacts to form the intermediate ethylmalonyl-CoA. Ethylmalonyl-CoA is…

  • ethyne (chemical compound)

    Acetylene, the simplest and best-known member of the hydrocarbon series containing one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by triple bonds, called the acetylenic series, or alkynes. It is a colourless, inflammable gas widely used as a fuel in oxyacetylene welding and cutting of metals and as raw

  • ETI (Italian organization)

    Italy: Theatre: …activity in Italy are the Italian Theatre Board (Ente Teatrale Italiano; ETI), the Institute for Italian Drama (Istituto Dramma Italiano; IDI), concerned with promoting Italian repertory, and the National Institute for Ancient Drama (Istituto Nazionale del Dramma Antico; INDA). In 1990 the government tightened its legislation on eligibility for funding,…

  • Etiemble, René (French author)

    French literature: The 1960s: before the watershed: …against such transatlantic imports by René Etiemble in his polemic Parlez-vous franglais? (1964; “Do You Speak Frenglish”). The technocratic middle class, which benefited most from the country’s prosperity, was open to new ideas in science, and its materialist outlook found expression in Jacques Monod’s Le Hasard et la nécessité (1970;…

  • étienne family (French printers)

    history of publishing: France: …Bade, Geoffroy Tory, and the Estienne (Stephanus) family, who published without a break for five generations (1502–1674), carried France into the lead in European book production and consolidated the Aldine type of book—compact, inexpensive, and printed in roman and italic types. The golden age of French typography is usually placed…

  • étienne, Henri II (French scholar and printer)

    Henri II Estienne, scholar-printer, grandson of Henri Estienne, founder of the family printing firm in Paris, and son of Robert I Estienne, who left Paris to establish a printing firm in Geneva. Educated in classical literature, Estienne traveled as a young man in Italy, England, and Flanders,

  • étienne, Robert I (French scholar and printer)

    Robert I Estienne, scholar-printer, second son of Henri Estienne, who founded the family printing firm about 1502 in Paris. Robert became head of the firm in 1526, and it was he who adopted the device of the olive tree for his title pages. In 1527–28 he published his first complete Bible in Latin,

  • Etil (river, Russia)

    Volga River, river of Europe, the continent’s longest, and the principal waterway of western Russia and the historic cradle of the Russian state. Its basin, sprawling across about two-fifths of the European part of Russia, contains almost half of the entire population of the Russian Republic. The

  • etiocholanolone (androgen)

    steroid: Androgens: …of testosterone are androsterone and etiocholanolone. The latter compound is androgenically inactive, but it is a pyrogen (e.g., a fever-producing agent) that has been associated clinically with some febrile conditions.

  • etiologic tale (myth)

    myth: Etiologic tales: Etiologic tales are very close to myth, and some scholars regard them as a particular type of myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the term etiology is used to refer to the description or assignment of causes (Greek aitia).…

  • etiological approach (philosophy)

    biology, philosophy of: Teleology: …“capacity” approach and the “etiological” approach, developed by the American philosophers Robert Cummins and Larry Wright, respectively.

  • etiology (pathology)

    human disease: Classifications of diseases: The etiologic classification of disease is based on the cause, when known. This classification is particularly important and useful in the consideration of biotic disease. On this basis disease might be classified as staphylococcal or rickettsial or fungal, to cite only a few instances. It is…

  • etiquette (social norm)

    Etiquette, system of rules and conventions that regulate social and professional behaviour. In any social unit there are accepted rules of behaviour upheld and enforced by legal codes; there are also norms of behaviour mandated by custom and enforced by group pressure. An offender faces no formal

  • Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics, and at Home (work by Post)

    Emily Post: Later retitled Etiquette—the Blue Book of Social Usage, the guide went through 10 editions and 90 printings before her death.

  • Etiquette—the Blue Book of Social Usage (work by Post)

    Emily Post: Later retitled Etiquette—the Blue Book of Social Usage, the guide went through 10 editions and 90 printings before her death.

  • Etlingera (plant genus)

    Zingiberales: Inflorescences: In the genus Etlingera (family Zingiberaceae), the inflorescence shoots are so short that they do not emerge from the ground and all that can be seen is a circlet of flowers with prominent bright red petal-like structures (labella) radiating outward, the flower tubes and ovaries being below ground…

  • ETM1 (gene)

    essential tremor: …in a gene known as DRD3 (dopamine receptor 3; formerly designated ETM1, or essential tremor 1). The DRD3 gene encodes a protein called dopamine receptor D3. This receptor binds dopamine, a neurotransmitter that normally inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, thereby

  • Etna, Mount (volcano, Italy)

    Mount Etna, active volcano on the east coast of Sicily. The name comes from the Greek Aitne, from aithō, “I burn.” Mount Etna is the highest active volcano in Europe, its topmost elevation being about 10,900 feet (3,320 metres). Like other active volcanoes, it varies in height, increasing from

  • Etō Shimpei (Japanese statesman)

    Etō Shimpei, statesman who played a leading role in the Meiji Restoration (the 1868 return of power to the emperor and overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate). Although Etō was not a native of Chōshū or of Satsuma, the two feudal fiefs that played the leading role in the Meiji Restoration, he was

  • Eto’o, Samuel (Cameroonian athlete)

    Samuel Eto’o, Cameroonian professional football (soccer) player who is considered one of the greatest African footballers of all time. Eto’o attended the Kadji Sports Academy in Douala, Cameroon, and first came to national prominence while playing for UCB Douala, a second-division club, in the 1996

  • Etobicoke (former city, Ontario, Canada)

    Etobicoke, former city (1967–98), southeastern Ontario, Canada. In 1998 it amalgamated with the cities of North York, Scarborough, York, and Toronto and the borough of East York to become the City of Toronto. Etobicoke was established in 1967 through amalgamation of the township of Etobicoke

  • étoile Chain (mountains, France)

    Marseille: The city site: …of mountains, known as the étoile Chain, which leads northward toward Aix-en-Provence (formerly Marseille’s rival as capital of the region) and to Mount Sainte-Victoire. The slopes around Aix are devoted to vineyards, which produce the wines of the C?tes de Provence (“Hills of Provence”). The étoile Chain has put a…

  • étoile de Dakar (Senegalese music group)

    Youssou N'Dour: …left the group to form étoile de Dakar. Although it shared some stylistic features with its parent band, étoile de Dakar proudly promoted a more strongly Africanized version of the emergent mbalax music. Most of the group’s songs were sung in Wolof, using an ornamented vocal style—sometimes sustained and soaring,…

  • étoile nord-africaine (revolutionary movement, Algeria)

    Ahmed Messali Hadj: …group, the étoile Nord-Africaine (North African Star), was dissolved by the French in 1929 after he called for revolt against their colonial rule. In the mid-1930s he founded the Parti Populaire Algérien (PPA; Algerian Popular Party), which was suppressed only to reemerge in 1946 as the Mouvement pour le…

  • étoile, Isaac d’ (English philosopher and theologian)

    Isaac Of Stella, monk, philosopher, and theologian, a leading thinker in 12th-century Christian humanism and proponent of a synthesis of Neoplatonic and Aristotelian philosophies. After studies in England and Paris, Isaac entered the abbey of C?teaux, near Dijon, in the midst of the Cistercian m

  • étoile, Place de l’ (plaza, Paris, France)

    Arc de Triomphe: …at the centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle (formerly called the Place de l’étoile), the western terminus of the avenue des Champs-élysées; just over 1.2 miles (2 km) away, at the eastern terminus, is the Place de la Concorde. Napoleon I commissioned the triumphal arch in 1806—after his great…

  • Eton (England, United Kingdom)

    Eton, town (parish), Windsor and Maidenhead unitary authority, historic county of Buckinghamshire, southeastern England. It is situated across the River Thames from Windsor in Berkshire. The town is renowned for Eton College, the largest of the great public (independent) schools of England. Pop.

  • Eton Choirbook, The (music literature)

    choral music: The Eton Choirbook motets demand similar treatment since red and black text is used to differentiate between those sections intended for soloists and those for full choir. Comparable effects may be found in music written for special occasions, oratorios, verse anthems, and settings of the…

  • Eton College (school, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Eton College, near Windsor, Berkshire, one of England’s largest independent secondary schools and one of the highest in prestige. It was founded by Henry VI in 1440–41 for 70 highly qualified boys who received scholarships from a fund endowed by the king. Simultaneously, Henry founded King’s

  • Eton fives (sport)

    fives: …in slightly different playing rules: Eton fives, Rugby fives, and Winchester fives.

  • etoposide (drug)

    drug: Anticancer drugs: …the periwinkle plant, along with etoposide, act primarily to stop spindle formation within the dividing cell during DNA replication and cell division. These drugs are important agents in the treatment of leukemias, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. Etoposide, a semisynthetic derivative of a toxin found in roots of the American mayapple,…

  • Etosha National Park (national park, Namibia)

    Etosha National Park, national reserve, northern Namibia. Covering some 8,598 square miles (22,269 square km), it centres on the Etosha Pan, a vast expanse of salt with lone salt springs, used by animals as salt licks. It has one of the largest populations of big-game species in the world,

  • Etosha Pan (salt pan, Namibia)

    Etosha Pan, extremely flat salt pan, northern Namibia, covering an area of approximately 1,900 square miles (4,800 square km) at an elevation of about 3,400 feet (1,030 m). This enormous expanse of salt, glimmering green in the dry season, is the largest of its kind in Africa. It was first

  • étourdi ou les contretemps, L’? (play by Molière)

    Molière: Early life and beginnings in theatre: …L’étourdi; ou, les contretemps (The Blunderer; or, The Mishaps), performed at Lyon in 1655, and Le Dépit amoureux (The Amorous Quarrel), performed at Béziers in 1656.

  • ETOUSA (World War II)
  • étranger, L’? (novel by Camus)

    The Stranger, enigmatic first novel by Albert Camus, published in French as L’étranger in 1942. It was published as The Outsider in England and as The Stranger in the United States. The title character of The Stranger is Meursault, a Frenchman who lives in Algiers (a pied-noir). The novel is famous

  • être et le néant, L’? (work by Sartre)

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