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  • Essor—La Voix du Peuple, L’? (Malian newspaper)

    Mali: Media and publishing: …in Mali, including the state-owned L’Essor–La Voix du Peuple. Newspapers are far less effective in disseminating information than radio, not least because their circulation is limited to the literate and effectively to Bamako. There are many commercial radio stations in addition to the national radio station, which broadcasts news bulletins,…

  • Essure (medical procedure)

    sterilization: …a nonsurgical procedure known as Essure. In this approach, the doctor uses a flexible lighted instrument known as a hysteroscope to insert and place a soft coil implant into each of the fallopian tubes. The instrument, which is attached to a camera to visualize tissues and guide implant placement, is…

  • Essy, Amara (Ivorian diplomat)

    Amara Essy, Ivorian diplomat and international civil servant who held numerous national and international leadership positions, including several with the United Nations, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), and the OAU’s successor, the African Union (AU). Essy studied in Asia, Europe, and

  • EST (biochemistry)

    J. Craig Venter: Education and NIH research: …developed an alternative technique using expressed sequence tags (ESTs), small segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) found in expressed genes that are used as “tags” to identify unknown genes in other organisms, cells, or tissues. Venter used ESTs to rapidly identify thousands of human genes. Although first received with skepticism, the…

  • Est, Michael (English composer)

    Michael East, English composer, especially known for his madrigals. (He was once thought to be a son of the music printer Thomas East, but late research suggests that they were, at most, distant relatives.) East had some madrigals published as early as 1601 and again in 1604 and took a bachelor of

  • Est, Thomas (English music publisher)

    Thomas East, prominent English music publisher whose collection of psalms (1592) was among the first part-music printed in score rather than as individual parts in separate books. East was licensed as a printer in 1565 and later became an assignee in the music-publishing monopoly granted by

  • established church

    Established church, a church recognized by law as the official church of a state or nation and supported by civil authority. Though not strictly created by a legal contract, the legal establishment is more like a contractual entity than like anything else and, therefore, ordinarily cannot be

  • Establishing Useful Manufactures, Society for (New Jersey history)

    Paterson: …legislature in 1791 as the Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures (SUM); the city was named for Governor William Paterson, one of the framers of the U.S. Constitution.

  • establishment clause (United States Constitution)

    Establishment clause, clause in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution forbidding Congress from establishing a state religion. It prevents the passage of any law that gives preference to or forces belief in any one religion. It is paired with a clause that prohibits limiting the free

  • establishment terrorism (violence)

    terrorism: Types of terrorism: Establishment terrorism, often called state or state-sponsored terrorism, is employed by governments—or more often by factions within governments—against that government’s citizens, against factions within the government, or against foreign governments or groups. This type of terrorism is very common but difficult to identify, mainly because…

  • establishment-of-religion clause (United States Constitution)

    Establishment clause, clause in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution forbidding Congress from establishing a state religion. It prevents the passage of any law that gives preference to or forces belief in any one religion. It is paired with a clause that prohibits limiting the free

  • Estabrook, Howard (American director)
  • Estadja (Spain)

    Ecija, city, Sevilla provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southwestern Spain. It lies along the Genil River east of Sevilla. The city contains the Gothic-style Church of Santiago (15th century) and that of Santa Cruz on the site of a pre-Moorish

  • Estado de S. Paulo, O (Brazilian newspaper)

    O Estado de S. Paulo, (Portuguese: “The State of S?o Paulo”) influential newspaper published daily in S?o Paulo, Brazil’s largest city. O Estado is widely respected for its thorough coverage of national and international news, its publication of the texts of speeches of important government

  • Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico

    Puerto Rico, self-governing island commonwealth of the West Indies, associated with the United States. The easternmost island of the Greater Antilles chain, it lies approximately 50 miles (80 km) east of the Dominican Republic, 40 miles (65 km) west of the Virgin Islands, and 1,000 miles (1,600 km)

  • Estado Novo (Portuguese history)

    Angola: From colonial conquest to independence, 1910–75: …the authoritarian New State (Estado Novo), marked the advent of modern Portuguese colonialism. The authorities stamped out slavery and undertook the systematic conquest of Angola. By 1920 all but the remote southeast of the colony was firmly under Portuguese control. Kingdoms were abolished, and the Portuguese worked directly through…

  • Estado Novo (Brazilian history)

    Estado Novo, (Portuguese: “New State”), dictatorial period (1937–45) in Brazil during the rule of President Getúlio Vargas, initiated by a new constitution issued in November 1937. Vargas himself wrote it with the assistance of his minister of justice, Francisco Campos. In the election campaign of

  • Estado Oriental (Uruguayan history)

    history of Latin America: The southern movement in South America: …its surroundings became the separate Estado Oriental (“Eastern State,” later Uruguay). Caught between the loyalism of Spanish officers and the imperialist intentions of Buenos Aires and Portuguese Brazil, the regional leader José Gervasio Artigas formed an army of thousands of gauchos. By 1815 Artigas and this force dominated Uruguay and…

  • Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia

    Bolivia, country of west-central South America. Extending some 950 miles (1,500 km) north-south and 800 miles (1,300 km) east-west, Bolivia is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest and west by Chile, and to the northwest

  • Estado, Conselho de (Portuguese government)

    Portugal: Justice: …and replaced them with a Council of State and the Constitutional Tribunal. Members of the Council of State are the president of the republic (who presides over the council), the president of the parliament, the prime minister, the president of the Constitutional Tribunal, the attorney general, the presidents of the…

  • Estados Island (island, Argentina)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Southern Andes: …Andes begin on the mountainous Estados (Staten) Island, the easternmost point of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, reaching an elevation of 3,700 feet. They run to the west through Grande Island, where the highest ridges—including Mounts Darwin, Valdivieso, and Sorondo—are all less than 7,900 feet high. The physiography of this…

  • Estados Unidos Mexicanos

    Mexico, country of southern North America and the third largest country in Latin America, after Brazil and Argentina. Mexican society is characterized by extremes of wealth and poverty, with a limited middle class wedged between an elite cadre of landowners and investors on the one hand and masses

  • Estaing, Charles-Hector, comte d’ (French naval officer)

    Charles-Hector, count d’Estaing, commander of the first French fleet sent in support of the American colonists during the American Revolution. D’Estaing served in India during the Seven Years’ War and was governor of the Antilles (1763–66). He was appointed vice admiral in 1767 and in 1778

  • Estaing, Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Henri-Hector, comte d’, marquis de Saillans (French naval officer)

    Charles-Hector, count d’Estaing, commander of the first French fleet sent in support of the American colonists during the American Revolution. D’Estaing served in India during the Seven Years’ War and was governor of the Antilles (1763–66). He was appointed vice admiral in 1767 and in 1778

  • Estakhr (ancient city, Iran)

    Persepolis: History: …ce the nearby city of Istakhr (Estakhr, Stakhr) was the seat of local government, and Istakhr acquired importance as a centre of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy. Thereafter the city became the centre of the Persian Sāsānian dynasty, though the stone ruins that still stand just west of Persepolis suggest that…

  • estampida (dance and musical form)

    Estampie, courtly dance of the 12th–14th century. Mentioned in trouvère poetry, it was probably danced with sliding steps by couples to the music of vielles (medieval viols); its afterdance was the saltarello. In musical form the estampie derives from the sequence, a medieval genre of Latin hymn.

  • estampie (dance and musical form)

    Estampie, courtly dance of the 12th–14th century. Mentioned in trouvère poetry, it was probably danced with sliding steps by couples to the music of vielles (medieval viols); its afterdance was the saltarello. In musical form the estampie derives from the sequence, a medieval genre of Latin hymn.

  • Estan (Anatolian god)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Hurrian and Mitanni kingdoms: The sun god Shimegi and the moon god Kushuh, whose consort was Nikkal, the Ningal of the Sumerians, were of lesser rank. More important was the position of the Babylonian god of war and the underworld, Nergal. In northern Syria the god of war Astapi and the goddess…

  • estancia (Latin American history)

    Estancia, in the Río de la Plata region of Argentina and Uruguay, an extensive rural estate largely devoted to cattle ranching and to some extent to the raising of feed grain. From the late 18th century estancieros (owners of estancias) began to acquire tracts of land in the Pampas (grasslands) of

  • Estancia (work by Ginastera)

    Estancia, (Argentine Spanish: “Ranch”) orchestral suite and one-act ballet by Argentine composer Alberto Ginastera that, through its references to gaucho literature, rural folk dances, and urban concert music, evokes images of the diverse landscape of the composer’s homeland. The work premiered in

  • estanciero (Latin American estate owner)

    estancia: From the late 18th century estancieros (owners of estancias) began to acquire tracts of land in the Pampas (grasslands) of Argentina, which by the late 19th century had been almost entirely fenced in to form these estates. By 1900 about 300 families owned most of the Argentine Pampas, each with…

  • Estat Català (Spanish political party)

    Francesc Macià: …founder of the nationalist party Estat Català (1922), who played a major role in achieving an autonomous status for Catalonia.

  • estate (tract of land)

    United Kingdom: The introduction of feudalism: William probably distributed estates to his followers on a piecemeal basis as lands came into his hands. He granted lands directly to fewer than 180 men, making them his tenants in chief. Their estates were often well distributed, consisting of manors scattered through a number of shires. In…

  • estate (property law)

    inheritance: …distinguish between descent of real estate and distribution of personal estate. The rules applicable to the two kinds of property have been fused, but no common, overall name is yet universally accepted. In England books dealing with the subject are varyingly titled On Wills, On Probate, On Succession, or On…

  • estate agent

    agency: The variety of Anglo-American agents: …are the powers of the real estate agent, who may show the land and state the asking price to the potential buyer without ordinarily being empowered to make further representations. The store salesman is similarly restricted in his power to represent his principal and can usually do no more than…

  • estate group (anthropology)

    Australian Aboriginal peoples: Social groups and categories: …the operation of the “estate group,” a major social unit that shared ownership of a specific set of sites and stretch of territory—its “estate.” Kinship was also implicated, in that an estate group was often composed largely of people related patrilineally—that is, who traced connections to one another via…

  • Estate in Abruzzi, The (work by Jovine)

    Italian literature: Social commitment and the new realism: The Estate in Abruzzi]). Vivid pictures of the Florentine working classes were painted by Vasco Pratolini (Il quartiere [1945; “The District”; Eng. trans. The Naked Streets] and Metello [1955; Eng. trans. Metello]) and of the Roman subproletariat by Pier Paolo Pasolini

  • estate in land (property law)

    United Kingdom: The introduction of feudalism: Their estates were often well distributed, consisting of manors scattered through a number of shires. In vulnerable regions, however, compact blocks of land were formed, clustered around castles. The tenants in chief owed homage and fealty to the king and held their land in return for…

  • estate law (property law)

    inheritance: …distinguish between descent of real estate and distribution of personal estate. The rules applicable to the two kinds of property have been fused, but no common, overall name is yet universally accepted. In England books dealing with the subject are varyingly titled On Wills, On Probate, On Succession, or On…

  • estate system (European history)

    city: The medieval city, from fortress to emporium: …communities were restructured into functional estates, each of which owned formal obligations, immunities, and jurisdictions. What remained of the city was comprehended in this manorial order, and the distinction between town and country was largely obscured when secular and ecclesiastical lords ruled over the surrounding counties—often as the vassals of…

  • estate tax

    Estate tax, levy on the value of property changing hands at the death of the owner, fixed mainly by reference to its total value. Estate tax is generally applied only to estates evaluated above a statutory amount and is applied at graduated rates. Estate tax is usually easier to administer than

  • Estate, The (work by Singer)

    Isaac Bashevis Singer: …out in The Manor and The Estate—have large casts of characters and extend over several generations. These books chronicle the changes in, and eventual breakup of, large Jewish families during the late 19th and early 20th centuries as their members are differently affected by the secularism and assimilationist opportunities of…

  • Estates (Swedish states general [1435-1865])

    Riksdag, (Swedish: “Day of the Realm”), the Swedish states general from 1435 to 1865, unique in Europe because it included the peasantry as the fourth state. The Riksdag had the power to elect kings, to tax, and to declare war. Adroit kings were able to play off the states against each other, but

  • Estates, Powers and Trusts Law (United States [1966])

    inheritance: New York State: Under the New York Estates, Powers and Trusts Law of 1966, as amended, relatives, grouped under the parentelic system, take by intestacy up to, but not beyond, the parentela of the grandparents. In the first and second parentelas, distribution is per stirpes; in the third, it is per capita…

  • Estates-General (French history)

    Estates-General, in France of the pre-Revolution monarchy, the representative assembly of the three “estates,” or orders of the realm: the clergy (First Estate) and nobility (Second Estate)—which were privileged minorities—and the Third Estate, which represented the majority of the people. The

  • Estatuas Sepultadas (work by Benítez Rojo)

    Antonio Benítez Rojo: …America, is “Estatuas Sepultadas” (“Buried Statues”), which narrates the isolation of a formerly well-to-do family in an enclosed mansion, where they can barely hear and must intuit the transcendental transformations taking place around them.

  • Estatuto real (Spanish history)

    grandee: …in 1834, when, by the Estatuto real, grandees were given precedence in the chamber of peers. Later the designation became purely titular and implied neither privilege nor power.

  • Estaunié, Edouard (French writer)

    Edouard Estaunié, French writer, known for his novels of character. He was by profession an engineer and ended his career as inspector general of telegraphs. He was elected (1923) to the Académie Fran?aise. A theme recurrent in the 12 novels of Estaunié is expressed by the title of one of them, La

  • Este (Italy)

    Este, town and episcopal see, Veneto region, northern Italy. Este lies at the southern foot of the Colli (hills) Euganei southwest of Padua. Known in antiquity as Ateste (q.v.), it was for long the principal seat of the Veneti (q.v.), before being absorbed by Rome c. 200 bc. Originally on the Adige

  • Este domingo (work by Donoso)

    José Donoso: …third novels, Este domingo (1966; This Sunday) and El lugar sin límites (1966; “The Place Without Limits”; Hell Has No Limits), depict characters barely able to subsist in an atmosphere of desolation and anguish. El obsceno pajaro de la noche (1970; The Obscene Bird of Night), regarded as his masterpiece,…

  • Este, Alfonso d’ (duke of Ferrara [1505–1534])

    Alfonso I, duke of Ferrara from 1505, a noted Renaissance prince of the House of Este, an engineer and patron of the arts. Alfonso succeeded to the duchy at the death of his father, Ercole I. He employed the poet Ludovico Ariosto and the painters Titian and Giovanni Bellini, and made Ferrara’s

  • Este, Alfonso d’ (duke of Ferrara [1559–1597])

    Torquato Tasso: Early life and works.: …court of Duke Alfonso II d’Este at Ferrara, where he enjoyed the patronage of the duke’s sisters, Lucrezia and Leonora, for whom he wrote some of his finest lyrical poems. In 1569 his father died; the following year Lucrezia left Ferrara, and Tasso followed the cardinal to Paris, where he…

  • Este, Antonio d’ (Italian sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Relation to the Baroque and the Rococo: His pupil and collaborator, Antonio d’Este, is one of the more interesting of the lesser Italian Neoclassical sculptors. Other Neoclassical sculptors in Rome included Giuseppe Angelini, best known for the tomb of the etcher and architect Giambattista Piranesi in the church of Sta. Maria del Priorato, Rome.

  • Este, Borso d’ (duke of Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio)

    house of Este: Dukes of Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio: Leonello’s brother and successor, Borso (reigned 1450–71), notwithstanding some military failures, not only maintained his state and increased its aesthetic and cultural prestige but also received from the Holy Roman emperor Frederick III the title of duke of Modena and Reggio (1452) and from Pope Paul II the title…

  • Este, Ercole d’ (duke of Ferrara [1471-1505])

    house of Este: Ercole I: …of Leonello’s and Borso’s half-brother Ercole I (1471–1505) marked one of the most important periods for the history of the house of Este and of Ferrara. He succeeded in obtaining considerable political support with his marriage to Leonora, the daughter of the king of Naples. These were troubled times, however.…

  • Este, Ercole d’ (duke of Ferrara [1534-1559])

    house of Este: Ercole II and Alfonso II: …of Alfonso’s son and successor Ercole II (1534–59), the military events proved less interesting (though the wars of 1557–58 were difficult) than the personal ones. Ercole married Renée, daughter of King Louis XII of France, and in Ferrara she came to embrace the Lutheran religion, becoming its ardent defender and…

  • Este, Francesco I d’ (duke of Modena and Reggio)

    Rogier van der Weyden: He painted a portrait of Francesco d’Este (originally thought to be Leonello d’Este), and his painting of the Madonna and Child that still remains in Florence (Uffizi) bears the arms and patron saints of the Medici.

  • Este, House of (Italian family)

    House of Este, princely family of Lombard origin who played a great part in the history of medieval and Renaissance Italy. The family first came to the front in the wars between the Guelfs and Ghibellines during the 13th century. As leaders of the Guelfs, Estensi princes received at different times

  • Este, Ippolito d’ (Italian cardinal)

    Ludovico Ariosto: …entered the service of Cardinal Ippolito d’Este, son of Duke Ercole I.

  • Este, Leonello d’ (lord of Ferrara)

    Leon Battista Alberti: Contribution to philosophy, science, and the arts: At the Este court in Ferrara, where Alberti was first made a welcome guest in 1438, the Marchese Leonello encouraged (and commissioned) him to direct his talents toward another field of endeavour: architecture. Alberti’s earliest effort at reviving classical forms of building still stands in Ferrara, a…

  • Este, Marie Beatrice d’ (queen of England)

    Mary of Modena, second wife of King James II of England; it was presumably on her inducement that James fled from England during the Glorious Revolution (1688–89). The daughter of Alfonso IV, duke of Modena, she grew up a devout Roman Catholic. The match with James was arranged through French

  • Este, Michael (English composer)

    Michael East, English composer, especially known for his madrigals. (He was once thought to be a son of the music printer Thomas East, but late research suggests that they were, at most, distant relatives.) East had some madrigals published as early as 1601 and again in 1604 and took a bachelor of

  • Este, Nicolò III d’ (lord of Ferrara)

    house of Este: Lords of Ferrara: The reign of Nicolò III (1393–1441), son of Alberto, marked the strengthening of Estensi domination in Ferrara and the introduction of Estensi influence generally in Italian politics. After having defeated an attempt by the Paduans to achieve hegemony in Ferrara, the Estensi duke became intermediary in the political…

  • Este, Obizzo I d’ (Italian noble)

    house of Este: Origins: Neither he nor his successor, Obizzo I (died 1193), however, achieved any great distinction, beyond the offices and titles that fell naturally to the upper feudal families, but it was during the lifetime of Obizzo I that the Estensi first acquired political importance in Ferrara, through the marriage of his…

  • Este, Obizzo II d’ (lord of Ferrara)

    house of Este: Lords of Ferrara: In 1264 Azzo’s heir, Obizzo II (1264–93), was created perpetual lord by the people of Ferrara under the pressure of Guelf strength. The pope, lawful lord of the Ferrarese territory, at first did not oppose this action but afterward began to contest the Estensi government. Obizzo II’s power was…

  • Este, Thomas (English music publisher)

    Thomas East, prominent English music publisher whose collection of psalms (1592) was among the first part-music printed in score rather than as individual parts in separate books. East was licensed as a printer in 1565 and later became an assignee in the music-publishing monopoly granted by

  • Estéban (African-Spanish explorer)

    Florida: Exploration and settlement: …Nú?ez Cabeza de Vaca and Estebán, a Moorish slave who was the first black man known to have entered Florida—reached Culiacán, Mexico, in 1536. Hernando de Soto came in 1539, landing somewhere between Fort Myers and Tampa, and led another disastrous expedition, this time through western Florida. Nearly 20 years…

  • Esteban Echeverría (county, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Esteban Echeverría, partido (county) at the southern limits of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). Created in 1913 from portions of the counties of Lomas de Zamora and San Vicente, Esteban Echeverría is an agricultural—and, more recently, low-income

  • Estébanez Calderón, Serafín (Spanish writer)

    Serafín Estébanez Calderón, one of the best-known costumbristas, Spanish writers who depicted in short articles the typical customs of the people. He moved to Madrid in 1830, where he published newspaper articles under the pseudonym El Solitario and pursued a career that combined Arabic studies,

  • ESTEC (research centre, Noordwijk, Netherlands)

    aerospace industry: Research: …Space Agency maintains ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre, in Noordwijk, Netherlands. ESTEC is the technical development interface between European industry and the scientific community. It oversees the development of spacecraft, and it has its own technological laboratories and extensive facilities for testing spacecraft and components under simulated…

  • Estée Lauder, Inc. (American company)

    Breast Cancer Awareness Month: In 2000 Estée Lauder, Inc., a fragrance and cosmetics company, launched Global Illumination, a project in which major global landmarks are illuminated by pink light for one or more days in October in support of Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Illuminated landmarks have included the Sydney Opera House,…

  • Estée: A Success Story (work by Lauder)

    Estée Lauder: …1985 she published an autobiography, Estée: A Success Story. It described some of her basic strategies: opening the Estée Lauder counter at each new store in person, offering free promotional items, and remaining personally involved with the company.

  • Estelí (Nicaragua)

    Estelí, city, northwestern Nicaragua. It lies along the Estelí River in the central highlands, at an elevation of 2,674 feet (815 m). A Spanish settlement founded near prehistoric carved-stone figures, it was a scene of heavy fighting between Sandinista guerrillas and government troops in 1978–79

  • Estella, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de (Spanish political leader)

    José Antonio Primo de Rivera, marqués de Estella, eldest son of the dictator General Miguel Primo de Rivera and the founder of the Spanish fascist party, the Falange. After a university education and military service, Primo de Rivera began a career as a lawyer in 1925. In October 1933 he launched

  • Estella, Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de (Spanish dictator)

    Miguel Primo de Rivera, general and statesman who, as dictator of Spain from September 1923 to January 1930, founded an authoritarian and nationalistic regime that attempted to unify the nation around the motto “Country, Religion, Monarchy.” Though it enjoyed success in certain areas, his

  • Estemirova, Natalya Khusainova (Russian human rights activist)

    Natalya Khusainova Estemirova, Russian human rights activist (born Feb. 28, 1959, Saratov, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died July 15, 2009, near Nazaran, Ingushetiya, Russia), documented illegal torture, kidnappings, and murders to give a voice and publicity to victims of political violence in the Russian

  • Estenoz, Evaristo (Cuban politician)

    Cuba: The Republic of Cuba: Afro-Cubans, led by Evaristo Estenoz and Pedro Ivonet, organized to secure better jobs and more political patronage. In 1912 government troops put down large demonstrations in Oriente province.

  • Estenssoro, Víctor Paz (president of Bolivia)

    Víctor Paz Estenssoro, Bolivian statesman, founder and principal leader of the left-wing Bolivian political party National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), who served three times as president of Bolivia (1952–56, 1960–64, 1985–89). Paz Estenssoro began his career as professor of economics at the

  • Ester (work by Della Valle)

    Federico Della Valle: …two tragedies, Judit (“Judith”) and Ester (“Esther”), also fight uncompromisingly for their faith in a world where the only redemption is offered by God in heaven. Della Valle’s tragic outlook also underlies his tragicomedy Adelonda di Frigia (1595; “Adelonda of Phrygia”), in which the heroine’s ideals are contrasted with a…

  • ester (chemical compound)

    Ester, any of a class of organic compounds that react with water to produce alcohols and organic or inorganic acids. Esters derived from carboxylic acids are the most common. The term ester was introduced in the first half of the 19th century by German chemist Leopold Gmelin. Carboxylic acid

  • Estéral (region, France)

    Alps: Geology: …mass, such as the rugged Estéral region west of Cannes, are still found in the western Mediterranean. Throughout the Quaternary Period, erosive forces gnawed steadily at the enormous block of newly folded and upthrust mountains, forming the general outlines of the present-day landscape.

  • Esterházy family (Hungarian family)

    Esterházy Family, aristocratic Magyar family that produced numerous Hungarian diplomats, army officers, and patrons of the arts. By the 18th century the Esterházys had become the largest landowners in Hungary, and they came to possess a private fortune even larger than that of the Habsburg emperors

  • Esterházy, Antal (Hungarian soldier)

    Esterházy Family: …the junior branch of the Fraknó Esterházys, which was split into three lines by the sons of Ferenc Esterházy (1641–83), brother of the first prince, Pál. Count Antal (1676–1722), the first son of Ferenc, distinguished himself in wars both against and in league with Ferenc Rákóczi II, an anti-Habsburg Magyar…

  • Esterhazy, Ferdinand Walsin (French military officer)

    Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, French army officer, a major figure in the Dreyfus case. Esterhazy had posed as a count and served in the Austrian army during the 1866 war with Prussia. He then served in the French Foreign Legion before being commissioned in the regular French army (1892). Having

  • Esterházy, Ferenc (Hungarian noble)

    Esterházy Family: Ferenc Zerházy (1563–94), deputy lord lieutenant of the county of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), was the first family member of historical importance. He took the name Esterházy upon becoming baron of Galántha, an estate the family had acquired in 1421. With his sons the family…

  • Esterhazy, Marie-Charles-Ferdinand Walsin (French military officer)

    Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, French army officer, a major figure in the Dreyfus case. Esterhazy had posed as a count and served in the Austrian army during the 1866 war with Prussia. He then served in the French Foreign Legion before being commissioned in the regular French army (1892). Having

  • Esterházy, Miklós (Hungarian noble [1765-1833])

    Esterházy Family: Prince Miklós (1765–1833), the grandson of Miklós József, is best remembered for his great collection of paintings and engravings in Vienna and for his actions against the French during the Napoleonic Wars. He raised a regiment at his own expense to fight the French in…

  • Esterházy, Miklós (Hungarian noble [1582-1645])

    Esterházy Family: Miklós (1582–1645) founded the Fraknó line, which became the most prominent of the three. He opposed the Protestant champions Gábor Bethlen and Gy?rgy Rákóczi I while upholding the idea of freeing Hungary from Turkish dominance through a consolidation of Habsburg dynastic power. He was honoured…

  • Esterházy, Miklós József (Hungarian soldier)

    Esterházy Family: Prince Miklós József (d. 1790), brother of Pál Antal, was also an outstanding soldier and a patron of the arts. He rebuilt Esterháza, the family castle, in such magnificent Renaissance style that it came to be known as the Hungarian Versailles, and he employed Joseph…

  • Esterházy, Pál (Hungarian military commander)

    Esterházy Family: Miklos’ third son, Pál (1635–1713), founded the princely branch of the Fraknó line. Distinguishing himself in wars against the Turks, he was made commander in chief of southern Hungary in 1667 and participated in the deliverance of Vienna in 1683, two years after his election as palatine. For…

  • Esterházy, Pál Antal (Hungarian diplomat [1786-1866])

    Esterházy Family: His son Prince Pál Antal (1786–1866) served as a diplomat in London and Paris. During the Napoleonic Wars Pál Antal was secretary of the Austrian embassy in London and later (1807) in Paris under Klemens von Metternich. After the peace settlement (1815), he became ambassador to England.…

  • Esterházy, Pál Antal (Hungarian field marshal [1711–1762])

    Esterházy Family: Prince Pál Antal (1711–62) was a grandson of the first prince and became a field marshal. Prince Miklós József (d. 1790), brother of Pál Antal, was also an outstanding soldier and a patron of the arts. He rebuilt Esterháza, the family castle, in such magnificent…

  • Esterházy, Péter (Hungarian author)

    Hungarian literature: Writing after 1945: …centuries were Gy?rgy Konrád and Péter Esterházy. Konrád’s novels A látogató (1969; The Case Worker), A városalapító (1977; The City Builder), and the unofficially published A cinkos (1982; The Loser) achieved great impact with their dense, poetically structured style and analytical probing into the world of the social caseworker, the…

  • esterification (chemistry)

    alcohol: Esterification: Alcohols can combine with many kinds of acids to form esters. When no type of acid is specified, the word ester is assumed to mean a carboxylic ester, the ester of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. The reaction, called Fischer esterification, is characterized…

  • Estero Real River (river, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Drainage: …important are the Negro and Estero Real rivers, which empty into the Gulf of Fonseca, and the Tamarindo River, which flows into the Pacific.

  • Estero, El (archaeological site, Peru)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The Late Preceramic: …and one inland site at El Estero, provisionally dated somewhat earlier (c. 5000 bc), has well-made polished stone axes and mortars that indicate the exploitation of forests and grasslands yielding seeds.

  • Esterson, Aaron (British psychiatrist)

    R.D. Laing: …Others (1961) and published, with Aaron Esterson, Sanity, Madness, and the Family (1964), a group of studies of people whose mental illnesses he viewed as being induced by their relationships with other family members. Laing’s early approach to schizophrenia was quite controversial, and he modified some of his positions in…

  • Estes Park (Colorado, United States)

    Estes Park, town, Larimer county, north-central Colorado, U.S. The original town site lies in a large natural meadow (locally called a park) surrounded by a mixed coniferous-deciduous forest. It is situated in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, at an elevation of 7,522 feet (2,293 metres), on

  • Estes, Richard (American painter)

    Richard Estes, American painter associated with Photo-Realism, a movement in painting characterized by extremely meticulous depiction of detail, high finish, and sharp-focus clarity. Estes is known for his fastidious and highly realistic paintings of urban scenes. His use of photography as a

  • Estes, William K. (American psychologist)

    William K. Estes, American psychologist who pioneered the application of mathematics to the study of animal learning and human cognition. Estes received B.A. (1940) and Ph.D. (1943) degrees in psychology from the University of Minnesota. He taught and did research at Indiana, Stanford, Rockefeller,

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