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  • Essay on Universal History, the Manners and Spirit of Nations from the Reign of Charlemaign to the Age of Lewis XIV, An (work by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Life with Mme du Chatelet: …and manners that became the Essai sur les moeurs, and plunged into biblical exegesis. Mme du Chatelet herself wrote an Examen, highly critical of the two Testaments. It was at Cirey that Voltaire, rounding out his scientific knowledge, acquired the encyclopaedic culture that was one of the outstanding facets of…

  • Essay on Woman, An (parody by Wilkes and Potter)

    John Wilkes: Expulsion from Parliament: …the proof sheets of “Essay on Woman,” an obscene parody on Alexander Pope’s “Essay on Man,” which had been written by Wilkes and Thomas Potter years before. Wilkes had commenced, but not completed, printing 12 copies, probably for the “Monks.” At the start of the parliamentary session in November…

  • Essay Towards a Natural History of the Earth and Terrestrial Bodies (work by Woodward)

    Earth sciences: The rise of subterranean water: …in 1695 in John Woodward’s Essay Towards a Natural History of the Earth and Terrestrial Bodies.

  • Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, An (work by Berkeley)

    George Berkeley: Period of his major works: In An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709), he examined visual distance, magnitude, position, and problems of sight and touch and concluded that “the proper (or real) objects of sight” are not without the mind, though “the contrary be supposed true of tangible objects.”…

  • Essay Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language (work by Wilkins)

    dictionary: Specialized dictionaries: …in Bishop John Wilkins, whose Essay Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language was published in 1668. A plan of this sort was carried out by Peter Mark Roget with his Thesaurus, published in 1852 and many times reprinted and reedited. Although philosophically oriented, Roget’s work has served the…

  • Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances (work by Bayes)

    Thomas Bayes: …findings on probability in “Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances” (1763), published posthumously in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. That work became the basis of a statistical technique, now called Bayesian estimation, for calculating the probability of the validity of a proposition on…

  • Essay Towards the Theory of the Ideal or Intelligible World, An (work by Norris)

    John Norris: Norris’ most significant work, An Essay Towards the Theory of the Ideal or Intelligible World (1701–04), treats the intelligible world in two parts: first, in itself, and second, in relation to human understanding. This work is a complete exposition of the views of Malebranche and refutes the assertions of…

  • Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning (work by Temple)

    Ancients and Moderns: …Sir William Temple, in his Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning attacking the members of the Royal Society, rejected the doctrine of progress and supported the virtuosity and excellence of ancient learning. William Wotton responded to Temple’s charges in his Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning (1694). He praised the…

  • Essay upon Miracles (work by Hume)

    study of religion: The late 17th and 18th centuries: His “Essay upon Miracles” was also important in posing vital questions about the historical treatment of sacred texts, a set of problems that was to preoccupy Christian theologians starting in the 19th century.

  • Essay Upon Poetry, An (work by Sheffield)

    John Sheffield, 1st duke of Buckingham and Normanby: …Sheffield is chiefly remembered for An Essay Upon Poetry (1682) and An Essay on Satire (circulated in manuscript in 1679 but not published until later). An Essay Upon Poetry, written in couplets and in a manner intended to resemble that of Horace’s Epistles, aims to delineate the chief characteristics of…

  • Essayes (work by Bacon)

    English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose: …persuasive rhetoric, and the famous Essays (1597; enlarged 1612, 1625) are shifting and elusive, teasing the reader toward unresolved contradictions and half-apprehended complications.

  • Essays (work by Emerson)

    Ralph Waldo Emerson: Mature life and works: …lecture series, he gathered his Essays into two volumes (1841, 1844), which made him internationally famous. In his first volume of Essays Emerson consolidated his thoughts on moral individualism and preached the ethics of self-reliance, the duty of self-cultivation, and the need for the expression of self. The second volume…

  • Essays (work by Montaigne)

    Michel de Montaigne: …French writer whose Essais (Essays) established a new literary form. In his Essays he wrote one of the most captivating and intimate self-portraits ever given, on a par with Augustine’s and Rousseau’s.

  • Essays (work by Bacon)

    English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose: …persuasive rhetoric, and the famous Essays (1597; enlarged 1612, 1625) are shifting and elusive, teasing the reader toward unresolved contradictions and half-apprehended complications.

  • Essays and Reviews (British literature)

    United Kingdom: Religion: In 1860 Essays and Reviews was published; a lively appraisal of fundamental religious questions by a number of liberal-minded religious thinkers, it provoked the sharpest religious controversy of the century.

  • Essays for Orchestra (work by Barber)

    Samuel Barber: …this respect are the three Essays for Orchestra (1938, 1942, and 1978), which are intended as musical counterparts of the literary form. Structural considerations govern Barber’s instrumental writing; there is great astringency in harmony, but the basic tonality remains secure; the rhythmic lines are very strong, without loss of coherence.

  • Essays in Criticism (work by Arnold)

    Matthew Arnold: Arnold as critic: …early put into currency in Essays in Criticism (First Series, 1865; Second Series, 1888) and Culture and Anarchy. The first essay in the 1865 volume, “The Function of Criticism at the Present Time,” is an overture announcing briefly most of the themes he developed more fully in later work. It…

  • Essays in Idleness (work by Yoshida Kenkō)

    Yoshida Kenkō: 1330; Essays in Idleness, 1967), became, especially after the 17th century, a basic part of Japanese education, and his views have had a prominent place in subsequent Japanese life.

  • Essays in Musical Analysis (work by Tovey)

    Sir Donald Francis Tovey: …these notes were published as Essays in Musical Analysis, 6 vol. (1935–39). They set styles in musical analysis, as, for example, Tovey’s distinction between music in and on the dominant—when the music has not fully modulated and when it has.

  • Essays in Political Arithmetick and Political Survey or Anatomy of Ireland (work by Petty)

    Sir William Petty: His Essays in Political Arithmetick and Political Survey or Anatomy of Ireland (1672) presented rough but ingeniously calculated estimates of population and of social income. His ideas on monetary theory and policy were developed in Verbum Sapienti (1665) and in Quantulumcunque Concerning Money, 1682 (1695).

  • Essays in Radical Empiricism (work by James)

    William James: Career in philosophy: …James’s death and published as Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912). The fundamental point of these writings is that the relations between things, holding them together or separating them, are at least as real as the things themselves; that their function is real; and that no hidden substrata are necessary to…

  • Essays of Elia (work by Lamb)

    Charles Lamb: …critic, best known for his Essays of Elia (1823–33).

  • Essays on Physiognomy (work by Lavater)

    Johann Kaspar Lavater: (1775–78; Essays on Physiognomy, 1789–98), established his reputation throughout Europe. Goethe worked with Lavater on the book, and the two enjoyed a warm friendship that was later severed by Lavater’s zeal for conversion.

  • Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (work by Mill)

    John Stuart Mill: Public life and writing: In 1844 he published the Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy, which he had written several years earlier, and four out of five of these essays are solutions of perplexing technical problems—the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of…

  • Essays on the Distribution of Wealth (work by Jones)

    Richard Jones: In his Essay on the Distribution of Wealth (1831), Jones was not only critical of Ricardo’s rent theory, but he criticized existing studies in economic history. His emphasis on historical and factual studies gives him a strong claim to be regarded as the founder of the English…

  • Essays on the Formation and Publication of Opinions (work by Bailey)

    Samuel Bailey: …of Bailey’s writings were his Essays on the Formation and Publication of Opinions (1821), in which he argued that an individual’s opinions are independent of his will. Sequels were Essays on the Pursuit of Truth, on the Progress of Knowledge, and on the Fundamental Principle of All Evidence and Expectation…

  • Essays on the Gold Question (work by Cairnes)

    John Elliott Cairnes: His “Essays on the Gold Question” (published in Essays in Political Economy, 1873) are considered among the most important 19th-century works on monetary theory. His research into the effects of the discoveries of gold in Australia and California revived support for the quantity theory of money.…

  • Essays on the Law of Nature (work by Locke)

    John Locke: Oxford: The resulting Essays on the Law of Nature (first published in 1954) constitutes an early statement of his philosophical views, many of which he retained more or less unchanged for the rest of his life. Of these probably the two most important were, first, his commitment to…

  • Essays on the Life of Mohammed (work by Ahmad Khan)

    Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: …interpretation of the Bible, wrote Essays on the Life of Mohammed (translated into English by his son), and found time to write several volumes of a modernist commentary on the Qur?ān. In these works he sought to harmonize the Islāmic faith with the scientific and politically progressive ideas of his…

  • Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste (work by Alison)

    aesthetics: Major concerns of 18th-century aesthetics: …as of the subject (Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste [1790]).

  • Essays One (essays by Davis)

    Lydia Davis: ” Essays One (2019) is a collection of her nonfiction.

  • Essays upon Field-Husbandry in New-England (work by Eliot)

    Jared Eliot: …extensive research, he compiled his Essays upon Field-Husbandry in New-England, which was published in six parts from 1748 to 1759. Those essays became the most popular and prominent works on agronomy published in the English colonies before the American Revolution. Eliot sought to advance scientific techniques of agriculture, to improve…

  • Essays, Moral and Political (work by Hume)

    David Hume: Early life and works: ” But his next venture, Essays, Moral and Political (1741–42), won some success. Perhaps encouraged by this, he became a candidate for the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh in 1744. Objectors alleged heresy and even atheism, pointing to the Treatise as evidence (Hume’s Autobiography notwithstanding, the work had not…

  • esse est percipi doctrine (philosophy)

    George Berkeley: Early life and works: …of the meaning of “to be” or “to exist.” “To be,” said of the object, means to be perceived; “to be,” said of the subject, means to perceive.

  • essedarius (gladiator class)

    gladiator: …sword in each hand; the essedarii (“chariot men”), who fought from chariots like the ancient Britons; the hoplomachi (“fighters in armour”), who wore a complete suit of armour; and the laquearii (“lasso men”), who tried to lasso their antagonists.

  • Esseg (Croatia)

    Osijek, industrial town and agricultural centre in eastern Croatia. It lies on the Drava River, about 10 miles (16 km) west of the border with Serbia. In Roman times the city site was known as Mursa. Its present name was first recorded in 1196. An important trade and transportation centre from

  • Essemplare (work by Cresci)

    calligraphy: Writing manuals and copybooks (16th to 18th century): The Essemplare is finely printed from woodcut blocks, but seven years after its publication a new and better method of reproducing elaborate calligraphy appeared. In 1567 Pierre Hamon, secretary and royal writing master to Charles IX of France, published the first copybook printed from engraved metal…

  • Essen (Germany)

    Essen, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It is situated between the Rhine-Herne Canal and the Ruhr River. Essen was originally the seat of an aristocratic convent (founded 852), still represented by the cathedral (Münsterkirche; now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop),

  • Essen, Louis (British physicist)

    Louis Essen, English physicist who invented the quartz crystal ring clock and the first practical atomic clock. These devices were capable of measuring time more accurately than any previous clocks. Essen studied physics at Nottingham University College, where he earned a University of London

  • essence (philosophy)

    Cartesianism: Mechanism versus Aristotelianism: The soul is the essence, or nature, of the organism and its final cause—i.e., its purpose, or goal. Thus, the development of an acorn into an oak tree is explained by the fact that the acorn possesses a form that directs it toward this end.

  • Essence (album by Williams)

    Lucinda Williams: …2001 she released the understated Essence. It featured the song “Get Right with God,” which earned Williams a Grammy for best female rock vocal. World Without Tears (2003) was her first album to debut in the top 20 of Billboard’s Top 200 albums chart.

  • Essence of Christianity, The (work by Feuerbach)

    Christianity: Influence of logical positivism: German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach (The Essence of Christianity, 1841) in the 19th century. It was promoted in the early 20th century by George Santayana, John Dewey, and J.H. Randall, Jr., and later by Christian writers such as D.Z. Phillips and Don Cupitt. According to them, true Christianity consists in…

  • Essence of Judaism, The (work by Baeck)

    Leo Baeck: Baeck’s philosophy: Baeck’s own masterpiece, The Essence of Judaism (1905), established him as the leading liberal Jewish theologian. In contrast to Harnack, Baeck stressed the dynamic nature of religion, the ongoing development that is a human response to the categorical “Ought,” the Divine Imperative. The influence of the German Jewish…

  • essence of rose (essential oil)

    Attar of roses, fragrant, colourless or pale-yellow liquid essential oil distilled from fresh petals of Rosa damascena and R. gallica and other species of the rose family Rosaceae. Rose oils are a valuable ingredient of fine perfumes and liqueurs. They are also used for flavouring lozenges and

  • Essence of the Novel, The (essay by Tsubouchi Shōyō)

    Japanese literature: Introduction of Western literature: His critical essay Shōsetsu shinzui (1885–86; The Essence of the Novel) greatly influenced the writing of subsequent fiction not only because of its emphasis on realism as opposed to didacticism but because Shōyō, a member of the samurai class, expressed the conviction that novels, hitherto despised by the…

  • Essendon, Baron Cecil of (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd marquess of Salisbury, Conservative political leader who was three-time prime minister (1885–86, 1886–92, 1895–1902) and four-time foreign secretary (1878, 1885–86, 1886–92, 1895–1900), who presided over a wide expansion of Great Britain’s colonial empire.

  • Essendon, Baron Cecil of (English statesman)

    Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury, English statesman who succeeded his father, William Cecil, Lord Burghley, as Queen Elizabeth I’s chief minister in 1598 and skillfully directed the government during the first nine years of the reign of King James I. Cecil gave continuity to the change from

  • Essene (ancient Jewish sect)

    Essene, member of a religious sect or brotherhood that flourished in Palestine from about the 2nd century bc to the end of the 1st century ad. The New Testament does not mention them and accounts given by Josephus, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder sometimes differ in significant details,

  • essential cryoglobulinemia (medical disorder)

    cryoglobulinemia: …with no other disease (essential cryoglobulinemia) is treated by avoidance of cold temperatures.

  • essential definition

    epistemology: Plato: …designed to elicit a “real definition.” By a real definition Plato means a set of necessary and sufficient conditions that exactly determine the entities to which a given concept applies. The entities to which the concept “being a brother” applies, for example, are determined by the concepts “being male”…

  • essential elements of information (intelligence)

    intelligence: Levels of intelligence: …they are usually called the essential elements of information and are defined as those items of intelligence information about a foreign power, armed force, target, or physical environment that are absolutely vital for timely and accurate decision making. On the tactical level intelligence needs are defined in a similar manner;…

  • essential fatty acid (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Unsaturated aliphatic acids: …diet and, therefore, are called essential fatty acids. (4) Many unsaturated fatty acids are liquids at room temperature, in contrast to the saturated stearic (C18) and arachidic (C20) acids, which are solids. The reason is that the regular nature of the saturated hydrocarbon chains allows the molecules in the solid…

  • essential fatty acid deficiency (pathology)

    nutritional disease: Essential fatty acids: Deficiencies of these two fatty acids have been seen in hospitalized patients fed exclusively with intravenous fluids containing no fat for weeks, patients with medical conditions affecting fat absorption, infants given formulas low in fat, and young children fed nonfat milk or low-fat diets. Symptoms…

  • Essential Health Package (Malawi government program)

    Malawi: Health and welfare: The Essential Health Package, a government program launched in the early 2000s, places emphasis on immunization, reproductive health, and nutrition.

  • essential hypertension (pathology)

    hypertension: Classification: …the condition is classified as essential hypertension. (Essential hypertension is also called primary or idiopathic hypertension.) This is by far the most common type of high blood pressure, occurring in 90 to 95 percent of patients. Genetic factors appear to play a major role in the occurrence of essential hypertension.…

  • essential nutrient (biochemistry)

    human nutrition: Essential nutrients: The six classes of nutrients found in foods are carbohydrates, lipids (mostly fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins constitute the bulk of the diet, amounting together to about 500 grams (just over one pound) per day in…

  • essential oil (plant substance)

    Essential oil, highly volatile substance isolated by a physical process from an odoriferous plant of a single botanical species. The oil bears the name of the plant from which it is derived; for example, rose oil or peppermint oil. Such oils were called essential because they were thought to

  • Essential Schools, Coalition of (American organization)

    Deborah Meier: …Ted Sizer to create the Coalition of Essential Schools, a national network of small alternative public schools. Interest in the Coalition grew as it helped to connect more than 50 similar efforts in New York City alone. Despite the reluctance of federal and several city governments to provide schools greater…

  • essential tremor (pathology)

    Essential tremor, disorder of the nervous system characterized by involuntary oscillating movements that typically affect the muscles of the arms, hands, face, head, and neck. These involuntary movements often make daily tasks, such as writing, eating, or dressing, difficult. The disorder also may

  • essential tremor 1 (gene)

    essential tremor: …in a gene known as DRD3 (dopamine receptor 3; formerly designated ETM1, or essential tremor 1). The DRD3 gene encodes a protein called dopamine receptor D3. This receptor binds dopamine, a neurotransmitter that normally inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, thereby

  • essentialism (philosophy)

    Essentialism, In ontology, the view that some properties of objects are essential to them. The “essence” of a thing is conceived as the totality of its essential properties. Theories of essentialism differ with respect to their conception of what it means to say that a property is essential to an

  • Essentialist education (history of education)

    education: Traditional movements: Essentialists stressed those human experiences that they believed were indispensable to people of all time periods. They favoured the “mental disciplines” and, in the matter of method and content, put effort above interest, subjects above activities, collective experience above that of the individual, logical organization…

  • Essentials of Spontaneous Prose (essay by Kerouac)

    Jack Kerouac: Legacy: …in the Evergreen Review: “Essentials of Spontaneous Prose” (1958) and “Belief and Technique for Modern Prose” (1959). On the grammatically irreverent sentences, Kerouac extolled a “method” eschewing conventional punctuation in favour of dashes. In “Essentials of Spontaneous Prose” he recommended the “vigorous space dash separating rhetorical breathing (as jazz…

  • Essentuki (Russia)

    Yessentuki, city, Stavropol kray (territory), southwestern Russia, in the valley of the Podkumok River. It was founded in 1798, developed as a fortress in the 1830s, and became a city in 1917. It is located at mineral springs at the base of the Caucasus Mountains. The city is composed of an old

  • Essequibo (Dutch colony, Guyana)

    Demerara River: …of Demerara, which joined with Essequibo and Berbice in 1831 to become British Guiana (from 1966 the independent republic of Guyana).

  • Essequibo River (river, South America)

    Essequibo River, river in east central Guyana, the largest river between the Amazon and the Orinoco. It rises in the Acarai Mountains on the Brazilian border and flows northward for approximately 630 miles (1,010 km) through savannas and forests to the Atlantic Ocean. It reaches the Atlantic Ocean

  • Essex (county, Massachusetts, United States)

    Essex, county, extreme northeastern Massachusetts, U.S., bordered by New Hampshire to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Its topography is largely hilly, with coastal lowlands in the east that include several islands in the Atlantic. The principal streams are the Merrimack, Ipswich,

  • Essex (American whaling ship [1799–1820])

    Essex, American whaling ship that was rammed by a sperm whale on November 20, 1820, and later sank. Although all 20 crewmen initially survived, only 8 were rescued following an arduous journey that devolved into cannibalism. The sinking inspired the climactic scene in Herman Melville’s Moby Dick

  • Essex (Anglo-Saxon kingdom, England, United Kingdom)

    Essex, one of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England; i.e., that of the East Saxons. An area of early settlement, it probably originally included the territory of the modern county of Middlesex; London was its chief town. Archaeological discoveries suggest that many of the new settlers were

  • Essex (United States warship [19th century])

    David Porter: …officer who commanded the frigate Essex on its two-year expedition against British shipping during the War of 1812.

  • Essex (county, England, United Kingdom)

    Essex, administrative, geographic, and historic county of eastern England. It extends along the North Sea coastline between the Thames and Stour estuaries. The administrative county covers an area within the larger geographic county, which in turn covers a part of the original historic county of

  • Essex (Vermont, United States)

    Essex, town (township), Chittenden county, northwestern Vermont, U.S., on the Winooski River just east of Burlington. Chartered in 1763 and settled in 1783, it consists of the villages of Essex Junction and Essex Center. Essex Junction is a busy industrial and residential site where the Central

  • Essex (county, Vermont, United States)

    Essex, county, northeastern Vermont, U.S., bordered to the north by Quebec, Canada, and to the east by New Hampshire, the Connecticut River constituting that boundary. It is a mountainous region, with several peaks above 3,000 feet (915 metres). The Connecticut River watershed includes the Moose

  • Essex (county, New Jersey, United States)

    Essex, county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., bounded by Newark Bay to the southeast and the Passaic River to the east and west. The county’s topography ranges from coastal lowland in the east to hilly piedmont in the west. Although timberland is scarce, oak and hickory are the principal forest

  • Essex (county, New York, United States)

    Essex, county, northeastern New York state, U.S. It comprises a mountainous region bounded by the Ausable River to the northeast, Vermont to the east (Lake Champlain constituting the border), Lake George to the southeast, and the Hudson River to the southwest. Other waterways include the Cold,

  • Essex Decision (law case)

    Essex Decision, decision rendered by the British High Court of Admiralty in 1804 and confirmed the following year, which contributed to the bad feeling between the United States and Great Britain that eventually led to the War of 1812. Britain and France were at war, and the American merchant

  • Essex Junto (United States history)

    Essex Junto, in early U.S. history, a group of Federalist political leaders in Massachusetts. John Hancock coined the name for his Essex County opponents at the state constitutional convention of 1778. The Junto (faction) later supported the policies of the Federalist Alexander Hamilton and

  • Essex, Arthur Capel, 1st Earl of (English statesman)

    Arthur Capel, 1st earl of Essex, English statesman, a member of the “Triumvirate” that dominated policy at the time of the Popish Plot (1678). The son of Arthur Capel, 1st Baron Capel, who was executed by the Parliamentarians in 1649, he was, after the Restoration of Charles II, created Viscount

  • Essex, Arthur Capel, 1st Earl of, Viscount Malden, Baron Capel of Hadham (English statesman)

    Arthur Capel, 1st earl of Essex, English statesman, a member of the “Triumvirate” that dominated policy at the time of the Popish Plot (1678). The son of Arthur Capel, 1st Baron Capel, who was executed by the Parliamentarians in 1649, he was, after the Restoration of Charles II, created Viscount

  • Essex, Frances Howard, Lady (English noble)

    Henry Howard, earl of Northampton: …his grandniece, Frances Howard, Lady Essex, in obtaining her divorce from her husband in order to marry the favourite Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, whose mistress she already was and whose alliance Northampton was eager to secure for himself. He obtained the divorce by the decree of a special commission,…

  • Essex, Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st earl of (English baron)

    Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st earl of Essex, the worst of a number of cruel and lawless barons during the reign of King Stephen of England. Geoffrey was a great landowner in Essex and elsewhere and hereditary constable of the Tower of London. He came to prominence in 1140 when Stephen, who could not

  • Essex, James (British architect)

    Western architecture: From the 17th to the 19th century: Finally, in 1776, James Essex, probably the most earnest Gothicist of the period, inserted the Beauclerc Tower between the west end and the round tower, making the whole the first and most determined example of a large-scale picturesque composition.

  • Essex, Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of (English soldier and courtier)

    Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, English soldier and courtier famous for his relationship with Queen Elizabeth I (reigned 1558–1603). While still a young man, Essex succeeded his stepfather, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester (died 1588), as the aging queen’s favourite; for years she put up with

  • Essex, Robert Devereux, 3rd earl of (English noble)

    Robert Devereux, 3rd earl of Essex, English nobleman who commanded, with notable lack of success, the Parliamentary army against Charles I’s forces in the first three years of the English Civil Wars. Because his father, Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, had been executed for treason (1601),

  • Essex, Thomas Cromwell, earl of (English statesman)

    Thomas Cromwell, principal adviser (1532–40) to England’s Henry VIII, chiefly responsible for establishing the Reformation in England, for the dissolution of the monasteries, and for strengthening the royal administration. At the instigation of his enemies, he was eventually arrested for heresy and

  • Essex, Walter Devereux, 1st earl of (English soldier)

    Walter Devereux, 1st earl of Essex, English soldier who led an unsuccessful colonizing expedition to the Irish province of Ulster from 1573 to 1575. The atrocities he committed there contributed to the bitterness the Irish felt toward the English. He was the eldest son of Sir Richard Devereux and

  • Essex, William Parr, Earl of (English noble)

    William Parr, Marquess Northampton, brother of Henry VIII’s queen Catherine Parr, and Protestant supporter of Lady Jane Grey and Queen Elizabeth I. He took part in suppressing the uprising in the north of England in 1537 and, after serving as member of Parliament for Northamptonshire, was made

  • Essex-Merrimack Bridge (bridge, Connecticut, United States)

    Timothy Palmer: …in 1792 he built the Essex-Merrimack Bridge over the Merrimack River near Newburyport. Composed of two trussed arches meeting at an island in the river, the bridge remained in use for more than a century and was the prototype of the numerous bridges he later built throughout New England.

  • essexite (rock)

    Essexite, dark gray to black, fine-grained, intrusive igneous rock that occurs in Essex County, Mass.; at Mount Royal, near Montreal; near Oslo, Nor.; at Roztoky, Czech Republic; and at Carclout, Scot. It contains plagioclase as the dominant feldspar, as well as orthoclase feldspar, augite,

  • Essid, Habib (prime minister of Tunisia)

    Tunisia: Unity government: …the government of Prime Minister Habib Essid, and Youssef Chahed became Tunisia’s seventh prime minister in five years. In late 2017, facing international pressure to reduce the trade deficit and attract international investment, the government enacted a number of austerity measures that included higher taxes and pushed up prices of…

  • Essien, Michael (Ghanaian athlete)

    Michael Essien, Ghanaian professional football (soccer) player who rose to international stardom as a midfielder for the English football club Chelsea FC in the 2000s. Essien was raised in Awutu Breku, a small town in central Ghana, where his interest in football was sparked, in part, by his

  • Essipoff, Annette (Russian musician)

    Anna Esipova, Russian pianist celebrated for her singing tone, grace, and finesse. Critics liked to contrast her playing with that of her great contemporary, the fiery Teresa Carre?o. The daughter of a high Russian official, Esipova entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where she was a pupil of

  • Esslin, Martin Julius (British broadcaster and critic)

    Martin Julius Esslin, (Julius Pereszlenyi), Hungarian-born British broadcaster, critic, and scholar (born June 8, 1918, Budapest, Austria-Hungary—died Feb. 24, 2002, London, Eng.), coined the term theatre of the absurd (in his 1962 book of that title) to describe post-World War II drama by p

  • Essling, André Masséna, duc de Rivoli, prince d’ (French general)

    André Masséna, duc de Rivoli, prince d’Essling, leading French general of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Orphaned at an early age, Masséna enlisted in the Royal Italian regiment in the French service in 1775. At the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, he was a sergeant at Antibes. He

  • Essling, Battle of (European history)

    Germany: Period of French hegemony in Germany: …Austrian army at Aspern and Essling (May 21–22, 1809), an indication that the strategic mastery of the French was drawing to a close. But at Wagram (July 5–6) Napoleon was able to work the last of his military miracles. Vienna had to sue for peace once more, the Treaty of…

  • Esslingen (Germany)

    Esslingen, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies along the Neckar River, just southeast of Stuttgart. Mentioned in 777 as Cella and in 866 as Hetsilinga, it was chartered about 1219. It was a free imperial city from 1360 to 1802, when it passed to Württemberg, the

  • Esslingen am Necker (Germany)

    Esslingen, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies along the Neckar River, just southeast of Stuttgart. Mentioned in 777 as Cella and in 866 as Hetsilinga, it was chartered about 1219. It was a free imperial city from 1360 to 1802, when it passed to Württemberg, the

  • Esso (trade name)

    Esso, any of several foreign affiliates of the Exxon Corporation

  • essonite (mineral)

    Hessonite, translucent, semiprecious, reddish-brown variety of grossular (q.v.), a garnet

  • Essonne (department, France)

    ?le-de-France: Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, and Yvelines. ?le-de-France is bounded by the régions of Hauts-de-France to the north, Grand Est to the east, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the southeast, Centre to the south, and Normandy to the northwest. The capital is Paris. Area 4,637 square miles (12,011

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