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  • Escobedo, Helen (Mexican sculptor and museum director)

    Helen Escobedo, (Elena Escobedo Fulda), Mexican sculptor and museum director (born July 28, 1934, Mexico City, Mex.—died Sept. 16, 2010, Mexico City), was noted for her monumental installation pieces at sites around the world. She used industrial materials, such as steel girders, fibreglass, and

  • Escobedo, Juan de (Spanish politician)

    Juan de Escobedo, Spanish politician, secretary to Don Juan of Austria. Escobedo began his political life in the household of Ruy Gómez de Silva, prince of Eboli, but, after the Battle of Lepanto, entered the service of the victorious Don Juan and was with him when he became governor of Flanders

  • Escocés (Mexican political organization)

    Escocés and Yorkino, members of two rival Masonic lodges that exercised considerable political influence in early 19th-century Mexico; the names mean Scotsman and Yorkist, respectively, after the two orders of Freemasonry, the Scottish and York rites. The Escoceses, organized about 1806 and a

  • Escoffier, Auguste (French chef)

    Auguste Escoffier, French culinary artist, known as “the king of chefs and the chef of kings,” who earned a worldwide reputation as director of the kitchens at the Savoy Hotel (1890–99) and afterward at the Carlton Hotel, both in London. His name is synonymous with classical French cuisine (see

  • Escoffier, Georges-Auguste (French chef)

    Auguste Escoffier, French culinary artist, known as “the king of chefs and the chef of kings,” who earned a worldwide reputation as director of the kitchens at the Savoy Hotel (1890–99) and afterward at the Carlton Hotel, both in London. His name is synonymous with classical French cuisine (see

  • escola de samba (Brazilian social organization)

    Brazil: Carnival: …competitions of Carnival in so-called samba schools (escolas de samba), which function as community clubs and neighbourhood centres. Both children’s and adults’ groups make up the several thousand dancers and musicians of each samba school, and many more people are involved in constructing floats and making elaborate costumes. The samba…

  • Escola Velha (Spanish literature)

    Escola Velha, (Portuguese: “Old School”), Spanish dramatists in the early 16th century who were influenced by the Portuguese dramatist Gil Vicente. Although in form Vicente was a medieval dramatist, his skill in comedy and character portrayal and the varied subject matter of his plays made him a

  • Escondido (California, United States)

    Escondido, city, San Diego county, southern California, U.S. It is situated about 30 miles (50 km) northeast of San Diego and 18 miles (29 km) inland. The area was the site of Spanish exploration, and in 1843 it became part of the Rancho Rincón del Diablo land grant made to Juan Bautista Alvarado.

  • Escondido River (river, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Drainage: …River, the 55-mile- (89-km-) long Escondido River, the 60-mile- (97-km-) long Indio River, and the 37-mile- (60-km-) long Maíz River.

  • Escorial Crucifix (metalwork by Cellini)

    Benvenuto Cellini: Later years: The Escorial Crucifix (1556) exemplifies the superiority of Cellini’s art to the works of his rivals Bartolommeo Ammannati and Baccio Bandinelli. Two designs for the seal of the Academy of Florence (British Museum and Graphische Sammlung, Munich) date from 1563. His autobiography was begun in 1558…

  • Escorial Monastery (monastery, El Escorial, Spain)

    El Escorial: …is the site of the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, a monastery originally Hieronymite but occupied since 1885 by Augustinians.

  • Escorial, El (Spain)

    El Escorial, village, western Madrid provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), central Spain, in the Guadarrama mountains, 26 miles (42 km) northwest of Madrid. It is the site of the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, a monastery originally Hieronymite but

  • escort carrier (warship)

    naval ship: World War II: …merchant convoys from submarine attack, escort carriers were built in large numbers, mainly in the United States. Many were converted merchant ships, and others were specially built on hulls originally designed for merchant service. The Royal Navy also added flight decks to some tankers and grain carriers, without eliminating their…

  • escort ship

    naval ship: Fleet escort ships: In the surface ships supporting aircraft carriers, the most important trend since 1945 has been an amalgamation of types. In 1945 cruisers were armoured big-gun ships that were capable of operating independently for protracted periods. Destroyers were part of the screen protecting a…

  • Escoufle, L’? (work by Renart)

    Jean Renart: His known works are L’Escoufle, a picaresque novel in verse about the adventures of Guillaume and Aelis, betrothed children who flee to France; Guillaume de D?le, the story of a calumniated bride who cunningly defends her reputation; and the Lai de l’ombre, about a knight who presses a ring…

  • escrache (protest)

    HIJOS: …protest activities was the so-called escrache, a typically colourful demonstration conducted in front of the home or workplace of a person who had committed human rights violations during the Dirty War but had not been punished. (The term is derived from the lunfardo word escrachar, whose many meanings include revealing…

  • Escrava Isaura, A (novel by Guimar?es)

    Bernardo Guimar?es: His antislavery novel A Escrava Isaura (1875; “The Slave Girl Isaura”), which helped to promote abolitionist sentiment in Brazil, is an early example of Latin-American social-protest literature and was compared to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852).

  • Escravos River (river, Nigeria)

    Escravos River, distributary of the Niger River in the western Niger delta, southern Nigeria. Its 35-mile (56-kilometre) westerly course traverses zones of mangrove swamps and coastal sand ridges before entering the Bight of Benin of the Gulf of Guinea. There are no ports on the river, but the

  • escravos, Os (work by Castro Alves)

    Ant?nio de Castro Alves: …Falls”), a fragment of Os escravos, tells the story of a slave girl who is raped by her master’s son. This and Castro Alves’ other abolitionist poems were collected in a posthumous book, Os escravos (1883; “The Slaves”).

  • escritoire (furniture)

    Secretary, a writing desk fitted with drawers, one of which can be pulled out and the front lowered to provide a flat writing surface. There are many variations to this basic design. Early versions, which appeared in France in the first half of the 18th century, were made in one piece divided into

  • Escrivá de Balaguer, Josemaría, St. (Spanish prelate)

    St. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, ; canonized October 6, 2002; feast day June 26), Spanish prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, founder in 1928 of Opus Dei, a Catholic organization of laypeople and priests claiming to strive to live Christian lives in their chosen professions. By the time of

  • escrow (law)

    Escrow, in Anglo-American law, an agreement, usually a written instrument, concerning an obligation between two or more parties, that gives a third party instructions that concern property put in his control upon the happening of a certain condition. In commercial usage, this condition is most

  • Escuadra hacia la muerte (work by Sastre)

    Spanish literature: Theatre: …Escuadra hacia la muerte (1953; Death Squad), a disturbing Cold War drama, presents soldiers who have been accused of “unpardonable” offenses and condemned to stand guard in a no-man’s-land where they await the advance of an unknown enemy and face almost certain death. Other plays demonstrate the socially committed individual’s…

  • Escudero, Vicente (Spanish dancer)

    Vicente Escudero, Gypsy dancer widely respected for his mastery of flamenco dance and for his adherence throughout his public career to an authentic style rarely distorted or commercialized. Known in his youth for his dancing in the cafés of Spain, Escudero performed in Paris in 1920 with his

  • escudo (currency)

    Cabo Verde: Finance: …the Cabo Verdean currency, the escudo. There are several foreign banks and a stock exchange. The privatization in the late 1990s of a number of financial enterprises, such as banking and insurance institutions, accompanied a broader initiative to privatize state holdings in other economic sectors that was already under way.

  • escudo de hojas secas, El (work by Benítez Rojo)

    Antonio Benítez Rojo: …short-story prize with his volume El escudo de hojas secas (“The Shield of Dry Leaves”).

  • Escuintla (Guatemala)

    Escuintla, city, southwestern Guatemala. It lies near the Guacalate River, on the southern flanks of the central highlands, at 1,109 feet (338 metres) above sea level. It is located 28 miles (45 km) southwest of Guatemala City. Escuintla, one of the larger Guatemalan cities on the Pacific coastal

  • escutcheon (heraldry)

    Escutcheon, in furniture design, an armorial shield sometimes applied to the centre of pediments on pieces of fine furniture and, also, the metal plate that surrounds a keyhole or the pivoting metal plate that sometimes covers the keyhole. The keyhole escutcheon has been used on cabinets and desks

  • Esdraelon, Plain of (region, Israel)

    Plain of Esdraelon, lowland in northern Israel, dividing the hilly areas of Galilee in the north and Samaria (in the Israeli-occupied West Bank) in the south. Esdraelon is the Greek derivation of the Hebrew Yizre?el, meaning “God will sow” or “May God make fruitful,” an allusion to the fertility of

  • Esdras, Book of (Old Testament)

    Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, two Old Testament books that together with the books of Chronicles formed a single history of Israel from the time of Adam. Ezra and Nehemiah are a single book in the Jewish canon. Roman Catholics long associated the two, calling the second “Esdras alias Nehemias” in the

  • Esdras, First Book of (apocryphal work)

    First Book of Esdras, apocryphal work that was included in the canon of the Septuagint (the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible) but is not part of any modern biblical canon; it is called Greek Ezra by modern scholars to distinguish it from the Old Testament Book of Ezra written in Hebrew. Originally

  • Esdras, Fourth Book of (apocryphal work)

    Second Book of Esdras, apocryphal work printed in the Vulgate and many later Roman Catholic bibles as an appendix to the New Testament. The central portion of the work (chapters 3–14), consisting of seven visions revealed to the seer Salathiel-Ezra, was written in Aramaic by an unknown Jew around

  • Esdras, I (apocryphal work)

    First Book of Esdras, apocryphal work that was included in the canon of the Septuagint (the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible) but is not part of any modern biblical canon; it is called Greek Ezra by modern scholars to distinguish it from the Old Testament Book of Ezra written in Hebrew. Originally

  • Esdras, Second Book of (apocryphal work)

    Second Book of Esdras, apocryphal work printed in the Vulgate and many later Roman Catholic bibles as an appendix to the New Testament. The central portion of the work (chapters 3–14), consisting of seven visions revealed to the seer Salathiel-Ezra, was written in Aramaic by an unknown Jew around

  • ESEA (United States [1965])

    United States: The Great Society: The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 provided federal funding for public and private education below the college level. The Higher Education Act of 1965 provided scholarships for more than 140,000 needy students and authorized a National Teachers Corps. The Immigration Act of 1965 abolished…

  • Esedra, Piazza (square, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The fountains: …the Piazza Esedra (now the Piazza della Repubblica) by Pope Pius IX in 1870, just 10 days before the troops of united Italy broke into the city, it was probably the last public work dedicated by a pope in his role of temporal magistrate of the city. In 1901 the…

  • ESEM (instrument)

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), type of electron microscope. Unlike the conventional scanning electron microscope, the ESEM obviates the need for special specimen preparation (for example, covering the specimen with gold to render it electrically conducting is unnecessary) and

  • Esen Taiji (Mongolian chief)

    Esen Taiji, Mongol chief who succeeded in temporarily reviving Mongol power in Central Asia by descending on China and capturing the Ming emperor Yingzong (reigning as Zhengtong, 1435–49). In 1439 Esen became the chief of the Oirat Mongols, living in the remote mountainous region in western

  • Esenin, Sergey Aleksandrovich (Russian poet)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Yesenin, the self-styled “last poet of wooden Russia,” whose dual image—that of a devout and simple peasant singer and that of a rowdy and blasphemous exhibitionist—reflects his tragic maladjustment to the changing world of the revolutionary era. The son of a peasant family of

  • eserine (drug)

    Percy Julian: …attention for synthesizing the drug physostigmine, used to treat glaucoma. He refined a soya protein that became the basis of Aero-Foam, a foam fire extinguisher used by the U.S. Navy in World War II. He led research that resulted in quantity production of the hormones progesterone (female) and testosterone (male)…

  • ESERY (political party, Russia)

    Socialist Revolutionary Party, Russian political party that represented the principal alternative to the Social-Democratic Workers’ Party during the last years of Romanov rule. Ideological heir to the Narodniki (Populists) of the 19th century, the party was founded in 1901 as a rallying point for

  • Eset (Egyptian goddess)

    Isis, one of the most important goddesses of ancient Egypt. Her name is the Greek form of an ancient Egyptian word for “throne.” Isis was initially an obscure goddess who lacked her own dedicated temples, but she grew in importance as the dynastic age progressed, until she became one of the most

  • E?fahān (Iran)

    E?fahān, capital of E?fahān province and major city of western Iran. E?fahān is situated on the north bank of the Zāyandeh River at an elevation of about 5,200 feet (1,600 metres), roughly 210 miles (340 km) south of the capital city of Tehrān. E?fahān first thrived under the Seljuq Turks

  • E?fahān carpet

    E?fahān carpet, floor covering handwoven in E?fahān (Isfahan), a city of central Iran that became the capital under Shāh ?Abbās I at the end of the 16th century. Although accounts of European travelers reveal that court looms turned out carpets there in profusion, their nature is unknown except for

  • E?fahān school (Persian painting)

    E?fahān school, last great school of Persian miniature painting, at its height in the early 17th century under the patronage of the ?afavid ruler Shah ?Abbās I (died 1629). The E?fahān school’s leading master was Rezā ?Abbāsī, who was greatly influenced by the Kazvin school of portraiture,

  • E?fahān, Great Mosque of (mosque, E?fahān, Iran)

    Great Mosque of E?fahān, a complex of buildings in E?fahān, Iran, that centres on the 11th-century domed sanctuary and includes a second smaller domed chamber, built in 1088, known for its beauty of proportion and design. The central sanctuary was built under the direction of Ni?ām al-Mulk, vizier

  • Eshbaal (king of Israel)

    Ishbosheth, in the Old Testament (II Samuel 2:8–4:12), fourth son of King Saul and the last representative of his family to be king over Israel (the northern kingdom, as opposed to the southern kingdom of Judah). His name was originally Ishbaal (Eshbaal; I Chronicles 8:33; 9:39), meaning “man of

  • Eshelman, Mary Virginia (American sex therapist)

    Virginia E. Johnson, American sex researcher and therapist who, with American gynecologist William H. Masters, conducted pioneering research on human sexuality. Together the researchers established the Masters & Johnson Institute (originally the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation), a

  • Eshkol, Levi (prime minister of Israel)

    Levi Eshkol, prime minister of Israel from 1963 until his death. Eshkol became involved in the Zionist movement while a student in Vilna, Lith. He moved to Palestine in 1914 when it was under Ottoman rule, working there in a number of settlements. He fought as a member of the Jewish Legion on the

  • Eshkol, Noa (Israeli dancer)

    dance notation: Twentieth-century developments: …by the Israeli dance theorist Noa Eshkol and the architect Abraham Wachmann was first published in English as Movement Notation in 1958. It took an anatomical and mathematical view of movement and initially had the aim of exploring the abstract shapes and designs of movement rather than recording existing dance…

  • Eshnunna (ancient city, Iraq)

    Eshnunna, ancient city in the Diyālā River valley lying about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Baghdad in east-central Iraq. The excavations carried out by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago revealed that the site was occupied sometime before 3000 bc. The city expanded throughout the

  • Eshnunna, Laws of (ancient document)

    Eshnunna: After the collapse of Ur, Eshnunna became independent but was later conquered by Hammurabi, king of Babylonia. During the next century the city fell into decline and may have been abandoned.

  • Eshposhteh (region, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Resources and power: …are at Ma?dan-e Karkar and Eshposhteh, between Kabul and Mazār-e Sharīf, and Qal?eh-ye Sarkārī, southwest of Mazār-e Sharīf. In general, however, Afghanistan’s energy resources, including its large reserves of natural gas, remain untapped, and fuel shortages are chronic.

  • Eshu (Yoruba deity)

    Eshu, trickster god of the Yoruba of Nigeria, an essentially protective, benevolent spirit who serves Ifa, the chief god, as a messenger between heaven and earth. Eshu requires constant appeasement in order to carry out his assigned functions of conveying sacrifices and divining the future. One

  • Esiason, Boomer (American athlete)

    Cincinnati Bengals: …Cincinnati’s starting quarterback role to Boomer Esiason. In 1988 an Esiason-led Bengals team tied the Buffalo Bills for the best record in the AFC by going 12–4. After defeating the Bills in the AFC championship game, the Bengals squared off against the 49ers in the Super Bowl for a second…

  • Esie (Nigeria)

    African art: Ife and Yoruba: To the north is Esie, where about 800 sculptures in soapstone were found by the local Yoruba population some centuries ago. Their origin is obscure; they are by no means certainly Yoruba. The city of Owo, to the southeast of Yorubaland near the frontier with the Edo-speaking peoples, developed…

  • Esil River (river, Asia)

    Ishim River, river in northern Kazakhstan and Tyumen and Omsk oblasti (provinces) of south-central Russia. A left-bank tributary of the Irtysh (Ertis) River, it rises in the Niyaz Hills in the north of the Kazakh Uplands (Saryarqa), flows west through Nursultan, and then flows north through

  • Esipova, Anna (Russian musician)

    Anna Esipova, Russian pianist celebrated for her singing tone, grace, and finesse. Critics liked to contrast her playing with that of her great contemporary, the fiery Teresa Carre?o. The daughter of a high Russian official, Esipova entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where she was a pupil of

  • Esipova, Anna Nikolayevna (Russian musician)

    Anna Esipova, Russian pianist celebrated for her singing tone, grace, and finesse. Critics liked to contrast her playing with that of her great contemporary, the fiery Teresa Carre?o. The daughter of a high Russian official, Esipova entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where she was a pupil of

  • eskar (glacial landform)

    Esker, a long, narrow, winding ridge composed of stratified sand and gravel deposited by a subglacial or englacial meltwater stream. Eskers may range from 16 to 160 feet (5 to 50 m) in height, from 160 to 1,600 feet (500 m) in width, and a few hundred feet to tens of miles in length. They may occur

  • Eskender (Solomonid king of Ethiopia)

    Pêro da Covilh?: …by the Abyssinian ruler, Emperor Eskender, and was well treated and made governor of a district. He was not, however, allowed to leave the country. Some years later the Abyssinian regent, Queen Helena, sent an Armenian named Matthew to Portugal. He reached Afonso de Albuquerque at Goa in 1512 and…

  • esker (glacial landform)

    Esker, a long, narrow, winding ridge composed of stratified sand and gravel deposited by a subglacial or englacial meltwater stream. Eskers may range from 16 to 160 feet (5 to 50 m) in height, from 160 to 1,600 feet (500 m) in width, and a few hundred feet to tens of miles in length. They may occur

  • Eski Dzhumaya (Bulgaria)

    T?rgovishte, town, eastern Bulgaria, on the Vrana River. Known formerly for its great cattle fair, which attracted visitors from throughout the Balkans, it continues as a craft centre, producing textiles, furniture, pottery, and processed foods. It has long been a centre for the Muslim faith in

  • Eskije (Greece)

    Xánthi, city and dímos (municipality), East Macedonia and Thrace (Modern Greek: Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thrakí) periféreia region, eastern Greece. The city, which is situated below the Rhodope (Rodópi) massif at the head of the narrow Eskejé (Esketzé) Valley, is the seat of a metropolitan bishop of

  • Eskil (Danish archbishop)

    Eskil, archbishop who restored the unity of the Danish church and championed its independence. A nephew of Asser, the first archbishop of Lund (now in Sweden) and thereby primate of Scandinavia, Eskil became bishop of Roskilde in 1134 and archbishop of Lund in 1138. During the 1150s he was forced

  • Eskilstuna (Sweden)

    Eskilstuna, town, l?n (county) of S?dermanland, southeastern Sweden, on the Eskilstuna River, west of Stockholm. Although it was a trade centre as early as the 12th century, it did not receive its charter until 1659. In the 17th and 18th centuries its iron and steel industry grew rapidly, soon

  • Eskimo (film by Van Dyke [1933])

    W.S. Van Dyke: One Take Woody: Eskimo (1933) was Van Dyke’s most-ambitious project to date. He and his crew traveled on a whaling schooner to the northern tip of Alaska, where the ship was iced until the spring thaw. The drama featured a number of native Inuits, whose dialogue was translated…

  • Eskimo (people)

    Eskimo, any member of a group of peoples who, with the closely related Aleuts, constitute the chief element in the indigenous population of the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland, Canada, the United States, and far eastern Russia (Siberia). Early 21st-century population estimates indicated

  • Eskimo Channel (channel, Gulf of Saint Lawrence)

    Gulf of Saint Lawrence: …toward the southeast, and the Eskimo Channel, running to the southwest. Together, these channels occupy approximately one-quarter of the total area of the gulf. Then there are the submarine platforms, often less than 165 feet (50 m) in depth, of which the most important, known as the Acadian Platform, occupies…

  • Eskimo curlew (bird)

    curlew: The Eskimo curlew (N. borealis) is one of the world’s rarest birds, a species now virtually extinct. It formerly bred in abundance in Arctic America and wintered on the pampas of South America. The population of Eskimo curlews was severely diminished during the 19th century, when…

  • Eskimo dog (breed of dog)

    Eskimo dog, breed of sled and hunting dog found near the Arctic Circle. It is believed by some authorities to be representative of a pure breed some 10,000 years old and by others to be descended from wolves. The Eskimo dog is powerfully built and big-boned, resembling other sled dogs such as the

  • Eskimo language

    Eskimo-Aleut languages: Eskimo consists of two divisions: Yupik, spoken in Siberia and southwestern Alaska, and Inuit, spoken in northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. Each division includes several dialects. The proposed relationship of Eskimo-Aleut with other language families, such as Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Uralic, and/or Indo-European, remains conjectural.

  • Eskimo Life (work by Nansen)

    Fridtjof Nansen: Early life: …for his book Eskimoliv (1891; Eskimo Life). The party returned home in triumph in May 1889.

  • Eskimo potato (plant)

    Christopher McCandless: …that the seeds of the wild potato, or Eskimo potato (Hedysarum alpinum), had disabled him. Research undertaken years afterward at the behest of McCandless’s biographer Jon Krakauer and others identified the most probable agent of harm as l-canavanine, an amino acid that is found in wild potato seeds and functions…

  • Eskimo-Aleut languages

    Eskimo-Aleut languages, family of languages spoken in Greenland, Canada, Alaska (United States), and eastern Siberia (Russia), by the Eskimo and Aleut peoples. Aleut is a single language with two surviving dialects. Eskimo consists of two divisions: Yupik, spoken in Siberia and southwestern Alaska,

  • Eskimoliv (work by Nansen)

    Fridtjof Nansen: Early life: …for his book Eskimoliv (1891; Eskimo Life). The party returned home in triumph in May 1889.

  • Eskinder Nega (Ethiopian journalist and blogger)

    Ethiopia: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia since 1995: …the antiterrorism law was journalist Eskinder Nega, who was arrested in 2011 and later sentenced to 18 years in prison.

  • Eski?ehir (Turkey)

    Eski?ehir, city, west-central Turkey. It lies along the Porsuk River, a tributary of the Sakarya River, at a point about 125 miles (200 km) west of Ankara. Located near the site of the ancient Phrygian city of Dorylaeum, the present city probably began in Byzantine times as a cluster of settlements

  • Eskola, Pentii E. (Finnish petrologist)

    phase: Applications to petrology: In 1915 the Finnish petrologist Pentii E. Eskola set up a classification scheme for metamorphic rocks that was based on metamorphic facies. Each facies was defined by the presence of one or more common mineral assemblages. The stability limits of these assemblages subsequently have been determined by laboratory studies. As…

  • ESKOM (South African organization)

    South Africa: Resources and power: …electric power is generated by ESKOM at huge stations in Mpumalanga. Synthetic fuel derived from coal supplies a small proportion of the country’s energy needs, as does imported oil refined at the ports or piped to a major inland refinery at Sasolburg. A nuclear power plant at Duinefonte has operated…

  • ESKOM Building (building, Johannesburg, South Africa)

    Johannesburg: The city layout: …most notably in the 1937 ESKOM Building, a 21-story Art Deco tower built to evoke the vigour of New York City. (The ESKOM Building was torn down in 1983, joining a distinguished line of vanished landmarks.) Whatever architectural distinction the city had was lost in the decades after World War…

  • ESL (education)
  • ESL Investments, Inc. (hedge fund)

    Sears: …company to Lampert’s hedge fund, ESL Investments, for $5.2 billion.

  • Esla Valley (valley, Zamora, Spain)

    Zamora: Its plains, especially the Esla Valley, yield much grain (barley and wheat) and pulse; wine and flax are also produced, and on higher grounds Merino sheep and goats are raised for wool and cheese. Large dams on the Esla and Duero rivers generate hydroelectric energy. The provincial capital, Zamora…

  • Esman, Milton J. (American professor and author)

    ethnic conflict: Theories of ethnic identity: In light of this, Milton J. Esman, in his book Ethnic Politics (1994), noted that ethnic identity usually “can be located on a spectrum between primordial historical continuities and (instrumental) opportunistic adaptations.”

  • Esmarch, Friedrich von (German surgeon)

    Friedrich von Esmarch, German surgeon who is best known for his contributions to military surgery, including his introduction of the use of the first-aid bandage on the battlefield. Esmarch studied medicine at Kiel and G?ttingen. He graduated in 1848 and in the same year was called up as army

  • Esmarch, Johannes Friedrich August von (German surgeon)

    Friedrich von Esmarch, German surgeon who is best known for his contributions to military surgery, including his introduction of the use of the first-aid bandage on the battlefield. Esmarch studied medicine at Kiel and G?ttingen. He graduated in 1848 and in the same year was called up as army

  • Esmā?īl I (shah of Iran)

    Ismā?īl I, shah of Iran (1501–24) and religious leader who founded the ?afavid dynasty (the first native dynasty to rule the kingdom in 800 years) and converted Iran from the Sunni to the Shī?ite sect of Islam. According to tradition, Ismā?īl was descended from an imam. His father, leader of a

  • Esmā?īl I ebn A?mad (Sāmānid ruler)

    Ismā?īl I ibn A?mad, (reigned 892–907), one of the Persian Sāmānid dynasty’s most famous sovereigns, who was generous, brave, just, and cultivated. Originally governor of Transoxiana at the age of 21, he extended his domains throughout ?abaristān and Khorāsān and, though nominally under the caliph

  • Esmā?īl III (shah of Iran)

    Karīm Khān Zand (Mo?ammad): …the throne the infant Shāh Ismā?īl III, the grandson of the last official ?afavid king. Ismā?īl was a figurehead king, real power being vested in Karīm Khān, who never claimed the title of shāhānshāh (“king of kings”) but used that of vakīl (“regent”).

  • Esmeralda Affair (Ecuadorian history)

    Esmeralda Affair, incident in Ecuador in 1895 involving the nominal transfer of ownership of the Chilean warship Esmeralda to Ecuador before the vessel was sold to Japan. The Chilean government used this tactic to maintain a facade of neutrality during the first Sino-Japanese War (1894–95). The

  • Esmeraldas (Ecuador)

    Esmeraldas, city, major seaport of northwestern Ecuador. It lies on the Pacific Ocean coast at the mouth of the Esmeraldas River. The city is the chief trading centre for the region’s agricultural and lumbering resources but is only slightly developed industrially. It is the terminus of the

  • Esmond, Henry (fictional character)

    Henry Esmond, fictional character, the protagonist of William Makepeace Thackeray’s novel The History of Henry Esmond, Esq.

  • Esnambuc, Pierre Bélain, sieur d’ (French trader)

    Pierre Bélain, sieur d’Esnambuc, French trader who expanded French colonization into the Caribbean and in 1635 established the first colony for the Compagnie des ?les d’Amérique on the island of Martinique, the first permanent French colony in the West Indies. Born in Normandy, Bélain formally

  • Esnault-Pelterie, Robert (French aviation pioneer)

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