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  • Ervine, Saint John Greer (British dramatist)

    Saint John Ervine, British playwright, novelist, and critic, one of the first to write dramas in the style of local realism fostered by the Irish literary renaissance. Ervine’s best-known plays are Mixed Marriage (first performed 1911) and the domestic tragedies Jane Clegg (1913) and John Ferguson

  • Erving, Julius (American basketball player)

    Julius Erving, American collegiate and professional basketball player who was one of the most colourful and exciting figures in the game during the 1970s and ’80s. At 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 metres), Erving played forward and was noted for his fast breaks, balletic leaps toward the basket, and

  • Erving, Julius Winfield, II (American basketball player)

    Julius Erving, American collegiate and professional basketball player who was one of the most colourful and exciting figures in the game during the 1970s and ’80s. At 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 metres), Erving played forward and was noted for his fast breaks, balletic leaps toward the basket, and

  • ERW (metallurgy)

    steel: Welded tubes: …widely used welding system, the electric-resistance welding (ERW) line, starts with a descaled hot-rolled strip that is first slit into coils of a specific width to fit a desired tube diameter. In the entry section is an uncoiler, a welder that joins the ends of coils for continuous operation, and…

  • Erwartung (opera by Schoenberg)

    opera: Later opera in Germany and Austria: …Erwartung (1909, first performed 1924; Expectation, single-character libretto by Marie Pappenheim) and the one-act “drama with music” Die glückliche Hand (1924; “The Hand of Fate,” his own libretto)—are atonal, thickly Romantic, even Expressionistic (intentionally distorted, so as to express intense and often exaggerated or disquieting emotions). These early works occasionally…

  • Erwin, Emily Burns (American musician)

    Dixie Chicks: ), Emily Robison (née Erwin; b. August 16, 1972, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, U.S.), and Natalie Maines (b. October 14, 1974, Lubbock, Texas, U.S.). Early members of the group included guitarist Robin Lynn Macy, who left in 1992, and vocalist Laura Lynch, who was replaced by Maines in…

  • Erwin, Martha Elenor (American musician)

    Dixie Chicks: The group’s principal members included Martie Maguire (née Erwin; b. October 12, 1969, York, Pennsylvania, U.S.), Emily Robison (née Erwin; b. August 16, 1972, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, U.S.), and Natalie Maines (b. October 14, 1974, Lubbock, Texas, U.S.). Early members of the group included guitarist Robin Lynn Macy, who left in…

  • Erwinia (bacteria genus)

    fruit spot: …decays that are caused by Erwinia and some Pseudomonas species are watery to mushy and putrid and follow injuries. Other bacterial and fungal decays (except Pythium and Phytophthora) are generally firm and dry. Fruit-infecting organisms may attack other plant parts. Insects commonly transmit the infecting microorganisms and provide the entry…

  • Erwinia amylovora (bacterium)

    fire blight: …disease, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, that can give infected plants a scorched appearance. Fire blight largely affects members of the rose family (Rosaceae). It has destroyed pear and apple orchards in much of North America, in parts of Europe, and in New Zealand and Japan. Many other economically…

  • Erwitt, Elliott (French-born American photographer and filmmaker)

    Elliott Erwitt, French-born American photographer and filmmaker who is known for his uncanny ability to capture on film the humour and irony of everyday life. Erwitt (whose family members had changed their surname when they arrived in the United States) was born to Russian émigrés living in Paris.

  • Erwitz, Elio Romano (French-born American photographer and filmmaker)

    Elliott Erwitt, French-born American photographer and filmmaker who is known for his uncanny ability to capture on film the humour and irony of everyday life. Erwitt (whose family members had changed their surname when they arrived in the United States) was born to Russian émigrés living in Paris.

  • Erya (Chinese lexicon)

    Erya, an early Chinese lexicon that is considered a classic work of Chinese literature and is sometimes ranked with the Wujing (“Five Classics”) in importance and influence. The Erya, possibly assembled in the Qin (221–207 bce) or early Han (206 bce–220 ce) dynasty, is a compilation of words found

  • Erycinae (snake subfamily)

    boa: …into two subfamilies, Boinae and Erycinae. Boinae includes the boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), tree boas (genus Corallus), and anacondas (genus Eunectes) of the American tropics; two other genera are found on Madagascar and islands of the southwestern Pacific. Members of Boinae range from 1 metre (3.3 feet) long in some…

  • Erykah Badu Live (album by Badu)

    Erykah Badu: Badu’s follow-up album, Erykah Badu Live, reached the top five on the Billboard pop charts and yielded the hit song “Tyrone.” The combined sales of the two albums exceeded three million copies, and both efforts were certified as platinum. That year she captured two NAACP Image Awards, four…

  • Erymandrus (river, Central Asia)

    Helmand River, river in southwestern Afghanistan and eastern Iran, about 715 miles (1,150 km) long. Rising in the Bābā Range in east-central Afghanistan, it flows southwestward across more than half the length of Afghanistan before flowing northward for a short distance through Iranian territory

  • Eryopoidea (fossil amphibian clade)

    amphibian: Annotated classification: ?Clade Eryopoidea (eryopoids) Upper Mississippian to Late Permian. Flattened skull, long preorbital and shortened postorbital regions; palatal openings moderate; and palate with bony connection to braincase. ?Superfamily Dissorophoidea (dissorophoids) Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Triassic. Vertebrae strongly

  • Eryops (fossil amphibian genus)

    Eryops, genus of extinct primitive amphibians found as fossils in Permian rocks in North America (the Permian period occurred from 299 million to 251 million years ago). Eryops was a massive animal more than 2 m (6 feet) long. Its large skull had thick and uneven bones, with wrinkles. The eye

  • Eryri, Dafydd Ddu (Welsh poet)

    Celtic literature: The 18th century: the first revival: Chief among Owen’s successors was David Thomas (Dafydd Ddu Eryri), who, however, like other eisteddfodic bards of this period, soon departed from classical strictness.

  • Eryri, Parc Cenedlaethol (national park, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Snowdonia National Park, national park in Gwynedd county and Conwy county borough, northern Wales, with an area of 838 square miles (2,171 square km). It is best known for its mountains, composed largely of volcanic rock and cut by valleys that show the influence of Ice Age glaciers. Snowdon

  • Erysimum (plant)

    Wallflower, (genus Erysimum), genus of about 180 species of plants belonging to the mustard family (Brassicaceae), so named for their habit of growing from chinks in walls. Wallflowers are found throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, and some species are widely cultivated for their attractive

  • Erysimum asperum (plant)

    wallflower: The western wallflower (E. asperum) is a 90-cm- (35-inch-) tall perennial found on prairies, sand hills, and open woods in central to western North America. It produces fragrant yellow to orange flowers borne on long spikes. It is sometimes used in rock gardens.

  • Erysimum cheiri (plant)

    wallflower: The Aegean wallflower (Erysiumu cheiri) is native to cliffsides and meadows of southern Europe and is naturalized in Great Britain. It is biennial to perennial, with erect 70-cm (28-inch) stalks bearing spikelike fragrant clusters of golden to brown flowers. Many ornamental cultivars have been derived from…

  • erysipelas (infection)

    Erysipelas, contagious infection of the skin and underlying tissue, caused by group A B-hemolytic streptococcus bacteria. Erysipelas causes affected areas of skin to turn bright red and become slightly swollen. The swollen blotches have a distinct border and slowly expand into the surrounding

  • erysipeloid (infection)

    erysipelothrix infection: Erysipeloid, wound infection with E. rhusiopathiae, is a hazard to veterinarians, farmers, and animal handlers; it also yields to antibiotics.

  • erysipelothrix infection (pathology)

    Erysipelothrix infection, any of several infectious diseases caused by the widespread bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, found in water, soil, and decaying matter. Among the distinct diseases it causes are swine erysipelas (including diamond-skin disease), nonsuppurative arthritis in lambs

  • Erysipelothrix insidiosa (bacterium)

    erysipelothrix infection: …caused by the widespread bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, found in water, soil, and decaying matter. Among the distinct diseases it causes are swine erysipelas (including diamond-skin disease), nonsuppurative arthritis in lambs and calves, post-dipping lameness in sheep, blood poisoning in poultry, and erysipeloid in humans. The bacterium is resistant to many…

  • Erysipelothrix rhusiopathia (bacterium)

    erysipelothrix infection: …caused by the widespread bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, found in water, soil, and decaying matter. Among the distinct diseases it causes are swine erysipelas (including diamond-skin disease), nonsuppurative arthritis in lambs and calves, post-dipping lameness in sheep, blood poisoning in poultry, and erysipeloid in humans. The bacterium is resistant to many…

  • Erysiphales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Erysiphales (powdery mildews) Parasitic on plants; ascospores or conidia germinate on leaves and stems; mycelium septate, branched; example genera include Erysiphe, Blumeria, and Uncinula. Order Helotiales Pathogenic on plants, saprotrophic, endophytic, mycorhizzal,

  • erythema (pathology)

    Erythema, any abnormal redness of the skin. Erythema is caused by dilation and irritation of the superficial capillaries; the augmented flow of blood through them imparts a reddish hue to the skin. Erythema may arise from a great variety of causes and disease conditions. Blushing is a transient

  • erythema ab igne (pathology)

    erythema: …of the vitamin niacin; and erythema ab igne, due to nonburning exposure to radiant heat.

  • erythema arthriticum epidemicum (pathology)

    Streptobacillary fever, acute infection caused by the microorganism Streptobacillus moniliformis, transmitted to humans by rat bite or by the ingestion of contaminated foods and characterized by the sudden onset of chills, fever, and vomiting followed by the development of a skin rash and

  • erythema marginatum (pathology)

    rheumatic fever: …most typical of which is erythema marginatum; Sydenham chorea, a nervous system manifestation marked by emotional instability and purposeless, involuntary movements of the arms and legs; abdominal pain; nosebleeds; weakness; and loss of appetite and body weight. Generally the clinical symptoms, severity, and aftereffects of an attack of rheumatic fever…

  • erythema multiforme (pathology)

    conjunctivitis: …culminate in blindness occasionally accompanies erythema multiforme, an eruption on the skin and mucous membranes that sometimes occurs in association with a systemic infection or the use of certain medications.

  • erythema nodosum (pathology)

    erythema: Erythema nodosum is a hypersensitivity reaction most commonly associated with streptococcal infection, drugs (particularly oral contraceptives), and sarcoidosis (a systemic disease characterized by the formation of granulation, or scarlike, tissue). It is marked by the sudden onset of multiple, red, painful nodules in the deeper…

  • erythema nodosum leprosum (pathology)

    thalidomide: Modern therapeutic uses: …and nerve impairment caused by erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), a complication of leprosy. Thalidomide achieves this therapeutic effect by limiting the immune system’s powerful—and harmful—inflammatory response to leprosy bacilli within the body. Further testing revealed that thalidomide also has a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and…

  • erythema pernio (pathology)

    Chilblain, an inflammatory swelling of the skin of the hands or feet, resulting from exposure to cold. The condition is believed to result from cold hypersensitivity of small vessels of the skin. Tissue damage is less severe with chilblains than with frostbite, where the skin is actually frozen.

  • erythermalgia (pathology)

    Erythromelalgia , rare disease in which the blood vessels of the hands and feet go through spasms of dilation associated with burning pain, increased skin temperature, and redness. The disease may be primary (in which case the cause is unknown), or secondary (caused by underlying disorders of the

  • Erythrae (ancient city, Turkey)

    Erythrae, ancient Ionic city on the Mimas (now Kara Burun) peninsula in western Turkey. The original site of traditionally Cretan and later Ionian settlement is uncertain, but from the 4th century bc the city was located at modern Ildir, where traces of the wall circuit, theatre, and citadel are

  • Erythrae decree (Greek history)

    ancient Greek civilization: Political and legal sources of resentment: …attested as early as the Erythrae decree of 453. The same decree imposed a “democratic” constitution, according to a principle that the literary sources say was general Athenian policy. Yet it would be simplistic to think that such Athenian-influenced constitutions were necessarily a significant upholding of human rights. One must…

  • Erythraean languages

    Afro-Asiatic languages, languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia. About 250 Afro-Asiatic languages are spoken today by a total of approximately 250 million people. Numbers of speakers per language

  • erythralgia (pathology)

    Erythromelalgia , rare disease in which the blood vessels of the hands and feet go through spasms of dilation associated with burning pain, increased skin temperature, and redness. The disease may be primary (in which case the cause is unknown), or secondary (caused by underlying disorders of the

  • erythrasma (dermatology)

    Erythrasma, a superficial skin infection marked by reddish brown scaly patches and attributed to the bacterium Corynebacterium minutissimum. The lesions are generally seen on the inner sides of the thighs, in the scrotum, in the toe webs, and in the armpits. Erythrasma is more likely to occur in a

  • erythremia (pathology)

    polycythemia: Polycythemia vera: Polycythemia differs from a disease called polycythemia vera (erythremia, or primary polycythemia), in which excess red blood cells occur without known cause. In polycythemia vera there is usually an increase in other blood elements as well; for example, the number of red cells…

  • Erythrinidae (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Erythrinidae (trahiras) Large mouths, canine teeth. Adipose fin; absent. Carnivorous. Food fishes. Size to 1.2 metres (4 feet). South America. 3 genera, 14 species. Family Ctenoluciidae (pike-characids) Elongate, pikelike body. Large mouth, canine teeth, scales ciliated, carnivorous, food fishes. Panama and South America. To 67.5 cm

  • erythrite (mineral)

    Erythrite, arsenate mineral in the vivianite group, hydrated cobalt arsenate [Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O]. Erythrite, which is used as a guide to the presence of cobalt-nickel-silver ores because of its crimson or peach-red colour, occurs as radiating crystals, concretions, or earthy masses in the oxidized z

  • Erythrobalanus (plant subgenus)

    Red oak, any member of a group or subgenus (Erythrobalanus) of North American ornamental and timber shrubs and trees of the genus Quercus, in the beech family (Fagaceae), that have bristle-tipped leaves, acorns with hairy shell linings, and bitter seeds that mature in two seasons. Black oak, live

  • Erythrobasidiales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Erythrobasidiales Some are pathogenic in humans and animals, others are saprotrophic in soil or found in the air; yeastlike cells may be spherical or elongate; example genera include Erythrobasidium, Sporobolomyces, and Bannoa. Order Naohideales Mycoparasitic; auricularoid basidia may contain mitospores; example genus is

  • erythroblast (biology)

    Erythroblast, nucleated cell occurring in red marrow as a stage or stages in the development of the red blood cell, or erythrocyte. See also

  • erythroblastosis fetalis (pathology)

    Erythroblastosis fetalis, type of anemia in which the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of a fetus are destroyed in a maternal immune reaction resulting from a blood group incompatibility between the fetus and its mother. This incompatibility arises when the fetus inherits a certain blood factor from

  • Erythrocebus patas (primate)

    Patas monkey, (Erythrocebus patas), long-limbed and predominantly ground-dwelling primate found in the grass and scrub regions of West and Central Africa and southeast to the Serengeti plains. The adult male patas monkey has shaggy fur set off by a white mustache and white underparts, and its build

  • erythrocyte (biology)

    Red blood cell, cellular component of blood, millions of which in the circulation of vertebrates give the blood its characteristic colour and carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. The mature human red blood cell is small, round, and biconcave; it appears dumbbell-shaped in profile. The cell

  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate (biochemistry)

    blood analysis: Sedimentation and compatibility tests: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is the rate at which red blood cells settle in a column of blood in one hour. It is a nonspecific indicator of inflammatory disease that is also increased in anemia. When blood cells clump together, owing to the presence of…

  • erythrocythemia (pathology)

    blood disease: Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies: …abnormal hemoglobin may result in erythrocythemia, or overproduction of red cells. In these cases there is increased oxygen affinity, limiting proper delivery of oxygen to tissues and thereby stimulating the bone marrow to increase red cell production. In other cases the iron in heme may exist in the oxidized, or…

  • erythrocytosis (pathology)

    polycythemia: Types of polycythemia: …cause is known, is called erythrocytosis.

  • erythrodermic psoriasis (skin disorder)

    psoriasis: pustular, inverse (or flexular), and erythrodermic.

  • erythromelalgia (pathology)

    Erythromelalgia , rare disease in which the blood vessels of the hands and feet go through spasms of dilation associated with burning pain, increased skin temperature, and redness. The disease may be primary (in which case the cause is unknown), or secondary (caused by underlying disorders of the

  • erythromycin (drug)

    Erythromycin, drug synthesized by the soil bacterium Streptomyces erythraeus and used in the treatment of throat infections, pneumonia, and other diseases. Erythromycin, an antibiotic that inhibits the synthesis of vital proteins in susceptible bacteria, may be either bacteriostatic (i.e.,

  • Erythroneura (insect)

    leafhopper: The grape leafhopper (Erythroneura) is a slender yellow-coloured insect with red markings and is about 3 mm long. It feeds on developing leaves and overwinters among fallen grape leaves. It is found on the grapevine, Virginia creeper, and apple tree and is controlled by spraying or…

  • Erythronium (plant)

    Erythronium, genus of about 20 species of spring-blooming plants of the family Liliaceae, commonly known as dog’s tooth violet. All the species are native to North America except for the purple- or pink-flowered dog’s tooth violet of Europe (E. dens-canis). The nodding flowers, usually one to a

  • erythronium (chemical element)

    Vanadium (V), chemical element, silvery white soft metal of Group 5 (Vb) of the periodic table. It is alloyed with steel and iron for high-speed tool steel, high-strength low-alloy steel, and wear-resistant cast iron. Vanadium was discovered (1801) by the Spanish mineralogist Andrés Manuel del Río,

  • Erythronium americanum (plant)

    Erythronium: The common dog’s tooth violet, or adder’s tongue, of North America is E. americanum. It has yellow flowers and brown-mottled leaves. Several species of Erythronium are grown as rock-garden ornamentals.

  • Erythronium dens-canis (plant)

    Erythronium: …tooth violet of Europe (E. dens-canis). The nodding flowers, usually one to a plant or in small clusters, range in colour from white to purple. The two leaves, borne at the base of the plant, often are covered with white or brown spots. The fruit is a pod. The…

  • erythrophore (biology)

    chromatophore: …chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism.

  • erythropoiesis (biology)

    blood disease: Disorders affecting red blood cells: …person, red cell production (erythropoiesis) is so well adjusted to red cell destruction that the levels of red cells and hemoglobin remain constant. The rate of production of red cells by the bone marrow normally is controlled by a physiological feedback mechanism analogous to the thermostatic control of temperature…

  • erythropoietic porphyria (pathology)

    porphyria: …of porphyria are recognized: (1) erythropoietic and (2) hepatic. In the first, the overproduction occurs in relation to hemoglobin synthesis by cells in the bone marrow; in the second, the disturbance is in the liver.

  • erythropoietic protoporphyria (pathology)

    porphyria: (2) In erythropoietic protoporphyria, the skin becomes inflamed and itchy after short exposures to sunlight, but usually there are no other impairments, and this form of porphyria, which is transmitted as a dominant trait, is compatible with normal life expectancy.

  • erythropoietin (hormone)

    Erythropoietin, hormone produced largely in the kidneys that influences the rate of production of red blood cells (erythrocytes). When the number of circulating red cells decreases or when the oxygen transported by the blood diminishes, an unidentified sensor detects the change, and the production

  • Erythrotriorchis radiatus (bird)

    goshawk: …genera also called goshawks: the red goshawk (Erythrotriorchis radiatus), a rare Australian bird, brown with relatively long wings and short tail; the chanting goshawks of Africa (two species of Melierax), named for their piping calls during breeding season, large, long-winged, strongly patterned birds of open country that forage on the…

  • Erythroxylaceae (plant family)

    Malpighiales: Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae: Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae are very close, having similar distinctive chemistry and cell microstructure.

  • Erythroxylon (plant genus)

    Malpighiales: Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae: Erythroxylum (230 species) is by far the largest genus in the family and has stamens that are usually joined at the base and of two different lengths. The fruits are fleshy drupes. The dried leaves of E. coca and E. novogranatense are still chewed by…

  • Erythroxylum (plant genus)

    Malpighiales: Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae: Erythroxylum (230 species) is by far the largest genus in the family and has stamens that are usually joined at the base and of two different lengths. The fruits are fleshy drupes. The dried leaves of E. coca and E. novogranatense are still chewed by…

  • Erythroxylum coca (plant)

    Coca, (Erythroxylum coca), tropical shrub, of the family Erythroxylaceae, the leaves of which are the source of the drug cocaine. The plant, cultivated in Africa, northern South America, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan, grows about 2.4 metres (8 feet) tall. The branches are straight, and the lively

  • Erythrurini (bird)

    Grass finch, any of several small finchlike birds of Australasia that constitute the tribe Erythrurini of the songbird family Estrildidae. Their tails are long and pointed, their bills stoutly conical. Grass finches live chiefly in hot open country near rivers. Several grass finches are well-known

  • Eryx (snake)

    boa: …Indian, and African species of sand boa (genus Eryx) and the West African earth python (Charina reinhardtii), in addition to two North American species. Erycines are live-bearers (as opposed to egg layers) that have stout cylindrical bodies, blunt heads, and short tails. Most measure less than 70 cm (28 inches).…

  • Eryx (Italy)

    Erice, town, northwestern Sicily, Italy; it lies at 2,464 feet (751 m) above sea level on the top of Monte San Giuliano (also called Monte Erice), just northeast of Trapani city. The town originated as a settlement of the Elyrir (an ancient Sicilian tribe) and was fortified by the Phoenicians and

  • Erz?hlungen (work by Kleist)

    Heinrich von Kleist: …eight masterly novellas, collected in Erz?hlungen (1810–11), of which “Das Erdbeben in Chili” (“The Earthquake in Chile”), “Michael Kohlhaas,” and “Die Marquise von O…” have become well-known as tales of violence and mystery. They are all characterized by an extraordinary economy, power, and vividness and by a tragic subject matter…

  • Erz?hlungen (work by Kurz)

    Hermann Kurz: …tales of Swabian life in Erz?hlungen (1858–63; “Tales”).

  • Erzberg (region, Austria)

    Alps: Mining and manufacturing: …is still significant in the Erzberg of Austria, where iron has been extracted from the mountain since the Middle Ages. Near Cluse, in the pre-Alps of Haute-Savoie not far from Geneva, a region of watchmaking, screw cutting, component manufacturing, and related industries emerged in the first quarter of the 19th…

  • Erzberger, Matthias (German politician)

    Matthias Erzberger, leader of the left wing of the Roman Catholic Centre Party in Germany and signatory of the Armistice of World War I. The son of a craftsman, Erzberger turned from teaching school to journalism with the Centre newspaper, Deutsches Volksblatt, and worked his way up in the Centre

  • Erzgebirge (mountain range, Europe)

    Ore Mountains, range of hills bounding the Bohemian Massif, extending 100 miles (160 km) along the German-Czech border, and reaching an average width of 25 miles (40 km). The Bohemian (southeastern) side of the range has a steep scarp face (2,000 to 2,500 feet [600 to 750 metres] high in places);

  • Erzherzog-Trio (work by Beethoven)

    Archduke Trio, trio for piano, violin, and cello by Ludwig van Beethoven, which premiered on April 11, 1814, in Vienna. The premiere of the Archduke Trio was one of Beethoven’s final concert performances as a pianist, because of his increasing deafness. Dedicated to Archduke Rudolf of

  • Erzherzogtrio (work by Beethoven)

    Archduke Trio, trio for piano, violin, and cello by Ludwig van Beethoven, which premiered on April 11, 1814, in Vienna. The premiere of the Archduke Trio was one of Beethoven’s final concert performances as a pianist, because of his increasing deafness. Dedicated to Archduke Rudolf of

  • Erzhumanist, Der (German scholar)

    Conradus Celtis, German scholar known as Der Erzhumanist (“The Archhumanist”). He was also a Latin lyric poet who stimulated interest in Germany in both classical learning and German antiquities. Celtis studied at the universities of Cologne and Heidelberg and was crowned poet laureate by the Holy

  • Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts, Die (work by Lessing)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Final years at Wolfenbüttel.: …Die Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts (1780; The Education of the Human Race), is a treatise that closely reflects the working of his mind and expresses his belief in the perfectibility of the human race. In the history of the world’s religions, Lessing saw a developing moral awareness that would, he believed,…

  • Erziehungsroman (German literary genre)

    Bildungsroman, class of novel that depicts and explores the manner in which the protagonist develops morally and psychologically. The German word Bildungsroman means “novel of education” or “novel of formation.” The folklore tale of the dunce who goes out into the world seeking adventure and learns

  • Erzincan (Turkey)

    Erzincan, city, eastern Turkey. It lies on the northern bank of the Kara River, a major tributary of the Euphrates. The city is situated in a fertile plain, 3,900 feet (1,200 metres) above sea level, enclosed by snowcapped mountains. It was taken by the Seljuq Turks from Byzantium in 1071, fell to

  • Erzurum (Turkey)

    Erzurum, city, eastern Turkey. It lies 6,400 feet (1,950 metres) above sea level in a fertile plain surrounded by high mountains. On a caravan route from Anatolia to Iran, Erzurum has been a major commercial and military centre since antiquity and is now a major rail station on the route between

  • Erzya (people)

    Finno-Ugric religion: The Finno-Ugric peoples: … in the southeast and the Erzya in the northwest), living in a rather large region near the middle reaches of the Volga River, and the Cheremis (the Mari), living in the vicinity of the confluence of the Volga and the Kama.

  • Erzya language

    Mordvin language: It has two major dialects: Erzya, spoken in the eastern portion of Mordvinia and the surrounding territory, and Moksha, spoken in the west. Both dialects are currently written and have official status, and their speakers have been known to identify themselves as separate ethnic groups. Indeed, they lack a common…

  • Es (chemical element)

    Einsteinium (Es), synthetic chemical element of the actinoid series of the periodic table, atomic number 99. Not occurring in nature, einsteinium (as the isotope einsteinium-253) was first produced by intense neutron irradiation of uranium-238 during the detonation of nuclear weapons. This isotope

  • ES cell (biology)

    stem cell: Embryonic stem cells: Embryonic stem cells (often referred to as ES cells) are stem cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian embryo at a very early stage of development, when it is composed of a hollow sphere of dividing cells…

  • Es steht geschrieben (work by Dürrenmatt)

    Friedrich Dürrenmatt: His first play, Es steht geschrieben (1947; “It Is Written”), is about the Anabaptist suppression in Münster in 1534–36. In it, as in Der Blinde (1948; “The Blind Man”) and Romulus der Grosse (1949; Romulus the Great), Dürrenmatt takes comic liberties with the historical facts. Die Ehe des…

  • Es-Salt (Jordan)

    Al-Sal?, town, west-central Jordan. It is on the old main highway (often called the Al-Sal? Road) leading from Amman to Jerusalem. The town is situated in the Al-Balqā? highland, about 2,600–2,750 feet (about 790–840 metres) above sea level, and is built on two hills, one of which has the ruins of

  • ESA (European research organization)

    European Space Agency (ESA), European space and space-technology research organization founded in 1975 from the merger of the European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) and the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO), both established in 1964. Members include Austria, Belgium, the Czech

  • Esagila (ancient temple, Middle East)

    Esagila, most important temple complex in ancient Babylon, dedicated to the god Marduk (q.v.), the tutelary deity of that city. The temple area was located south of the huge ziggurat called Etemenanki; it measured 660 feet (200 m) on its longest side, and its three vast courtyards were surrounded

  • Esagila Tablet (historical document)

    history of Mesopotamia: Nebuchadrezzar II: …to be found in the Esagila Tablet, which has been known since the late 19th century. Its base measured about 300 feet on each side, and it was 300 feet in height. There were five terracelike gradations surmounted by a temple, the whole tower being about twice the height of…

  • Esaki diode (electronics)

    Leo Esaki: …which became known as the Esaki diode. It also opened new possibilities for solid-state developments that his corecipients of the 1973 prize exploited separately. In 1960 Esaki was awarded an IBM (International Business Machines) fellowship for further research in the United States, and he subsequently joined IBM’s research laboratories in…

  • Esaki Reiona (Japanese physicist)

    Leo Esaki, Japanese solid-state physicist and researcher in superconductivity who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian Josephson. Esaki was a 1947 graduate in physics from Tokyo University and immediately joined the Kobe Kogyo company. In 1956 he became chief

  • Esaki, Leo (Japanese physicist)

    Leo Esaki, Japanese solid-state physicist and researcher in superconductivity who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian Josephson. Esaki was a 1947 graduate in physics from Tokyo University and immediately joined the Kobe Kogyo company. In 1956 he became chief

  • Esala Perahera (Buddhist festival)

    Kandy: The Esala Perahera, the annual 10-day torchlight parade of dancers and drummers, dignitaries, and ornately decorated elephants, commemorates the sacred tooth; it is now one of the better-known festivals in Asia, and it may be the largest Buddhist celebration in the world.

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