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  • Eros the Bittersweet: An Essay (essay by Carson)

    Anne Carson: …part philosophy, Carson’s first book, Eros the Bittersweet: An Essay (1986, reissued 1998), is an examination of the nature of desire. The short essays (or prose poems) on several topics that comprise Short Talks (1992) were incorporated into Plainwater: Essays and Poetry (1995), a volume with water as its central…

  • Eroshima (novel by Laferrière)

    Dany Laferrière: …of the novel éroshima (1987; Eroshima), followed by L’Odeur du café (1991; An Aroma of Coffee) and Le Go?t des jeunes filles (1992; Dining with the Dictator), which together earned widespread praise for the lyrical quality of his narrative voice and for his thematic exploration of racial and sexual tension,…

  • erosion (geology)

    Erosion, removal of surface material from Earth’s crust, primarily soil and rock debris, and the transportation of the eroded materials by natural agencies (such as water or wind) from the point of removal. The broadest application of the term erosion embraces the general wearing down and molding

  • erosion cycle

    Geomorphic cycle, theory of the evolution of landforms. In this theory, first set forth by William M. Davis between 1884 and 1934, landforms were assumed to change through time from “youth” to “maturity” to “old age,” each stage having specific characteristics. The initial, or youthful, stage of

  • erosion, cycle of

    Geomorphic cycle, theory of the evolution of landforms. In this theory, first set forth by William M. Davis between 1884 and 1934, landforms were assumed to change through time from “youth” to “maturity” to “old age,” each stage having specific characteristics. The initial, or youthful, stage of

  • erosional terrace

    river: Origin of river terraces: In contrast to depositional terraces, erosional terraces are specifically related to the processes of floodplain development. Erosional terraces are those in which lateral river migration and lateral accretion are the dominant processes in constructing the floodplain surface that subsequently becomes the terrace tread. Most of the terrace surface is underlain…

  • Erotemata (work by Lascaris)

    Constantine Lascaris: …and wrote for her his Erotemata (1476). Published in Milan, this was the first book printed entirely in Greek and enjoyed long popularity as an elementary grammar. He held university chairs at Naples in 1465 and at Messina from 1467 to his death; he tutored the writer Pietro Bembo in…

  • Erotemata grammatika (work by Moschopoulos)

    Manuel Moschopoulos: …is best remembered for his Erotemata grammatika (“Grammatical Questions,” first printed in Milan, 1493), a handbook of Greek in the form of question and answer that enjoyed great popularity among Western humanists of the early Renaissance. He also compiled a lexicon of Attic Greek (Sylloge onomaton Attikon) and wrote treatises…

  • erotic art (art)

    Western dance: Ancient Egyptian dance: …definitely were aware of the sensual allure of the sparsely clad body in graceful movement. A tomb painting from Shaykh ?Abd al-Qurnah, now in the British Museum, shows dancers dressed only in rings and belts, apparently designed to heighten the appeal of their nudity. These figures probably were intended to…

  • erotica (literature)

    Erotica, literary or artistic works having an erotic theme; especially, books treating of sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. The word erotica typically applies to works in which the sexual element is regarded as part of the larger aesthetic aspect. It is usually distinguished from

  • eroticism (psychology)

    human sexual activity: Sociosexual activity: …society or the individual as erotic (i.e., capable of engendering sexual response) depends chiefly on the context in which the activity occurs. A kiss, for example, may express asexual affection (as a kiss between relatives), respect (a French officer kissing a soldier after bestowing a medal on him), or reverence…

  • eroticism (art)

    Western dance: Ancient Egyptian dance: …definitely were aware of the sensual allure of the sparsely clad body in graceful movement. A tomb painting from Shaykh ?Abd al-Qurnah, now in the British Museum, shows dancers dressed only in rings and belts, apparently designed to heighten the appeal of their nudity. These figures probably were intended to…

  • érotique Voilée (work by Man Ray)

    Meret Oppenheim: …modeled for images such as érotique Voilée (1933; “Erotic Veiled”), in which she appeared nude behind a large printing-press wheel, her left forearm and hand covered in black ink and held against her forehead. The image was published in the Surrealist movement’s journal, Minotaure, in 1934. That year she also…

  • erotogenic zone (psychology)

    Sigmund Freud: Sexuality and development: …on the progressive replacement of erotogenic zones in the body by others. An originally polymorphous sexuality first seeks gratification orally through sucking at the mother’s breast, an object for which other surrogates can later be provided. Initially unable to distinguish between self and breast, the infant soon comes to appreciate…

  • erotomania (crime)

    Stalking, the crime of following another person against his or her wishes and harassing that person. The status of stalking as a criminal offense is relatively new, having emerged in the early 1990s, although the behaviours that characterize stalking are not. What is today called stalking was

  • Erotylidae (insect)

    Pleasing fungus beetle, (family Erotylidae), any of more than 3,500 species of widely distributed, mostly tropical beetles (insect order Coleoptera) that feed on fungi such as mushrooms and are often brightly coloured with orange, red, and black patterns. Pleasing fungus beetles range in size from

  • ERP (European-United States history)

    Marshall Plan, (April 1948–December 1951), U.S.-sponsored program designed to rehabilitate the economies of 17 western and southern European countries in order to create stable conditions in which democratic institutions could survive. The United States feared that the poverty, unemployment, and

  • ERP (political organization, Argentina)

    Argentina: Military government, 1966–73: …by a Trotskyite group, the People’s Revolutionary Army (Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo; ERP), and by Peronist groups. In 1970 one of these Peronist organizations, the Montoneros, destroyed the moderate Peronist union leadership and captured and killed former president Aramburu, who had been organizing a movement for a return to constitutional…

  • ERP (physiology)

    attention: Electrical changes: …potentials or, more precisely, as event-related potentials (ERPs). They extend over the period of half a second or so immediately following the onset of the signal concerned. ERPs are composed of a relatively consistent pattern of positive and negative electrical peaks that vary systematically when the properties of the signal…

  • ERP system (information systems)

    information system: Operational support and enterprise systems: …human resources—are integrated into an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, the principal kind of enterprise system. ERP systems support the value chain—that is, the entire sequence of activities or processes through which a firm adds value to its products. For example, an individual or another business may submit a custom…

  • Erpesfurt (Germany)

    Erfurt, city, capital of Thuringia Land (state), central Germany. It is located in the Thuringian Basin, on the Gera River, 200 miles (320 km) southwest of Berlin. It was first mentioned in 724 as Erpesfurt, the site of an abbey and a royal residence at a ford (Furt) on the Gera (originally named

  • Erpetoichthys calabaricus (fish)

    Reedfish, (Erpetoichthys calabaricus), species of air-breathing eel-like African fishes classified in the family Polypteridae (order Polypteriformes), inhabiting the lower stretches of freshwater river systems in Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon. Their elongated body is covered with rhomboid scales

  • Erpeton (snake genus)

    snake: Specializations for securing food: An Asian water snake, Erpeton tentaculatus, has a sizable pair of tentacles on its snout, the purpose of which is uncertain. There is a great correlation between the difficulty in catching a particular kind of prey and the development of morphological and behavioral devices to help solve the problem.…

  • ERPI (American company)

    history of the motion picture: Introduction of sound: …Electric’s newly created marketing subsidiary, Electrical Research Products, Incorporated (ERPI), to use Western Electric equipment with the Movietone sound-on-film recording system. ERPI’s monopoly did not please the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), which had tried to market a sound-on-film system that had been developed in the laboratories of its parent…

  • Erpobdella (leech genus)

    annelid: Annotated classification: >Erpobdella. Most authors accept the annelids as having three major classes: Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, and Hirudinea. Older systems would place the polychaetes and oligochaetes under the class Chaetopoda because both groups possess setae. Other systems would join the oligochaetes and leeches in a single…

  • ERR (Nazi organization)

    art market: The latter half of the 20th century: …organization called the ERR (Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg). Although the ERR was originally charged with the collection and suppression of “undesirable” political media, Hermann G?ring almost immediately changed its mission to the seizure of private Jewish collections. It confiscated more than 200 French private collections and inflicted forced sales and…

  • Erra (Mesopotamian deity)

    history of Mesopotamia: Adad-nirari III and his successors: …764, after an epidemic, the Erra epic, the myth of Erra (the god of war and pestilence), was written by Kabti-ilani-Marduk. He invented an original plot, which diverged considerably from the old myths; long discourses of the gods involved in the action form the most important part of the epic.…

  • ERRA (Pakistani government agency)

    Pakistan: Housing: …Pakistani government quickly established the Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA), which received funding from the World Bank and a large number of other sources. In addition to constructing new earthquake-resistant houses and reinforcing existing structures, the ERRA is repairing roads and other infrastructure in the region. Massive floods in…

  • Erramala Hills (hills, India)

    Erramala Range, range of hills in western Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. The hills, which trend northeast to southwest, are situated on the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau, between the basins of the Krishna River (north) and the Penneru River (south). They are composed of quartzites and

  • Erramala Range (hills, India)

    Erramala Range, range of hills in western Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. The hills, which trend northeast to southwest, are situated on the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau, between the basins of the Krishna River (north) and the Penneru River (south). They are composed of quartzites and

  • Errand Boy, The (film by Lewis [1961])

    Jerry Lewis: …Bellboy, a Hollywood messenger in The Errand Boy (1961), and a handyman at a girls’ school in The Ladies Man (1961). His films displayed an inventive use of locations, such as the Florida hotel in The Bellboy, and sets, such as the full-size 60-room school built for The Ladies Man.…

  • Errand into the Maze (work by Graham)

    Martha Graham: Maturity: …borrowed from Greek legend, including Errand into the Maze (1947), an investigation of hidden fears presented through the symbols of the Minotaur and the labyrinth; Alcestis (1960); Phaedra (1962); and Circe (1963). Biblical themes and religious figures also inspired her: Seraphic Dialogue (1955; Joan of Arc), Embattled Garden (1958; referring…

  • Errantiata (zoology)

    annelid: … (Polychaeta), which are divided into free-moving and sedentary, or tube-dwelling, forms; the earthworms (Oligochaeta); and the leeches (Hirudinea).

  • erratic (geology)

    Erratic, glacier-transported rock fragment that differs from the local bedrock. Erratics may be embedded in till or occur on the ground surface and may range in size from pebbles to huge boulders weighing thousands of tons. The distance of transportation may range from less than 1 km (0.6 mile) to

  • Errichetti, Angelo (American politician)

    Abscam: …1978, when Weinberg met with Angelo Errichetti, the mayor of Camden, New Jersey. Errichetti, who was also a state senator, wielded enormous influence in state politics and offered to guarantee approval of a casino gaming license for Abdul Enterprises in exchange for $400,000. Moreover, Errichetti provided a list of other…

  • Errigal (mountain, Ireland)

    Donegal: …2,467 feet (752 metres) at Errigal. Evidence of extensive glaciation exists. The climate is temperate, with warm summers and mild, moist winters.

  • Erroll, Francis Hay, 9th earl of (Scottish noble)

    Francis Hay, 9th earl of Erroll, Scottish nobleman, a leader of the militant Roman Catholic party in Scotland. Erroll was converted to Roman Catholicism at an early age and succeeded to the earldom in 1585. Between 1588 and 1597 he and his associates were involved in a series of treasonable

  • Erroll, Francis Hay, 9th earl of, Lord Hay of Erroll (Scottish noble)

    Francis Hay, 9th earl of Erroll, Scottish nobleman, a leader of the militant Roman Catholic party in Scotland. Erroll was converted to Roman Catholicism at an early age and succeeded to the earldom in 1585. Between 1588 and 1597 he and his associates were involved in a series of treasonable

  • Erromango (island, Vanuatu)

    Erromango, volcanic island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The island, with an area of 376 square miles (975 square km), rises in the interior to 2,907 feet (886 metres) at Santop. It had a sandalwood trade beginning in 1825; overexploitation caused almost total depletion of the

  • error (law)

    writ: …to furnish certain records (error) or perform a certain act (mandamus).

  • error (baseball)

    baseball: Getting on base: …reach base is through an error. An error occurs when a mistake by the fielder allows the batter to reach base on a play that would normally result in an out. The judgment of whether a play is a hit or an error is made by the official scorer. The…

  • error (epistemology)

    Indian philosophy: The old school: …true is either doubt or error. In its theory of error, these philosophers maintained an uncompromising realism by holding that the object of error is still real but is only not here and now. True knowledge (prama) apprehends its object as it is; false knowledge apprehends the object as what…

  • error (mathematics)

    Error, in applied mathematics, the difference between a true value and an estimate, or approximation, of that value. In statistics, a common example is the difference between the mean of an entire population and the mean of a sample drawn from that population. In numerical analysis, round-off error

  • error control (technology)

    computer science: Networking and communication: …or space to store, and error control, which involves transmission error detection and automatic resending of messages to correct such errors. (For some of the technical details of error detection and correction, see information theory.)

  • error correction coding (information science)

    information theory: Error-correcting and error-detecting codes: Shannon’s work in the area of discrete, noisy communication pointed out the possibility of constructing error-correcting codes. Error-correcting codes add extra bits to help correct errors and thus operate in the opposite direction from compression. Error-detecting codes, on the other hand,…

  • error detection and recovery (technology)

    automation: Machine programming: …with decision-making capability, including (1) error detection and recovery, (2) safety monitoring, (3) interaction with humans, and (4) process optimization.

  • error detector (technology)

    servomechanism: …device, a command device, an error detector, an error-signal amplifier, and a device to perform any necessary error corrections (the servomotor). In the controlled device, that which is being regulated is usually position. This device must, therefore, have some means of generating a signal (such as a voltage), called the…

  • error sum of squares (statistics)

    statistics: Analysis of variance and goodness of fit: …commonly referred to as the error sum of squares. A key result in the analysis of variance is that SSR + SSE = SST.

  • error, margin of (statistics)

    public opinion: Size and precision: …statistical reliability (also known as margin of error or tolerance limit) is the same for a smaller country such as Trinidad and Tobago (with a population of roughly 1.3 million) as it is for China (the most populous country in the world)—so long as the quantity and locations of sampling…

  • error-control coding (communications)

    telecommunication: Channel encoding: …against channel errors is called error-control coding. Error-control codes are used in a variety of applications, including satellite communication, deep-space communication, mobile radio communication, and computer networking.

  • error-factor theory (psychology)

    learning theory: Inhibition: …this view, called it an error-factor theory.

  • error-signal amplifier (technology)

    servomechanism: …device, an error detector, an error-signal amplifier, and a device to perform any necessary error corrections (the servomotor). In the controlled device, that which is being regulated is usually position. This device must, therefore, have some means of generating a signal (such as a voltage), called the feedback signal, that…

  • Errores philosophorum (work by Giles of Rome)

    Western philosophy: Averroists: …such as Errores philosophorum (1270; The Errors of the Philosophers) by Giles of Rome (c. 1243–1316). In 1277 the bishop of Paris condemned 219 propositions based on the new trend toward rationalism and naturalism. These included even some of Aquinas’s Aristotelian doctrines. In the same year, the archbishop of Canterbury…

  • Errores, Los (novel by Revueltas)

    José Revueltas: The novel Los errores (1964) is a denunciation of the party’s purges. He was arrested for his role in the student disturbances of 1968 and was briefly imprisoned at the penitentiary at Lecumberri.

  • errors and omissions (economics)

    international payment and exchange: Assessing the balance: …to square the account “errors and omissions.” If the average value of this figure over a substantial period, such as 10 years—an even longer period may have to be taken if a country is in persistent surplus or deficit—has a positive or negative value of substantial amount, then it…

  • Errors of the Philosophers (work by Giles of Rome)

    Western philosophy: Averroists: …such as Errores philosophorum (1270; The Errors of the Philosophers) by Giles of Rome (c. 1243–1316). In 1277 the bishop of Paris condemned 219 propositions based on the new trend toward rationalism and naturalism. These included even some of Aquinas’s Aristotelian doctrines. In the same year, the archbishop of Canterbury…

  • Ersari (people)

    Ersari carpet: …of floor coverings handmade by Ersari Turkmen of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Contrary to the custom of the other Turkmen, the Ersaris have no proper gul, or specific tribal motif; consequently, their carpets may have lattices of stepped diamonds, grids of rectangular panels rather like a garden carpet, diagonal rows of…

  • Ersari carpet

    Ersari carpet, any of a colourful variety of floor coverings handmade by Ersari Turkmen of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Contrary to the custom of the other Turkmen, the Ersaris have no proper gul, or specific tribal motif; consequently, their carpets may have lattices of stepped diamonds, grids of

  • Ersch, Johann Samuel (German bibliographer)

    Allgemeine Enzyklop?die der Wissenschaften und Künste: Founded by a German bibliographer, Johann Samuel Ersch, who began work on it in 1813, the Allgemeine Enzyklop?die der Wissenschaften und Künste is noteworthy for containing the longest known encyclopaedia article—the article about Greece, covering 3,668 pages in volumes 80–87. The signed articles of the work were written by leading…

  • Erse language

    Irish language, a member of the Goidelic group of Celtic languages, spoken in Ireland. As one of the national languages of the Republic of Ireland, Irish is taught in the public schools and is required for certain civil-service posts. Grammatically, Irish still has a case system, like Latin or

  • Ershad, Hussein Mohammad (Bangladeshi official)

    Bangladesh: Bangladesh since independence: Hussein Mohammad Ershad and a National Security Council. On March 24, 1982, Ershad ejected Sattar and took over as chief martial-law administrator. In December 1983 he assumed the office of president. To validate his authority he called elections for a National Assembly, and he formed…

  • Ershidi (emperor of Qin dynasty)

    China: The empire: Ershidi, the second emperor, reigned only four years. Rebellion broke out in the Yangtze River area when a small group of conscripts led by a peasant killed their escort officers and claimed sovereignty for the former state of Chu. The uprising spread rapidly as old…

  • Erskine of Restormel, Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron (English lawyer)

    Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, British Whig lawyer who made important contributions to the protection of personal liberties. His defense of various politicians and reformers on charges of treason and related offenses acted to check repressive measures taken by the British government in the

  • Erskine, John (Scottish politician [1558-1634])

    John Erskine, 2nd earl of Mar, Scottish politician and friend of King James VI; he helped James govern Scotland both before and after James ascended the English throne (as James I) in 1603. Erskine inherited the earldom of Mar in 1572 upon the death of his father, John, 1st (and 18th) Earl of Mar,

  • Erskine, John (American musician and author)

    John Erskine, U.S. educator, musician, and novelist noted for energetic, skilled work in several different fields. Erskine received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1903 and taught there from 1909 to 1937, earning a reputation as a learned, witty teacher and lecturer specializing in

  • Erskine, John (Scottish noble [1675-1732])

    John Erskine, 6th earl of Mar, Scottish noble who led the Jacobite rebellion of 1715, an unsuccessful attempt to gain the British crown for James Edward, the Old Pretender, son of the deposed Stuart monarch James II. Because Mar shifted his political allegiances frequently, he earned the nickname

  • Erskine, John (Scottish lord [died 1572])

    John Erskine, 1st earl of Mar, Scottish lord who played a major role in deposing Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (reigned 1542–67), and gaining the crown for her infant son James VI (later James I of England); Mar was regent for James in 1571–72. Erskine’s father, John, 5th Lord Erskine (d. 1555), was

  • Erskine, John (Scottish religious leader [1509–1591])

    John Erskine, Scottish lord of Dun and Calvinist Reformer. Erskine came of a wealthy and powerful family. His grandfather, father, and two other near relatives were killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. He studied at King’s College, Aberdeen, and traveled for a number of years in Europe.

  • Erskine, Thomas (English lawyer)

    Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, British Whig lawyer who made important contributions to the protection of personal liberties. His defense of various politicians and reformers on charges of treason and related offenses acted to check repressive measures taken by the British government in the

  • Erskine, Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron (English lawyer)

    Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, British Whig lawyer who made important contributions to the protection of personal liberties. His defense of various politicians and reformers on charges of treason and related offenses acted to check repressive measures taken by the British government in the

  • Erste Philosophie (work by Husserl)

    Edmund Husserl: Phenomenology and the renewal of spiritual life.: …forth in his lectures on Erste Philosophie (1923–24; “First Philosophy”) the thesis that Phenomenology, with its method of reduction, is the way to the absolute vindication of life—i.e., to the realization of the ethical autonomy of man. Upon this basis, he continued his clarification of the relation between a psychological…

  • Erstes Hundert Teutscher Reimensprüche (work by Logau)

    Friedrich von Logau: The first collection of epigrams, Erstes Hundert Teutscher Reimensprüche (1638; “First Hundred German Proverbs in Rhyme”), was enlarged and polished, appearing in 1654 as Salomons von Golaw Deutscher Sinn-Getichte Drey Tausend, 3 vol. (“Salomon von Golaw’s Three Thousand German Epigrams”; reissued 1872 as Friedrichs von Logau s?mmtliche Sinngedichte). Logau’s epigrams…

  • ERTA (United States [1981])

    Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA), U.S. federal tax legislation that contained numerous provisions intended to help businesses and individuals. Businesses were aided by accelerated capital recovery through new depreciation rules, special tax treatment for acquirers of troubled thrift

  • Erté (Russian designer)

    Erté, fashion illustrator of the 1920s and creator of visual spectacle for French music-hall revues. His designs included dresses and accessories for women; costumes and sets for opera, ballet, and dramatic productions; and posters and prints. (His byname was derived from the French pronunciation

  • Erteb?lle industry (Mesolithic tool industry)

    Erteb?lle industry, tool industry of the coastal regions of northern Europe, dating from about 9000 to 3500 bc. The Erteb?lle industry, named after Erteb?lle, Den., where it was first recognized, is classed as a Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) industry because its people used chipped, rather than p

  • Ertegun, Ahmet (American record executive)

    Ahmet Ertegun, Turkish-born American music magnate (born July 31, 1923, Istanbul, Turkey—died Dec. 14, 2006, New York, N.Y.), was a jazz enthusiast who together with Herb Abramson, a music-industry professional, founded (1947) Atlantic Records in New York City. In 1953 they brought in another p

  • Erter, Isaac (Polish-Jewish author)

    Hebrew literature: Beginnings of the Haskala movement: …Rubianus and the essays of Isaac Erter were classics of the genre. One poet, Meir Letteris, and one dramatist, Na?man Isaac Fischman, wrote biblical plays.

  • Ertis River (river, Asia)

    Irtysh River, major river of west-central and western Asia. With a length of 2,640 miles (4,248 km), it is one of the continent’s longest rivers. The Irtysh and the Ob River, of which the Irtysh is the principal tributary, together constitute the world’s seventh longest river system. The Irtysh

  • Ertix He (river, Asia)

    Irtysh River, major river of west-central and western Asia. With a length of 2,640 miles (4,248 km), it is one of the continent’s longest rivers. The Irtysh and the Ob River, of which the Irtysh is the principal tributary, together constitute the world’s seventh longest river system. The Irtysh

  • Ertix River (river, Asia)

    Irtysh River, major river of west-central and western Asia. With a length of 2,640 miles (4,248 km), it is one of the continent’s longest rivers. The Irtysh and the Ob River, of which the Irtysh is the principal tributary, together constitute the world’s seventh longest river system. The Irtysh

  • Ertl, Gerhard (German chemist)

    Gerhard Ertl, German chemist, who received the 2007 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his pioneering work in the discipline of surface chemistry. Ertl studied at the Technical University of Stuttgart (now Stuttgart University; M.A., 1961), the University of Paris, and the Technical University of Munich

  • Ertra

    Eritrea, country of the Horn of Africa, located on the Red Sea. Eritrea’s coastal location has long been important in its history and culture—a fact reflected in its name, which is an Italianized version of Mare Erythraeum, Latin for “Red Sea.” The Red Sea was the route by which Christianity and

  • ERTS (satellite)

    Landsat, any of a series of unmanned U.S. scientific satellites. The first three Landsat satellites were launched in 1972, 1975, and 1978. These satellites were primarily designed to collect information about the Earth’s natural resources, including the location of mineral deposits and the

  • ERTT (Tunisian state-run company)

    Tunisia: Media and publishing: …viewpoints appeared, and the state-run Etablissement de la Radiodiffusion Télévision Tunisienne (ERTT) began to include open political debate in its television and radio programming.

  • Ertugrul (Turkish leader)

    Osman I: His father, Ertugrul, had established a principality centred at S?güt. With S?güt as their base, Osman and the Muslim frontier warriors (Ghazis) under his command waged a slow and stubborn conflict against the Byzantines, who sought to defend their territories in the hinterland of the Asiatic shore…

  • Eruca vesicaria sativa (herb)

    Arugula, (subspecies Eruca vesicaria sativa), annual herb of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), grown for its pungent edible leaves. Native to the Mediterranean, arugula is a common salad vegetable in many parts of southern Europe and has grown in popularity around the world for its peppery, nutty

  • eruciform larva (zoology)

    insect: Types of larvae: …are classified in five forms: eruciform (caterpillar-like), scarabaeiform (grublike), campodeiform (elongated, flattened, and active), elateriform (wireworm-like), and vermiform (maggot-like). The three types of pupae are: obtect, with appendages more or less glued to the body; exarate, with the appendages free and not

  • eructation (physiology)

    human digestive system: Intestinal gas: …is either regurgitated (as in belching) or absorbed in the stomach. Anxiety or eating quickly induces frequent swallowing of air with consequent belching or increased rectal flatus. Although some of the carbon dioxide in the small intestine is due to the interaction of hydrogen ions of gastric acid with bicarbonate,…

  • Eruditos a la violeta, Los (work by Cadalso y Vázquez)

    José de Cadalso y Vázquez: His prose satire Los eruditos a la violeta (1772; “Wise Men Without Learning”), directed against the pseudo-learned, was his most popular work.

  • eruption (geology)

    volcano: Volcanic eruptions: Assorted ReferencesArchean Eondiastrophismextraterrestrial occurrence

  • eruption (dentistry)

    infancy: …six months old, and the appearance of teeth allows them to switch from soft foods to coarser ones by the end of the first year. The first tooth usually erupts at about six months. By the end of the first year, six teeth usually have erupted—four upper incisors and two…

  • eruptive variable star (astronomy)

    star: Explosive variables: The evolution of a member of a close double-star system can be markedly affected by the presence of its companion. As the stars age, the more massive one swells up more quickly as it moves away from the main sequence. It becomes so…

  • ERV (virus group)

    retrovirus: So-called endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are persistent features of the genomes of many animals. ERVs consist of the genetic material of extinct, or “fossil,” viruses, the genomic constitution of which is similar to that of extant retroviruses. Human ERVs (HERVs) have become distributed within human DNA over…

  • ervad (Zoroastrian priest)

    Zoroastrianism: Priesthood: …of the word, herbad or ervad, designates a priest of the lower degree, who in the more important ceremonies only acts as the assistant priest. Above him is the mobed. Ranked above all of these functionaries is the dastūr, a kind of bishop, who directs and administers one or more…

  • Ervin (Romanian author)

    Ovid Densu?ianu, folklorist, philologist, and poet who introduced trends of European modernism into Romanian literature. Educated at Ia?i and later in Berlin and Paris, Densu?ianu was appointed professor of Romance languages at the University of Bucharest. Strongly influenced by western European

  • Ervin, Lorenzo Kom’boa (American writer)

    anarchism: Contemporary anarchism: …writings of former Black Panther Lorenzo Kom’boa Ervin in the late 1970s, was a major influence in the United States and in many other parts of the world.

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    Samuel J. Ervin, Jr., U.S. senator best known as chairman of the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, which investigated the Watergate scandal during the administration of Richard M. Nixon. The son of a lawyer, Ervin graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1917 and

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    Samuel J. Ervin, Jr., U.S. senator best known as chairman of the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, which investigated the Watergate scandal during the administration of Richard M. Nixon. The son of a lawyer, Ervin graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1917 and

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    David Walter Ervine, Northern Irish Protestant militant and politician (born July 21, 1953 , East Belfast, N.Ire.—died Jan. 8, 2007 , Belfast, N.Ire.), abandoned the illegal loyalist paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) to join the UVF’s political wing, the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP),

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    Saint John Ervine, British playwright, novelist, and critic, one of the first to write dramas in the style of local realism fostered by the Irish literary renaissance. Ervine’s best-known plays are Mixed Marriage (first performed 1911) and the domestic tragedies Jane Clegg (1913) and John Ferguson

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